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互联网历史之二 | 网络是什么东西

How the Web Became a Thing | The History of the Internet, Part 2

现在拥有一部智能手机 你可能
If you have a smart phone, you probably have access
在几乎任何地方上网
to the Internet almost everywhere you go.
在任何时间获取全人类的基础知识
Being able to access what is basically the sum total of human knowledge whenever you want…
这很新奇
That’s a new thing
也相当给力!
Pretty cool!
去年 联合国确实公布了不受监管的自由上网
Last year, the United Nations actually declared uncensored Internet access
是一项值得保障的人权
a human right that deserves protection.
然而互联网花费了很长时间
But it actually took a long time for the Internet
才变得如此自由公开
to become publicly accessible at all,
即使在它的起源国家
even in the country where it started.
互联网从1969年美国的4台计算机发展成
The Internet grew from four computers in the western US in 1969
1987年末的全球网络 连接着多达
to a global network of networks connecting more than
两万台计算机然而……
20,000 computers by the end of 1987. But…
然而在某些高校和企业依然受到限制
But it was still restricted to specific universities and corporations
他们把网络用于特定的合作和研究
which used it for specific types of collaboration and research.
那我们是如何
So how do we get
从1987年受到网络监控的两万台电脑
from 20,000 computers on guarded networks in 1987
到三十年后上网已成为基本人权的现在呢?
to the fundamental human right to Internet access just 30 years later?
换言之
In other words,
普通人是怎么开始可以上网的呢?
when did the regular Joes start logging on?
第一批尝鲜的客户出现在二十世纪七十年代
Some of the first tastes of the future came in the 1970s,
当时的一些公司开始出售联网的权限
when a few companies started selling access to the networks.
那些独立的不连接到主网络的局域网
There were stand-alone networks that weren’t connected to the main central network
便是当时所谓的“互联网”
that was the Internet.
但是这些网络的用户可以发送邮件
But their users could do everything from sending e-mails
也可以查看最新天气预报
to checking updated weather reports,
还可以玩游戏 用一批最快的聊天软件聊天
to playing games and chatting on some of the first ever instant messaging programs.
还能在一些诸如 Compuserve 的 Micronet 上
And on some networks, like Compuserve’s Micronet
阅读摘自重要报纸的新闻
users could even read stories from major newspapers
这些仅通过家用电脑就可办到
right on their home computer.
想想在电脑上看新闻……
Like imagine a newspaper on your computer…
这些网络虽然出色 但也有缺点
But as great as these networks were, they still had their limits.
有些网站 比如“微网” 只能夜间和周末使用
Some of them, like MicroNET, were only available nights and weekends,
在一般使用 CompuServe 网络的业务停止的时候
when businesses that normally use CompuServe’s networks were closed.
它们都是相互独立的个体
And they were all pretty much isolated islands,
因为它们相互不直接连接 也不连接到更广泛的网络
since they weren’t directly connected to each other or to the broader Internet.
因为在整个上世纪八十年代 无论这些私人网络覆盖面多广
Because throughout the 80s, no matter how big these private networks got,
它们都不允许连接因特网
they weren’t allowed on the Internet.
阿帕网和其他的网络
ARPANET and the other networks
构成了因特网的基础
that forms the basis of the Internet
它们由政府运行 并由政府资助
were government-run and government-funded.
所以使用它们的企业和大学
So the businesses and universities using them
禁止在网络上进行商业往来
weren’t allowed to have any commercial traffic on the network.
使用因特网下载资料
It was fine to use the Internet to download some data
或给大学同学发送包含自己论文的拷贝邮件是可以的
or email your colleagues a copy of your latest paper.
但是你不能在网站上推销产品
You weren’t supposed to advertise a new product on there,
更不能向公众收取上网费用
and you definitely weren’t supposed to charge the general public to come online.
因特网应该用于研究而不是牟利
The Internet was supposed to be for research not for making money,
这想法的确挺古怪
which is pretty weird to think about,
鉴于当今大多数人运用网络谋生
considering how many of us use the Internet these days to make a living.
同时 管理部门也在寻求
Around the same time, ARPANET’s administrators were looking
向其他人移交维护互联网的责任
to hand off responsibility for maintaining the Internet.
阿帕网早已经完成了自身的使命
ArpaNET had long since accomplished its goals,
而国防部想进一步推广互联网
and the Department of Defense wanted to move on.
国家科学基金会的巨型网络“NSFNET”似乎是最好的选择
The Nation Science Foundation’s huge network, NSFNET, seemed to be the best candidate.
该网络建成于 1986 年,在与阿帕网连接后发展迅速
It started in 1986, and grew so quickly after connecting to ARPANET
在不到一年的时间内
that less than a year later
它已经到了需要进行大型升级才能处理新进流量的地步
it already needed major upgrades to handle all of the new traffic.
在1990年 NSFNET正式取代了ARPANET
In 1990, NSFNET officially replaced ARPANET
成为因特网的主心骨
as the backbone of the Internet
拥有超过50万的用户
and its more than half a million users.
然而即使在ARPANET还未完全被淘汰之前
But even before ARPANET was completely out of the picture,
一些进取的公司
a couple enterprising companies
把一般的用户连接到因特网
were connecting regular people to the Internet,
但是对首家公司和开始时间存在争议
though there’re some debate about which company was there first and when.
NSFNET 也有一项禁止商业性流量的政策
NSFNET also had a policy about banning commercial traffic on the network.
在1988年 他们决定把其中几个
But in1988, they decided to try connecting a couple of those
私人网络邮箱服务器连入 NSFNET
private networks’ email servers to NSFNET.
一年后 CompuServe用户和一家电子邮箱服务网站
And a year later, users of CompuServe and an email service,
麦斯邮箱
called MCI MAIL,
首次在互联网上发送了商业邮件
could send the first commercial emails across the Internet.
在接下来的1989年 首批网络服务提供商出现了
So next year, 1989, we got the first Internet Service Providers,
简称 ISP
or ISPs.
这些公司没有自己的网页
These were companies that usually didn’t have any network of their own.
而是把用户连接到区域网
They just connected people to a local network,
和互联网
and to the Internet.
你会听到很多人说首个商业性质的网络服务提供商
You’ll hear a lot of people say that the first commercial ISP
是一家名为“世界”的公司 创立于1989年12月 临近波士顿的地区
was a company called The World, which opened near Boston in December 1989.
也有些人表示最早的提供商出现在澳大利亚
But others say the first ones were down in Australia instead.
还有人告诉你……真正意义上的网络服务提供商
And then there’re people who tell you the… there weren’t any true Internet Service Providers
直到1992年议会颁布法律
until Congress passed a law in 1992,
允许在纳斯网上进行商业来往才出现
allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET.
所以事实就是 多家公司开办互联网业务
The truth is of course that lots of different companies opened their doors,
是 1989~1992 年之间的事
or like their wires between 1989 and 1992.
但是他们提供的服务稍稍有差
But all of them offered slightly different services.
有些只有邮箱服务 还有些有部分连接到公网的自家网络
Some were just email, some were their own networks that were partly connected to the Internet,
有提供网络访问服务 却没有自己的线上社区的
and some offered Internet access without an online community of their own.
以此看来 在不同程度上 有相当多的公司都是“首个”
So in this situation, different companies can all kind of claim that they were the first.
在接下来的几年 更多的供应商出现了 在1995年
More ISPs were created in the next few years. And in 1995,
纳斯网倒闭了并把一切转交给网络服务提供商
NFSNET shut down for good and handed everything over to the ISPs.
但即使在20世纪90年代早期 互联网也还没有现在的雏形
But even in the early 1990s, the Internet was nothing like it is today.
首先 互联网相当
For one thing, of course,
极其慢 慢到
it was slow, so…so slow
光下载一张皮卡船长的图片都得花费半天时间
that downloading a picture of Captain Picard took like half a day.
这都是我的亲身经历
Not that I know that from experience.
要连接到网络的话 你的计算机会通过调制解调器呼叫网络
To connect to the network, your computer placed a phone call
调制解调器会把计算机使用的数字信号
to the network through a modem, which translated between the digital signals
和固定电话使用的模拟信号相互转换
being used in computers and the analog signals used in landline phones.
然后你的计算机就可以和网络上的其它计算机
Then your computer would talk to the other computers on the network
使用它们之间的电话线相互通信了
using the phone lines between them.
这种联网方式被称为“拨号连接”
This way of getting online became known as dial-up.
而且如果你用过拨号连接的话
And if you ever used a dial-up Internet connection,
你就会知道它卡起来有多烦
you know exactly how frustratingly slow it could be.
但是 说实话 当我们一开始搞网络的时候
Though, to be clear, when we were first doing it,
它看起来并不慢 它看起来就像是魔法
it did not seem slow, it seemed like magic.
由于当阿帕网发明出来的时候 美国已经有了纵横交错的电话网
Consents phone lines already crisscrossed the United States when ARPANET was invented,
于是大家沿用了它 而不是试着发明一个全新的东西
it just made sense to use them instead of trying to invent something completely new.
拨号连接之所以如此慢 部分原因是
Part of why dial-up was so slow is that
通过电话线爬取信息的速度有上限
there is a limit to how quickly you can cram information down a phone line.
想要传输大量的信息
To transmit a lot of information,
信号的频率必须足够高
you need a signal with a really high frequency,
亦即它的变化非常快
meaning it can change very quickly.
对于通过电话线传输的信号而言
And for a signal sent down phone lines
这意味着需要非常尖的声音
that would mean you would need a really high-pitched sound
但是电话线并非是为这种信号设计的
But phone lines weren’t designed for that sort of signal.
它们是设计来打电话的
They were designed for phone calls.
虽然刚有小孩的父母可能不太同意
And even though new parents might disagree,
但是普通人也不会发出那么尖锐的声音
humans just don’t make sounds that are that high-pitched.
因此 电话线并不是设计来传输频率非常高
So phone lines weren’t designed to transmit signals with very high frequencies
搭载大量信息的信号的
that you would need to transmit a lot of information all at once.
当调制解调器连接到网络时 首先
The first thing a modem did when it connected to a network
它会搜寻线路能承受的最高频率
was to check the highest frequency signal that the wires could handle.
接着它会将你计算机发出的二进制数据流的速度
And then it slowed the firehose of ones and zeros
降低到线路能承受的速度
coming out of your computer down to that speed.
第一批网络服务提供商出现时的互联网与现在的不同之处还有一点 即
There’s another reason why the Internet was different back when the first ISPs were popping up.
在1989年
Back in 1989,
不存在单独的网站
there wasn’t a single website.
因为在那时 根本没有“网络”这种东西
Because back in 1989, there was no such thing as the Web.
今天很多人都会把术语“因特网” 和“网络”混着使用
Today a lot of people use the terms, Internet and Web, pretty much interchangeably.
实际上它们很不一样
But they are actually different things.
“因特网”比“网络”早出现十几年
The Internet came more than a decade before the Web.
“Internet”是”internetworking”的缩写形式
“Internet” is a shortened form of the word “internetworking”,
这个词创造于上世纪 70 年代
and it was coined in the 70s to refer to the physical cables
意指所有互相连接的计算机及物理线缆的集合
and computers connecting altogether.
现在它常常特指 运行特定软件的
Today it usually refers more specifically to all the computers running programs
能通过网络收发数据的计算机
that let them communicate with each other across the giant Internet network.
互联网肇始于用于远程(分发)软件与文件
Internet began with the networks that were designed as a way of remotely sharing programs,
并使得计算机之间可以相互访问的网络
files, and access to computer.
随着时间推移 发信息的程序也有了 比如电子邮件
Send programs like email were added over time.
但是这些软件通常会将信息组织成类似于树形
But these programs tended to organize the information
或者就像森林一样
a bit like a tree or even like a whole forest.
要获取指定“分支”上的程序或者文件
To get to a specific branch of a program or file,
你得沿着“树干”一路向上 再沿着“树枝”查找
you had to climb all the way up the trunk, and then down a whole bunch of branches.
接着 要查找其他地方 就得沿原路返回 再回到“树干”
And then, to get to somewhere else, you had to go all the way back to the trunk,
再去搜索其他分支
and over to another set of branches.
互联网还不大的时候 要回到开始的地方并非难事
When the Internet was small, it never took too long to get back to where you started from,
要再前往其他地方也不难
so you could go somewhere else.
但是随着互联网体量不断增加 要浏览其中内容愈发困难
But as the Internet grew, it got harder and harder to navigate
除非你确切知道你要去哪里
unless you knew exactly where you were going.
哪怕是小型的独立网络 例如欧洲核子中心的网络
Even smaller individual networks like the one at CERN in Europe
也变得很难控制
were getting out of hand.
要在网上查找信息很痛苦
It was a pain to find everything you needed on the network,
特别是当你对要找的东西毫无头绪的时候
especially if you didn’t know exactly where to find the thing you were looking for.
于是 用户浪费着大量时间 辗转在不同的“树”之间
So you wasted a bunch of time navigating all those different trees.
在 1988 年 一位名为蒂姆·博纳斯·李的科学家
So in 1989, a scientist, named Tim Berners-Lee,
在同事罗伯特·卡里奥的帮助下
with some help from his colleague, Robert Cailliau,
开始设计一种更好的信息组织方式
started working on a better way to arrange all that information.
博纳斯·李经常被认为是网络的发明人 理由也很充分
Berners-Lee is often credited with inventing the Web, and for good reason.
他想出了让树状结构扁平化的方法
He had this big idea to sort of flatten the tree’s structure.
他提出 网络中的任何文件应要能将用户引向其他相关的文件
Instead of each file being like its own little isolated branch,
而不是让它们孤立地处于各自的“树枝”上
any document or file could direct people to other related files,
这样 用户就能轻易地在文件之间跳转
so that they could easily go from one to the next.
他也确实知道 要实现这一功能 最完美的工具就是“超文本”
And he knew exactly the perfect tool for the task—hypertext.
超文本问世于上世纪 60 年代
Hypertext was invented back in the 60s as a way of going directly
可让用户直接在文档的各个部分之间跳转
from one part of a document to another,
例如直接从目录跳到第十章
like skipping straight from the table of contents to Chapter ten,
而不用拿鼠标一路滚动
without scrolling all the way there.
后来 人们开始使用这一方法 在不同的文档之间跳转
Then people started using it to link between different documents.
后来在 80 年代 各类程序都使用了这一技术
Then it was incorporated into all kinds of programs throughout the 80s.
博纳斯·李将超文本的概念用作网上导航的基本方法
Berners-Lee made the hypertext concept to the primary way
他把这叫做“万维网”
of navigating what he started calling the World Wide Web,
在万维网上 不同的网页之间通过超链接相连
with hyper-links connecting different webpages.
万维网火爆了欧洲核子中心
The Web was a hit at CERN.
当 1993 年向公众开放时
And when it was made public in1993,
今天意义上的互联网的最后一个基础部件终于到位
the final major piece of today’s Internet was in place.
蒂姆·博纳斯·李提出了现在大多数网站中的“地址”概念
Tim Berners-Lee is the reason most websites you go to have addresses
打头是“http://www”
that start with “HTTP://WWW.”.
“http”意为“超文本传输协议”
“HTTP” stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol,
这套程序用于读取带有超链接的(网页)
the set of programs used to read documents with hyperlinks.
有时候还会看见“https”
Sometimes you’ll see “HTTPS”,
这一版程序较为安全
which is just a more secure version of those programs.
“://”是引出后面网址的固定格式
The “://” is a way of introducing what comes next.
“www”则表示该页面是万维网(World Wide Web)的一部分
And the “WWW” says that the page is part of the World-Wide-Web.
很快 人们便发明了大量不同的软件 访问这些带超链接的网页
Soon a whole bunch of different programs popped up for accessing these new hyperlinked webpages,
只是每款软件在解释和呈现上
each interpreting and presenting them slightly differently,
基于用户需要 稍有不同而已
depending on what their users wanted.
这便是早期的浏览器
These were the early web browsers,
就是你现在拿来看视频的这货的祖宗
the ancestors of whatever you are using today to watch this video.
比如网景浏览器
Like Netscape Navigator!
还记得网景不
Remember Netscape?
第一版网景浏览器发布于 1994 年
It was first released in 1994.
它的代码最终被合并到了火狐中
And the code for her was eventually incorporated into Firefox.
“网络”和“互联网”这两个概念终于相通 而且它也为大众所用
With the Web and the Internet finally paired up and publicly accessible,
连入互联网的计算机数量在 90 年代来了一个大爆发
the number of computers using the Internet exploded in the 90s.
在这十年中 互联网初创公司则拉到了数百亿美元的投资
And billions of dollars were poured into start-up companies on the Internet throughout the decade.
有钱的投资者把钱疯狂投给例如
Wealthy investors piled cash on companies like
eTOYS.com GovWorks 还有 WorldCom 这样的公司
eTOYS.com, and GovWorks, and WorldCom.
这些初创公司 大多数都在新千年来临之际破产了
Most of these start-ups went bankrupt around the turn of the millennium,
互联网泡沫也随之破灭 而谷歌 Facebook 这样的巨型企业则从萧条中站起
when the .com bubble burst and giant corporations like Google and Facebook rose from the ashes.
下一集我们再讨论
So we’ll have to wait until the next episode of this series to talk about
互联网是如何从初创公司的坟场变成现在这个样子的吧
why and how the Internet went from a graveyard of failed start-ups to the place it is today,
你知道 这倒下的初创公司可不止一片坟场这么多
which is, you know, more than just a graveyard of failed start-ups.
感谢大家观看本期
Thanks for watching this episode of Sci Show, which is brought to you
由我们 PATERON 的老朋友带来的 SciShow
by our patrons on PATREON.
如果你愿意支持本节目 请前往 patreon.com/scishow
If you want to help support this show, you can go to Patreon.com/SciShow.
别忘了订阅我们的 YouTube 频道
And don’t forget to go to YouTube.com/SciShow, and subscribe.

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视频概述

网络的“前世”:互联网的原理,以及它如何从无到有

听录译者

zxEric2

翻译译者

duoduo

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1CsPHKJWiw0

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