ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

金字塔是如何建造的 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

金字塔是如何建造的

How the Pyramids Were Built (Pyramid Science Part 2!)

本期节目由skillshare支持完成
This episode is supported by Skillshare.
嗨 大家好 几周前我们制作了一个关于金字塔的视频
Hey smart people, so a few weeks ago we made a video about the pyramids, and how, while
它们真TM壮观 我们可以从中追寻金字塔结构演变的过程
they are pretty heckin’ impressive, we can trace the evolution of their construction
同时了解古埃及人如何从反复尝试甚至一些错误中获取经验
and see the ancient Egyptians using trial and error, and even making a few mistakes,
这告诉我们古埃及人并不需要外星人来建造金字塔 他们只需要科学就够了
which basically tells us they didn’t need aliens to build them, they just needed science.
你们很喜欢这个视频 但仍有一些人存在一点点困惑
You guys really liked that video, but a few of you were… a little bothered that, despite
尽管视频叫做“谁建造了金字塔” 但是我并没有谈到金字塔是
the fact it was called “WHO built the pyramids?” that I didn’t talk about HOW the pyramids
怎样被建造出来的
were made.
所以 这次让我们来谈谈这个!
Soooo, let’s talk about it!
片头动画
[OPEN]
散落在埃及境内的一百多座金字塔每个都有所不同
The hundred-plus pyramids scattered around Egypt were all built a bit differently, but
我们将主要讨论最大的那个
we’re gonna focus on THE BIG ONE.
我们先回顾它的数据
Let’s review the stats!
大金字塔原本不止146米 它由两百三十万块
The Great Pyramid originally rose more than 146 meters tall and contained about 2.3 million
石块组成
stone blocks.
开始任何建筑工程前都要先打地基
But the start of any construction project truly begins with the foundation, which is
这是相当令人叹服的工程
impressive in its own right.
金字塔底面水平误差不超过2厘米 边角误差在11厘米以内
Its base is level to less than 2 cm, it’s square to within 11 (cm), and its edges are
四边角度和罗盘一致 误差不超过3/60度
aligned to the compass within 3/60ths of a degree.
这样的精确度是十分令人震惊的 因为那时候罗盘尚未出现
This precision is pretty incredible since compasses didn’t actually exist yet, and
四千五百年前北极星位于和现在完全不同的位置
since forty-five hundred years ago the North Star was in a completely different place.
但是要找到正北的方向其实很简单 只要随意选择一颗星星
But finding North is actually pretty easy, just watch where any star rises and sets during
观察它一个晚上升起落下的角度 然后平分这个角即可
the night, and cut the angle in half.
之后 只要量出一个直角就可以得到方形的四边
After that, squaring the sides just requires measuring a right angle.
毕达哥拉斯和其定理还要很久才有 但古文明例如埃及文明
Pythagoras and his equation came way later, but ancient cultures like the Egyptians knew
知道一个边长分别为3-4-5的三角形会构成一个直角三角形
a 3-4-5 triangle made a 90˚ corner.
他们甚至能用两个圆圈得到直角:连接两圆相交弧线的直线
They could even make a right angle with two circles: the line connecting the intersection
和穿过两圆心的直线相互垂直
of the arcs is perpendicular to a line through their centers.
有些理论认为 为了使塔底部平整 埃及人用水填满通道作为天然的水平面
To level the base, some theories say the Egyptians used water filled channels as natural levels,
但这并不太可能 你要考虑到 为了避免水分蒸发
but this isn’t likely when you consider how much water they’d have to carry in to
这样做需要注入相当多的水
keep it from evaporating.
但如果你能做出一个直角 便可以得到一个水平面
But if you can make a right angle, you can make a level.
做一个直角支架 你就可以从远处校准水平面
Put that on some legs, and you can level over long distances.
如果你这样想 金字塔只是一堆堆叠的方块 因此要是
When you think about it, a pyramid is just a bunch of stacked squares, so if you can
能掌握这种测量手段 就离建造整个金字塔不远了
master this measurement, you’re most of the way there.
现在我们只需要弄到一些石块
Now we just need some stones.
大金字塔的核心部分由两百多万块粗糙的黄色石灰石构成
The Great Pyramid’s core is made of more than 2 million blocks of rough yellow limestone.
这些石块是从金字塔旁边开采出来的 这也是决定金字塔位置的一个重要因素
This was quarried right next to the pyramids, which is a big reason why they chose sites
像吉萨一样 史前海洋使这些建筑材料沉积在埃及人脚下
like Giza, where prehistoric oceans had deposited this building material right under their feet.
他们会挖一条通道然后把石块从地下撬上来 石块的尺寸
They would dig channels and pry these blocks right from the Earth, and the size of the
实际上是由这些石灰岩的天然厚度决定的
blocks was actually determined by the natural thickness of these limestone layers.
你可以从斯芬克斯像上找到这些地层的证据 事实上这座石像是从地层中挖出来的
You can see evidence of these layers in The Sphinx, which was actually dug out of the
而不是建在地层表面
Earth, not built on top of it.
金字塔表面原本覆盖着采自尼罗河上游采石场的光滑的白色石灰岩
The pyramids were originally covered in smooth white limestone from quarries up the Nile,
但在几千年前被盗窃用在了其他建筑物上
which was stolen to use in other buildings thousands of years ago.
我们在这些采石场中发现了许多凿子 钻头和锯片
We’ve found many chisels, drills, and saws used at these quarries, and the only metal
埃及人能利用的唯一金属只有铜
Egyptians had access to was copper.
这是一种较软的金属 但当注入砂浆或石粉作为磨料
That’s a pretty soft metal, but when a slurry of sand and powdered rock is poured in as
即使铜制的工具也可以切割石灰岩
an abrasive, even copper tools can cut limestone.
为了在23年内建成大金字塔 每隔 8天就需要采集出相当于
To build the Great Pyramid in 23 years, an Olympic swimming pool’s worth of stone had
奥运会游泳池那么大容积的石块
to be quarried every eight days.
这是相当大的工作量 但利用古埃及人使用的技术进行的现代金字塔建造试验结果表明
That’s a lot, but modern pyramid building experiments using technology available to
这些石块可以由一只1200到1500人组成的工程队进行开采及搬运
Ancient Egyptians calculated this amount of stone could be cut and moved by a quarry team
这是完全可行的
of 1200 to 1500 workers, which is totally doable.
较重的石块 例如用于金字塔里内室的花岗岩
Heavier stones, like the granite used in the pyramid’s inner chambers, are much harder
比石灰岩更坚硬
than limestone.
它们是工人拿辉绿岩锤石切出来的 这种石块
They were literally chipped out by hand using heavy dolerite hammer stones, which we’ve
我们也发现了……很多
also found… a LOT of.
一整天的敲击也许只能切下几厘米
It would have taken a full day’s pounding to chip away a few centimeters, but then again
好在那时没有推特使他们分心
they didn’t have Twitter to distract them.
我们发现埃及人建造的船大到可以载着这些石块沿着尼罗河顺流而下
We’ve found Egyptian boats large enough to have floated these stones down the Nile,
但是他们怎样把两百万块石块搬到想要的地方呢?
but how were 2 million blocks actually moved into place?
也许难以置信 但利用轮子进行运输是近代才产生的发明
It might be hard to believe, but wheels for transportation are a surprisingly recent invention.
这不是因为采用圆形物滚动的方法很难想到 而是因为
Not because rolling a round thing is hard to figure out but
无法发明出可行的车轴
because inventing a workable axle is.
已知最早的滚轮出现在金字塔时代之前 但不是在埃及
The oldest known rolling wheels on Earth date to before the Great Pyramid, but not in Egypt.
通过图画我们知道埃及人用木橇来运输大型物品
Paintings tell us Egyptians used wooden sleds to move large objects,
但它仍然要解决摩擦力的问题
but they still had to deal with friction.
水平地铺设一些木轨更方便撬滑行 但在2014年
Burying wood rails horizontally will allow a sled to slide more freely, but researchers
阿姆斯特丹大学的研究人员提出沙子有一种有趣的特性
at the University of Amsterdam showed in 2014 that sand has an interesting property, wetting
用适量的水弄湿沙子会令其变得非常光滑
it with the right amount of water makes it remarkably slick.
一个十名工人组成的小分队可以轻易的拉动一吨重的木撬 但人们常常忘记
A team of ten workers can easily pull a one-ton sled, but people always seem to forget that
埃及人也有驴和牛等动物来帮助他们完成这项工作
Egyptians had animals like donkeys and cattle around to help too.
建造用于运送石块的坡道几乎和金字塔一样具有历史意义
Constructing ramps to deliver stone must have been nearly as monumental as the pyramid itself.
这些坡道的长什么样并没有相关记录
This is one place where there’s no records of what they looked like, but researchers
但是研究人员已经验证了很多种可能性
have examined lots of possibilities.
一个叫克雷格·史密斯的工程师对坡道进行了相当精细的分析
An engineer named Craig Smith has done probably the most detailed ramp analysis, calculating
计算出各种设计模式可以运送的石块数 而且他认为埃及人
how many stones could be delivered with each design, and he believes the Egyptians extended
把金字塔底部的坡道扩展的很宽大 因为大部分石块会堆放在这里
a big, wide ramp near the bottom where a pyramid requires most of its stones, and spiral ramps
顶部需要石块数较少的地方则采用螺旋上升的坡道
near the top where fewer blocks are needed.
木制杠杆与辉绿岩做的球状轴承组合 用来引导石块到达合适的位置
Wooden levers, and round dolerite “ball bearings” were used to guide stones into
这些石块事先已经被打磨的刚好合适
place, where they were carved to an exact fit.
即少数表面光滑的石块之间的连接也相当精准
Joints between some of the few remaining smooth outer stones are so precise you can’t even
你甚至无法插入一张信用卡 但发掘显示金字塔内部的
slip a credit card between them, but digs have shown they weren’t as careful with
石块摆放的却没那么精细
interior stones.
普遍观点认为金字塔是由奴隶建造的
It’s a popular idea that the pyramids were built by slaves, but you shouldn’t believe
但不能完全相信电影里看到的
everything you see in the movies.
埃及学家例如马克·莱纳的研究揭示了用于供养、 安置和装备数以千计能工巧匠的巨大城市
Egyptologists like Mark Lehner have uncovered enormous cities built to feed, house, and
里面有酿酒厂 面包店 工具店……等 表明
equip thousands of skilled workers, with breweries, bakeries, tool shops… signs that whole families
这附近生活着以家庭为单位的居民
lived nearby.
埃及社会不同阶层的人在他们视为
Egyptian society at all levels dedicated themselves to what
国家荣誉的岗位上勤恳地工作
they viewed as the kingdom’s proudest work.
令人惊讶的是 我们能获得相当多的关于如何建造金字塔的证据
It’s actually pretty incredible that we have as much evidence as we DO about how the
但这并不代表金字塔很容易建造
pyramids were built, but that doesn’t mean building them was easy.
其实正相反
In fact it’s the opposite.
但困难不代表不可能
But difficult doesn’t mean impossible.
保持好奇
Stay curious.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

简要了解埃及人怎样建造举世瞩目的大金字塔

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

海尔兄弟

审核员

审核团C

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52V9jmrgSbI

相关推荐