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厕所是如何改变历史的? – 译学馆
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How The Toilet Changed History

普通人每天排便 大约130克
The average person gets rid of approximately 130 grams of poop every day.
人们吃了“塔克钟”快餐 排便量可能会多上一倍
Maybe twice that much if they’ve had Taco Bell.
Seven and a half billion of us on Earth.
每天人类的粪便 的确堆积如山
That’s a literal mountain of human poop every day.
但是 我们大多数人能装作 其不存在
Yet most of *us* get to pretend it doesn’t exist,
all thanks to an invention
这项创造 在人类历史上 对健康和生活质量的改善最为明显
that has improved health and quality of life more than any other in humanity’s history.
熊排便 在树林
Bears do it in the woods,
鲸排便 在海洋
whales do it in the ocean,
and 2.4 *billion* of us DON’T do it in a toilet.
痢疾 伤寒 寄生虫等传染病每年造成无数的死亡
Dysentery, typhoid, parasites, and other infections lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths every
year, all because one in three people alive in 2017 don’t have access to toilets and
由于使用陶瓷马桶 我们排出的许多微生物都被浸没
From on top of our porcelain thrones, we’ve left a lot of our species drowning in feces.
有将近十亿人仍然随地排便 如街道排水沟
Nearly a *billion* people still defecate out in the open: in street gutters, open water,
or… in the woods.
很久以前 我们都是这样干的 但从我们
Thousands of years ago, we all did it that way, but as we developed agriculture and settled
发展农业 住进城镇后 粪便会统一处理
into towns, poop started piling up.
大概五千年前 新石器时代的村民在斯卡拉布雷
Around five thousand years ago, Neolithic villagers constructed the first known toilets
at Skara Brae.
与此同时 在莫亨佐达罗的许多住宅厕所都连着排水沟
At the same time, many houses in Mohenjo Daro, featured toilets complete with drains, people
washed their poop into sewers that emptied into the Indus River.
这个时期距离人类发现细菌可导致疾病尚有数千年的时间 但隔离秽物的方法却
It’d still be thousands of years before we linked germs to disease, but avoiding filth has deep
evolutionary roots.
人体排泄 死亡和腐烂的气味都是危险或疾病的标志
Bodily excretions, death, and rotten smells can be signs of danger or disease, triggering
our innate sense of disgust.
This biological instinct ended up in the moral codes of many religions, like this passage
from the Old Testament instructing the Hebrews to do their Exodus in a… hole-y fashion.
Roman society was comfortable with caca.
At one point, Rome had 144 public toilets… long open benches that emptied into the Cloaca
马克西马 一套用来把废物排入台伯河的地下排水系统
Maxima, a sewer system that carried waste to the Tiber river.
But the vast majority of Romans simply pooped in a pot and threw it into the street.
渐渐的废物堆积 疾病愈演愈烈 罗马人开始认为恶臭是疾病的元凶
As waste and disease piled up, Romans pointed to the stink as the cause of sickness.
在神圣罗马帝国淡出历史长河之后 臭味和疾病之间的联系被人们流传了下来
After the Roman Empire faded away, this connection between bad air and bad health persisted,
clogging up toilet innovation for more than a thousand years.
在中世纪爆发的瘟疫中 类似鼠疫 医生们戴着鸟嘴面具 其中填充着
During medieval outbreaks like the Plague, doctors wore pointed masks, filled with strong
草药或香料来“净化”臭味 他们认为那是造成疾病的原因
herbs or perfumes to “cleanse” bad air, which they believed to be the cause of disease.
他们是错误的 但这个带味道的奇思妙想却以没人预料到的方式
They were wrong, but this obsession with stink would change the world in ways no one saw
与人们通常认为的相反 发明抽水马桶的并不是托马斯·克莱普
Contrary to popular belief, Thomas Crapper didn’t invent the flush toilet.
这份功劳属于John Harington 他的设备“阿雅克斯”用从悬在头顶的水箱
That honor goes to John Harington, his “Ajax” device emptied the bowl with water from an
overhead tank.
但是水冲厕所没有流行起来直到1775年亚历山大 卡明斯彻底改革
But flush toilets didn’t catch on until 1775, when Alexander Cummings revolutionized
我们便便的方式 他加了一个S形的水封来阻止爆炸性的 据信是疾病起因的臭气从下水道里
the way we poo by adding a water-filled “S trap” to block explosive, and supposedly
钻上来 这样的马桶的基本设计我们沿用
disease-causing sewer gas from rising up the pipes, the same basic toilet design we still
use today.
在工业革命期间 大多数人仍旧在大街上或粪坑里完事
During the Industrial Revolution, most people’s business still ended up in streets and cesspools,
and the growing population was too big a load for London’s sewers.
十八世纪中期 城市里屎尿横流
By the mid-1800s, the city was literally overflowing with crap.
随着粪便 霍乱——一种细菌性传染病爆发了
With crap comes cholera, an infection from bacteria whose toxins basically cause all
它的毒素会引起你体内的水以腹泻的形式流失 极度脱水导致死亡
the water in your body to pour out of your butt in the form of diarrhea, death by dehydration.
Cholera hit London in 1854.
不同于原有的“恶臭导致疾病”的理论 一个名叫John Snow的医生认为霍乱是
Instead of the “old bad air” theory, a doctor named John Snow believed cholera was
transmitted by drinking water tainted with sewage.
John Snow的霍乱爆发地带指示图指出病例密集在一处抽水井附近
Snow’s map of cholera cases clustered around a water pump.
When he removed the pump’s handle, new cholera cases fell.
不久之后 伦敦封锁了下水道并把废物向下游转移
Soon after, London enclosed its sewers and diverted waste downstream of London, but doctors
但医生们在将近五十年中都并不全盘接受John Snow的想法
wouldn’t totally accept Snow’s ideas for nearly 50 years.
世界经济大危机见证了污水处理厂的扩建 以及现代厕纸
The Great Depression saw an expansion of sewage treatment plants–and modern toilet paper!–and
这基本上就是我们今天使用的下水道设施系统 神奇的马桶把肮脏的排泄物
this is basically the sanitation system we have today, where magical chairs make nasty
变消失掉 看不到 闻不到 我们完全忘记了它们
things disappear, out of sight, out of smell, and out of mind.
现在还没有建成三海贝壳 但我们已经取得了长足的进步
It’s no three sea shells but we’ve come a long way.
…and this privileged pooping existence lets us keep something else out of mind: The 2.4
BILLION people who still don’t have toilets.
Nearly 800,000 children under 5 still die every year from diarrhea.
More than AIDS, more than malaria.
That’s an Airbus A380 full of children crashing every 6 hours.
据去年估计 因糟糕的卫生设施 全球已产生了2600亿美元的经济损失
It’s estimated last year poor sanitation cost the global economy $260 billion, due
由于疾病 收入损失 和年复一年的死亡
to illness, loss of income, and years of life lost.
更糟糕的是 女性相对的比男性受到了更多的影响
Worse, women suffer these impacts disproportionately to men.
In 2007, readers of the BMJ voted “modern sanitation” as the #1 medical advance since
不是抗生素 也不是疫苗
Not antibiotics, not vaccines.
Toilets and clean water.
We *have* made progress.
1990年以来 超过14%的人口用上了卫生设施 死亡人口大大减少
Since 1990, 14% more people have access to sanitation, and *many* fewer are dying, but
fewer is not zero.
只需要一点点努力 我们就能把这个问题从地球上彻底清除
With a little effort, we can *wipe* this problem from the Earth.
在电视节目《脱线家族》中 他们的浴室竟然都没有马桶
On the TV show “The Brady Bunch”, their bathroom didn’t even have a toilet.
便便是个禁忌 大家心照不宣
Pooping is so taboo, it was *literally* invisible.
We can’t even talk about it!
It’s no coincidence that many of our worst swear words involve defecation.
罗斯 乔治在她的书《厕所之书》中说到 一个社会怎么处理它居民
In her book The Big Necessity, Rose George writes: “How a society disposes of its human
excrement is an indication of how it treats its humans too”
每个人都会便便 每个人诞生到这个世界上都应该安全地去做这件事
Everybody poops, and every person who is born should be able to do it safely.
Stay curious!
And please… always wash your
hands when you’re done.
大家好 老规矩 感谢大家收看我们的视频并和我们一起学习
Hey everyone, as always, thank you for watching and learning with us.
这个星期的视频是一个有味道但重要的课题 并且我们要感谢
This week’s video was a stinky but important subject, and it was brought to you thanks
比尔 盖茨和梅林达 盖茨的大力支持
to the support of Bill and Melinda Gates.
多年以来 比尔 盖茨和梅林达 盖茨致力于让全世界的人生活地更健康
For years, Bill and Melinda Gates have supported efforts around the world to make people healthier
让他们生活地更好 用创新 教育和项目投资来建造
and make their lives better through innovation, education, and investing in projects to build
a better future.
And it’s working!
自从1990年 据不完全统计 共计1.22亿孩子的生命被挽救 这要归功于
Since 1990, an estimated **122 million** children’s lives have been saved, thanks to things like
类似于营养的加强 家庭计划 经济需要以及疫苗之类的
better nutrition, family planning, economic opportunities, and vaccines.
Here’s some proof: In 1988 there were more than 350,000 cases of polio.
And last year?
Only 34.
事情已经取得了长足的进步 不久的将来 这个数字可以并且将会是零
Things have gotten a LOT better, and one day soon, that number *can be, and will be zero*.
但是它是否能给24亿人带来马桶 或能否最后的几例脊髓灰质炎病例
But whether it’s bringing toilets to 2.4 billion people, or erasing the last few cases
彻底擦除 只有那些拥有特权的人加以注意才会真正取得进步
of polio, progress only happens when the privileged pay attention.
去Gatesletter.com读一读比尔 盖茨和梅林达 盖茨的年度信件 找出所有的
Go to to read Bill and Melinda Gates’ Annual Letter, and find out all the
ways life has and will continue to improve for the world’s poorest
I’ll see you next time.