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太阳的工作原理:聚变和量子隧穿

How the Sun works: Fusion and Quantum Tunneling

Did you know that if the sun were fueled by combustion of, say,
如果太阳由汽油或木材燃烧产生热量
gasoline or wood, it would burn out in just a few millennia?
你知道 它会在几千年后就燃烧殆尽吗?
So how is it still here after 4.5 billion years?
为何45亿年后它还在这里?
Physics.
物理学问题
The sun is like a big nuclear submarine… in the sky.
太阳就像天空中的一艘巨大的核潜艇
That’s right –
没错
it’s fueled by nuclear reactions
它由核反应产生热量
that fuse hydrogen atoms together into helium and other heavier elements,
即氢原子融合形成氦及其他更重的元素
releasing huge amounts of energy in the process.
这个过程会释放出巨大的能量
In this way the sun is slowly converting its mass into energy – in the form of sunlight!
这样 太阳以发光形式慢慢将其质量转化为能量!
And it has more than enough fuel to last billions of years.
这样就足够维持几十亿年
But nuclear fusion’s no walk in the park –
但核聚变不是随意发生的
on earth we need to heat hydrogen up 100x hotter
在地球上 我们需要将氢原子加热至太阳的100倍
than the sun to get a fusion reaction.
才能产生一个核聚变反应
So how does the sun do it?
那么太阳是如何做到的?
Quantum tunneling.
是量子隧穿
There’s a small chance (which I’ll explain later)
有很小的几率(我稍后会解释)
that hydrogen atoms, even if they aren’t quite hot enough for fusion,
即使没有加热到融合的温度
will fuse together anyway.
氢原子也会融合在一起
And the sun is SO big and has so much hydrogen
因为太阳体积庞大 氢原子数量极多
that these small chances happen all the time,
所以这些小概率事件总会发生
and that’s what keeps the sun energized!
因此太阳的能量源源不断!
So when the sun shines tomorrow,
所以 明天太阳出来后
give thanks to quantum mechanics.
感谢量子力学吧

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视频概述

为什么太阳有源源不断的热量?我们一起来了解一下吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Felicity

审核员

审核员CL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gS1dpowPlE8

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