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世界上最长的海底隧道是如何建造的 – 译学馆
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世界上最长的海底隧道是如何建造的

How the world's longest underwater tunnel was built - Alex Gendler

这种规模和范围的开创总是有难以预料的部分 -伊丽莎白二世
Flanked by two powerful European nations,
侧邻两个强大的欧洲国家
the English Channel has long been one of the world’s most important maritime passages.
英吉利海峡一直是世界最重要的海上通道之一
Yet for most of its history,
然而 在大多数历史时期
the channel’s rocky shores and stormy weather
海峡的岩质海岸和暴风雨天气
made crossing a dangerous prospect.
让横渡变成一个危险的设想
Engineers of the early 1800’s proposed numerous plans
十九世纪早期的工程师曾提出很多计划
for spanning the 33 kilometers gap.
去横跨这个三十三千米的天堑
Their designs included artificial islands linked by bridges,
他们的构思包括桥梁连接的人工岛
submerged tubes suspended from floating platforms,
悬挂于漂浮月台的水下通道
and an underwater passage more than twice the length of any existing tunnel.
以及超过现存隧道两倍多长的水下隧道
By the end of the century,
到本世纪末
this last proposal had captured European imagination.
最后一个提议引起欧洲人的兴趣
The invention of the tunnel boring machine
盾构机的发明
and the discovery of a stable layer of chalk marl below the seabed
以及海底白垩岩稳定层的发现
made this fantastic tunnel more feasible.
让这个不可思议的隧道计划更加切实可行
But the project’s most urgent obstacles were ones no engineer could solve.
但是 这项工程最迫切需要克服的障碍 却是工程师们无法解决的
At the time, Britons viewed their geographic isolation as a strategic advantage,
当时 英国人把这种地理隔离看作战略优势
and fears about French invasion shut down plans for the tunnel.
以及对法国入侵的担忧 阻碍了隧道计划
The rise of aerial warfare rendered these worries obsolete,
空战的兴起让这种担忧过时了
but new economic concerns arose to replace them.
但是资金担忧成了新的问题
Finally, 100 years after the initial excavation,
最终 在初探后一个世纪
the two countries reached an agreement—
两个国家达成协议
the tunnel would proceed with private funding.
隧道由私人资本出资建设
In 1985, a group of French and British companies invested the modern equivalent of 14 billion pounds,
1985年 英法财团耗资约合现代140亿英镑
making the tunnel, the most expensive infrastructure project to date.
来修建这个隧道 这个隧道是目前最贵的基础设施工程
The design called for three separate tunnels—
提案设计了三条平行隧道
one for trains to France, one for trains to England,
一条驶向法国 一条驶向英国
and one service tunnel between them.
中间一条服务隧道
Alongside crossover chambers, emergency passages, and air ducts,
并有横向连接隧道 应急通路和通风管道
this amounted to over 200 kilometers of tunnels.
隧道总长超过二百千米
In 1988, workers began excavating from both sides,
1988年 两方的工人开始动工开掘
planning to meet in the middle.
计划在中间汇合
Early surveys of the French coast revealed
法国海岸线的早期调查显示
the site was full of fault lines.
选址充满了断层线
These small cracks let water seep into the rock,
水通过小裂缝渗进岩石
so engineers had to develop waterproof boring machines.
因此工程师必须采用防水的盾构机
The British anticipated drier conditions,
英国人需要干燥条件
and forged ahead with regular borers.
所以匀速向前移动常规钻孔器
But only months into the work,
但仅开工月余
water flooded in through undetected fissures.
水就通过未检出的裂纹渗进
To drill in this wet chalk,
为在湿的白垩岩中钻探
the British had to use grout to seal the cracks created in the borer’s wake,
英国人必须用泥浆密封钻孔器引发的裂缝
and even work ahead of the main borer
甚至在主钻探器前方作业
to reinforce the chalk about to be drilled.
去加固将被钻孔的岩层
With these obstacles behind them, both teams began drilling at full speed.
克服了这些阻碍 两个团队开始全速钻探
Boring machines weighing up to 1,300 tons
盾构机重达一千三百吨
drilled at nearly 3.5 meters per hour.
每小时钻探近三点五米
As they dug, they installed lining rings
他们一边挖掘 一边安装衬环
to stabilize the tunnel behind them,
来稳定已挖掘的隧道
making way for support wagons following each machine.
支持随每个机器而来的货车车厢通过
Even at top speed, work had to proceed carefully.
即使全速进行 推进工作也不容马虎
The chalk layer followed a winding path between unstable rock and clay,
白垩岩层蜿蜒在不稳定的岩石和粘土中
punctured by over 100 boring holes made by previous surveyors.
被先探者留下的一百多个钻孔刺穿
Furthermore, both teams had to constantly check their coordinates
而且 两方必须不断确认他们的坐标
to ensure they were on track to meet within 2 centimeters of each other.
为保证彼此挖掘的路径误差在两厘米内
To maintain this delicate trajectory,
为了维持精确的轨线
the borers employed satellite positioning systems,
钻探者运用卫星定位系统
as well as paleontologists who used excavated fossils
古生物学家也使用出土的化石
to confirm they were at the right depth.
来确认他们在适当的深度
During construction, the project employed over 13,000 people
建造期间 项目雇佣了超过一万三千人
and cost the lives of ten workers.
并且牺牲了十个工人
But after two and a half years of tunneling,
但在两年半的挖掘后
the two sides finally made contact.
两方最终相遇
British worker Graham Fagg emerged on the French side,
英国工人 Graham Fagg 出现在法国
becoming the first human to cross the channel by land since the Ice Age.
是冰河世纪以来由陆路穿越海峡的第一人
There was still work to be done—
从安装转换室和泵站
from installing crossover chambers and pumping stations,
到铺设百来英里的轨道 电缆和传感器
to laying over a hundred miles of tracks, cables, and sensors.
要做的事儿还有不少
But on May 6, 1994, an opening ceremony marked the tunnel’s completion.
1994年5月6日 通车典礼标志着隧道竣工
Full public service began 16 months later,
十六个月后 全套的对外服务开放
with trains for passengers and rail shuttles for cars and trucks.
其中火车搭载乘客 区间列车运送车辆
Today, the Channel Tunnel services over 20 million passengers a year,
今天 这个海峡隧道一年服务超二千万人次
transporting riders across the channel in just 35 minutes.
三十五分钟内即可搭载乘客穿越海峡
Unfortunately, not everyone has the privilege of making this trip legally.
不过 不是所有人有合法乘坐的权利
Thousands of refugees have tried to enter Britain through the tunnel
数以千计的难民想通过隧道偷渡到英国
in sometimes fatal attempts.
有时不顾生死
These tragedies have transformed the tunnel’s southern entrance
这些悲剧让隧道的南方入口
into an ongoing site of conflict.
成为持续不断的冲突之地
Hopefully, the structure’s history can serve as a reminder
希望 这个建筑的历史可以作为警醒
that humanity is at their best when breaking down barriers.
人类总在努力打破障碍
Fissures, leaks and cracks were the major obstacle
在英吉利海峡隧道建造过程中
in the construction of the English Channel Tunnel.
岩溶裂隙 泄露 龟裂是主要的障碍
But what if there was type of concrete that could heal itself
但要是有某种混凝土可以自动愈合呢
It’s not science fiction, It’s a mind-boggling material
这不是科幻小说 而是一种令人惊叹的材料
that could change the future of engineering
它可能改变建筑工程的未来
Learn more with this video
看这个视频了解更多
or stay on track and explore the London underground.
或者付诸实践 去探索伦敦的地铁吧

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视频概述

英吉利海峡隧道的建成历史

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qNS2jj2w-GI

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