ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

世上第一套地铁系统始末 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

世上第一套地铁系统始末

How the world's first metro system was built - Christian Wolmar

1863年初
It was the dawn of 1863,
伦敦的地铁系统即将开通
and London’s not-yet-opened subway system,
作为世界上首个地铁系统
the first of its kind in the world,
它早已引起了整座城的骚动
had the city in an uproar.
在城市地面下挖洞 在洞里修铁路
Digging a hole under the city and putting a railroad in it
这种做法看起来是白日做梦
seemed the stuff of dreams.
小酒吧的酒客无情地嘲弄这个想法
Pub drinkers scoffed at the idea
当地一名牧师指责铁路公司试图闯入地狱
and a local minister accused the railway company of trying to break into hell.
大多数人认为这个工程
Most people simply thought the project,
虽然花了现值相当于1亿美元的成本
which cost more than 100 million dollars in today’s money,
但是根本就行不通
would never work.
但这个工程成功了
But it did.
1863年1月10日
On January 10, 1863,
3万人冒险走进地下 乘坐世界上首列地铁
30,000 people ventured underground to travel on the world’s first subway
伦敦这条路线全长4英里
on a four-mile stretch of line in London.
工程花了三年 经历了一些挫折
After three years of construction and a few setbacks,
大都会铁路终于投入运作了
the Metropolitan Railway was ready for business.
这让市政府官员松了口气
The city’s officials were much relieved.
他们一直都急着找方法
They’d been desperate to find a way
减少路上拥挤的交通
to reduce the terrible congestion on the roads.
当时的伦敦是世界上最大 最繁荣的城市
London, at the time the world’s largest and most prosperous city,
交通总是全面堵塞
was in a permanent state of gridlock,
路上总是被推车 小贩 牛和行人给堵住了
with carts, costermongers, cows, and commuters jamming the roads.
维多利亚时代的查尔斯·皮尔森眼光独到
It’d been a Victorian visionary, Charles Pearson,
是他先想到让铁路在地面下通行
who first thought of putting railways under the ground.
1840年代 他一直为推行地下火车进行游说
He’d lobbied for underground trains throughout the 1840s,
但反对者认为 这个想法不切实际
but opponents thought the idea was impractical
因为当时铁路只有通过山丘时才有隧道
since the railroads at the time only had short tunnels under hills.
铁路怎么可能在市中心通行呢?
How could you get a railway through the center of a city?
答案很简单 叫做“随挖随填”
The answer was a simple system called “cut and cover.”
工人必须先挖个大沟
Workers had to dig a huge trench,
用砖块建成拱状隧道
construct a tunnel out of brick archways,
然后在新建好的隧道上方进行填补
and then refill the hole over the newly built tunnel.
这个做法会造成干扰
Because this was disruptive and
而且需要把隧道上方的建筑拆掉
required the demolition of buildings above the tunnels,
所以大部分铁路是在现有道路下面建的
most of the line went under existing roads.
当然 意外曾发生过
Of course, there were accidents.
有一次发生暴雨 导致附近下水道淹水
On one occasion, a heavy rainstorm flooded the nearby sewers
雨水冲进了挖掘工地
and burst through the excavation,
使工程延误了几个月
delaying the project by several months.
但是 大都会铁路运营后
But as soon as the Metropolitan Railway opened,
伦敦人涌进了火车站 乘坐新的火车
Londoners rushed in to ride the new trains.
很快 铁路成了伦敦运输系统的重要部分
The Metropolitan quickly becamea vital part of London’s transport system.
不久后 新的路线建成
Additional lines were soon built,
火车站周围起了新郊区
and new suburbs grew around the stations.
铁路旁设立了大型百货公司
Big department stores opened next to the railroad,
铁路公司还建了旅游景点
and the railway company even created attractions,
比如 在伯爵府建了30层楼高的摩天轮
like a 30-story Ferris wheel in Earls Court
吸引旅客乘坐火车前来
to bring in tourists by train.
30年内 伦敦地铁系统全长达到80公里
Within 30 years, London’s subway system covered 80 kilometers,
市中心的铁路在地下隧道通行
with lines in the center of town running in tunnels,
郊区的铁路则设在地面上 尤其是河堤上
and suburban trains operating on the surface, often on embankments.
但是伦敦仍在发展
But London was still growing,
每个人都要与系统连接
and everyone wanted to be connected to the system.
到了1880年代后期
By the late 1880s,
市区已经变得太拥挤
the city had become too dense
建筑物 下水道 电缆太多
with buildings, sewers, and electric cables
不能再用随挖随填做法
for the “cut and cover” technique,
所以必须设计新的挖掘系统
so a new system had to be devised.
有一种机器叫“格雷特海德盾牌”
Using a machine called the Greathead Shield,
只需12人 就能利用它在地下钻洞
a team of just 12 workers could bore through the earth,
在伦敦的粘土深处 挖掘地下隧道
carving deep underground tunnels through the London clay.
这些新线叫做地铁 处在地底不同深度
These new lines, called tubes, were at varying depths,
但一般比随挖随填隧道更深25米
but usually about 25 meters deeper than the “cut and cover” lines.
这意味着 建筑工程不会干扰地面
This meant their construction didn’t disturb the surface,
还可以在建筑物底下进行挖掘
and it was possible to dig under buildings.
第一条地铁线 城市与南伦敦线
The first tube line, the City and South London,
在1890年开通 并获得了巨大成功
opened in 1890 and proved so successful
接下来20年里 开通了6条新线
that half a dozen more lines were built in the next 20 years.
这项高明的新技术
This clever new technology was even used
还被用来在伦敦泰晤士河下面钻几条线
to burrow several lines under London’s river, the Thames.
到了20世纪初
By the early 20th century,
布达佩斯 柏林 巴黎 纽约
Budapest, Berlin, Paris, and New York
都建了它们自己的地铁
had all built subways of their own.
今天 55个国家的超过160座城市
And today, with more than 160 cities in 55 countries
都已经在用地铁来对抗交通阻塞
using underground rails to combat congestion,
我们要感谢查尔斯·皮尔森和大都会铁路
we can thank Charles Pearson and the Metropolitan Railway
让我们走对了路线
for getting us started on the right track.
当我们创造视频 描述改变世界的创新时
When we make lessons about the innovations that have changed the world
我们常常会想 下一步是什么?
We often wonder: what’s next?
我们的年轻用户中
Which one of our young subscribers
有谁将发明一个让世界变得更好的东西?
Will invent something that will make the world a better place?
我们能怎样创造空间 让这些想法公诸于世?
And how can we help make space for those ideas to be heard?
这就是学生发声计划 TED-Ed 俱乐部的用意
That’s where our student voice initiative, TED-Ed clubs, comes in.
不管是发明保丽龙的再循环方法
Whether inventing ways to recycle styrofoam,
还是探测隐性心脏病发作
or detect silent heart attacks,
世界各地的年轻人
young people around the world
都充满了绝妙的想法
are brimming with brilliant ideas.
浏览 ed.ted.com/clubs
Visit ed.ted.com/clubs
了解如何用TED平台发展和分享学生想法
to learn more about developing and sharing student ideas on the TED platform.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

1863年初,伦敦的地铁系统即将开启。作为世界上第一个地铁系统,它已引起了整座城的骚动。这项工程很昂贵,很多人认为根本行不通。他们是怎么做到的呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

搬那度

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdZd5zYTKAw

相关推荐