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某巴文件是如何被记者泄露出来的

How the Panama Papers journalists broke the biggest leak in history | Gerard Ryle

启点字幕组
Light up the world
如果需要你查证并搞清
What do you do if you had to figure out the information
1150多万文件后隐藏的信息
behind 11.5 million documents,
你会怎么做
verify it and make sense of it?
这是一大群记者们
That was a challenge
去年的时候所面临的挑战
that a group of journalists had to face late last year.
一个叫约翰•豆的匿名者
An anonymous person calling himself John Doe
不知道用什么方法拷贝了一家叫做
had somehow managed to copy nearly 40 years of records
莫萨克•冯赛卡的巴拿马律师事务所40多年的记录
of the Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseca.
这家事务所是世界上众多
This is one of many firms around the world
专门在境外避税天堂设立账户的事务所之一
that specialize in setting up accounts in offshore tax havens
就像英国的维尔京群岛
like the British Virgin Islands,
专门为那些想要隐藏秘密的富人和当权者服务
for rich and powerful people who like to keep secrets.
约翰•豆设法复制了该事务所的每一份表格
John Doe had managed to copy every spreadsheet from this firm,
每一份客户资料
every client file,
每一封电子邮件
every email,
从1977年直到今天的
from 1977 to the present day.
它呈现了巨型遮光板下
It represented the biggest cache
避税天堂里前所未见的
of inside information into the tax haven system
所有信息
that anyone had ever seen.
但是它也给调查这一切的新闻业带来了前所未有的挑战
But it also presented a gigantic challenge to investigative journalism.
想想看:1150万份文件
Think about it: 11.5 million documents,
包含200多个不同国家的人的秘密
containing the secrets of people from more than 200 different countries.
这么多东西该从何入手
Where do you start with such a vast resource?
如此庞大的故事该从哪说起
Where do you even begin to tell a story
其踪迹遍及全球各个角落
that can trail off into every corner of the globe,
其影响涉及说各种不同语言的人民
and that can affect almost any person in any language,
而且有的描述方法记者们根本闻所未闻
sometimes in ways they don’t even know yet.
约翰•豆把信息给了
John Doe had given the information to two journalists
南德意志报的两名记者
at the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung.
他说他是被这样激励的 引用他原句
He said he was motivated by — and I quote —
“这些文件会告诉我们一切是多么不公”
“The scale of the injustice that the documents would reveal.”
但是面对如此庞大的工程
But one user alone can never make sense
仅凭一家力量 根本搞不懂个中涵义
of such a vast amount of information.
所以南德意志报联系了
So the Süddeutsche Zeitung reached out
我在华盛顿的机构
to my organization in Washington, DC,
国际调查记者同盟
The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists.
我们决定做一些和记者身份
We decided to do something that was the very opposite
完全相悖的事情 那就是
of everything we’d been taught to do as journalists:
共享
share.
一般情况 新闻调查员都是独狼
By nature, investigative reporters are lone wolves.
我们对自己掌握的秘密看得很紧
We fiercely guard our secrets,
有时甚至防着自己的编辑
at times even from our editors,
因为我们知道 当我们告诉他们我们有什么的那一刻
because we know that the moment we tell them what we have,
他们会立刻想知道全部的故事
they’ll want that story right away.
而且说实话
And to be frank,
当你找到一个好故事
when you get a good story,
你更想独占这份功劳
you like to keep the glory to yourself.
但是毫无疑问 我们生活的世界越来越小
But there’s no doubt that we live in a shrinking world,
媒体对这件事的觉醒还有些迟缓
and that the media has largely been slow to wake up to this.
我们所报道的事件越来越国际化
The issues we report on are more and more transnational.
巨头公司都是全球化经营
Giant corporations operate on a global level.
环境与健康危机也是全球化问题
Environmental and health crises are global.
当然 资金流动和经济危机也不会例外
So, too, are financial flows and financial crises.
所以新闻业在全球范围内报道一件事的动作
So it seems staggering that journalism has been so late
这么迟缓也是着实令人震惊
to cover stories in a truly global way.
同样令人震惊的 还有新闻业
And it also seems staggering that journalism has been so slow
对科技发展所带来的可能性的醒悟
to wake up to the possibilities that technology brings,
居然比害怕科技发展的反应还要慢
rather than being frightened of it.
记者们之所以害怕技术发展
The reason journalists are scared of technology is this:
正是因为人们对新闻消费方式的转变
the profession’s largest institutions are going through tough times
使得这个行业最大的机构们正在经历一次寒冬
because of the changing way that people are consuming news.
广告产业的持续报告模式已然瓦解
The advertising business models that have sustained reporting are broken.
新闻业也由此陷入危机
And this has plunged journalism into crisis,
这使得他们不得不重新审视他们的工作机制
forcing those institutions to reexamine how they function.
但是 这既是危机
But where there is crisis,
也是机遇
there is also opportunity.
第一个
The first challenge presented
由巴拿马文件事件引发的挑战
by what would eventually become known as the Panama Papers
是使文件可查可读
was to make the documents searchable and readable.
等待扫描和编录的有近乎500万的邮件
There were nearly five million emails,
200万份图片
two million PDFs that needed to be scanned and indexed,
以及数百万各种各样的文件
and millions more files and other kinds of documents.
这些都要装订保存在安全
They all needed to be housed in a safe and secure location
保密的地方
in the cloud.
之后 我们邀请了记者看下这些文件
We next invited reporters to have a look at the documents.
来自70个国家 100多家媒体的
In all, reporters from more than 100 media organizations
记者
in 76 countries —
有英国的BBC
from the BBC in Britain
法国的世界报
to Le Monde newspaper in France
日本的朝日新闻
to the Asahi Shimbun in Japan.
我们认为 “群众的眼睛是雪亮的”
“Native eyes on native names,” we called it, the idea being,
还有谁比尼日利亚记者更适合
who best to tell you who was important to Nigeria
来报道谁对尼日利亚才是重要的呢
than a Nigerian journalist?
谁能比加拿大人更了解加拿大呢
Who best in Canada than a Canadian?
对于邀请来的记者 只有两条规则
There were only two rules for everyone who was invited:
我们都同意与他人共享我们所知的一切
we all agreed to share everything that we found with everybody else,
并且在同一天发布这个新闻
and we all agreed to publish together on the same day.
基于信任 我们选择媒体伙伴
We chose our media partners based on trust
信任是建立于之前更小的合作
that had been built up through previous smaller collaborations
以及文件中跳出来的线索
and also from leads that jumped out from the documents.
接下来的几个月
Over the next few months,
有说着25种语言 超过350位记者
my small nonprofit organization of less than 20 people
加入了我们这个只有不到20位成员的小小非盈利组织
was joined by more than 350 other reporters from 25 language groups.
历史上最大的信息泄露
The biggest information leak in history
造就了历史上最大的新闻界合作
had now spawned the biggest journalism collaboration in history:
376个记者们齐心协力地
376 sets of native eyes doing what journalists normally never do,
做着以前从未做过的事情
working shoulder to shoulder,
共享信息
sharing information,
但是不告诉任何人
but telling no one.
此时此刻 信息变得透明
For it became clear at this point
为了制造更大的动静
that in order to make the biggest kind of noise,
首先我们需要保持最大的冷静
we first needed the biggest kind of silence.
这个工程将会耗时好几个月
To manage the project over the many months it would take,
我们建立了一个安全的虚拟新闻室
we built a secure virtual newsroom.
我们使用了加密的交流系统
We used encrypted communication systems,
和专门设计的搜索引擎
and we built a specially designed search engine.
在这间虚拟新闻室里
Inside the virtual newsroom,
记者们可以从文件中
the reporters could gather around the themes
抓取主题
that were emerging from the documents.
比如 对血钻或异域文化感兴趣的记者们
Those interested in blood diamonds or exotic art, for instance,
可以获得如何利用海外的公司
could share information about how the offshore world was being used
来进行商品的秘密交易的信息
to hide the trade in both of those commodities.
对体育新闻感兴趣的记者可以
Those interested in sport could share information
获得体育明星是如何
about how famous sports stars were putting their image rights
将他们的肖像权授给海外公司的信息
into offshore companies,
因此 这些明星
thereby likely avoiding taxes
可以在从事交易活动的国家逃税
in the countries where they plied their trade.
其中最令人激动的信息是
But perhaps most exciting of all
文件中出现的那些
were the number of world leaders and elect politicians
世界领导人和选举政治家们
that were emerging from the documents —
比如乌克兰总统佩特罗·波罗申科
figures like Petro Poroshenko in Ukraine,
跟俄罗斯总统普金保持紧密合作
close associates of Vladimir Putin in Russia
英国总理戴维·卡梅伦的信息里面
and the British Prime Minister, David Cameron, who is linked
包含着他的已故父亲伊恩·卡梅伦的相关信息
through his late father, Ian Cameron.
海外秘密公司的业务就是将这些秘密埋藏在文件中
Buried in the documents were secret offshore entities,
比如Wintris公司
such as Wintris Inc.,
是一家在英国维尔京群岛的公司
a company in the British Virgin Islands
实际上是属于冰岛总理
that had actually belonged to the sitting Icelandic prime minister.
我想说一下约翰内斯·克里斯蒂安松
I like to refer to Johannes Kristjansson,
我们邀请加入的冰岛记者
the Icelandic reporter we invited to join the project,
他是真正的孤军奋战
as the loneliest man in the world.
九个月以来 他拒绝了有偿工作
For nine months, he refused paid work
靠他的妻子养着
and lived off the earnings of his wife.
在冰岛漫长的冬天里 他在家里的窗户上贴上油布
He pasted tarps over the windows of his home
来躲避别人的窥探
to prevent prying eyes during the long Icelandic winter.
由于工作精疲力尽
And he soon ran out of excuses to explain his many absences,
他没办法再为自己的消失找借口
as he worked red-eyed,
一天天过去了
night after night,
几个月过去了
month after month.
在那些日子里 他埋首于
In all that time, he sat on information
那些能将国家领导人击下台的信息里
that would eventually bring down the leader of his country.
作为一个调查记者 你有了惊天的发现
Now, when you’re an investigative reporter and you make an amazing discovery,
比如你国的总理跟
such as your prime minster can be linked to a secret offshore company,
在冰岛银行有财务利益的秘密海外公司有关联
that that company has a financial interest in Icelandic banks —
而他之所以选举成功原因
the very issue he’s been elected on —
是的 你的直觉没错
well, your instinct is to scream out very loud.
作为他唯一能吐露心声的人
Instead, as one of the few people that he could speak to,
约翰内斯和我都有种奇葩的幽默感
Johannes and I shared a kind of gallows humor.
他曾说 Wintris将至 【原句winter is coming 凛冬将至是权利的游戏中史塔克家族的家族箴言】
“Wintris is coming,” he used to say.
我们都爱看《权利的游戏》
We were big fans of “Game of Thrones.”
当记者们像约翰内斯那样忍不住想要尖叫的时候
When reporters like Johannes wanted to scream,
他们却在虚拟新闻室里尖叫
they did so inside the virtual newsroom,
他们把那些激动揉进故事里
and then they turned those screams into stories
将文件公之于法庭
by going outside the documents to court records,
官方公司注册者
official company registers,
将问题留给我们想要点名的人
and by eventually putting questions to those that we intended to name.
巴拿马文件实际上
Panama Papers actually allowed the reporters to look at the world
使得记者们从不同的角度审视这个世界
through a different lens from everybody else.
当我们研究这些
As we were researching the story,
跟我们毫无关联的故事时
unconnected to us,
巴西发生了严重政治贿赂丑闻
a major political bribery scandal happened in Brazil.
阿根廷新选举的领导人
A new leader was elected in Argentina.
联邦调查局开始指控国际足联的官员
The FBI began to indict officials at FIFA,
国际足联拥有着世界上最专业的球员
the organization that controls the world of professional soccer.
巴拿马文件
The Panama Papers actually had unique insights
对于这些秘密事件都有着独特的洞察力
into each one of these unfolding events.
所以你可以想象得到我们的压力以及内心戏
So you can imagine the pressure and the ego dramas
足以毁掉我们真正想要达到的目的
that could have ruined what we were trying to do.
所有的记者
Any of one of these journalists,
本可以违反协议
they could have broken the pact.
但是他们没有
But they didn’t.
今年四月三日
And on April 3 this year,
德国时间晚上八点
at exactly 8pm German time,
我们在76个国家同时发布了新闻
we published simultaneously in 76 countries.
巴拿马文件迅速成为年度爆炸新闻
The Panama Papers quickly became one of the biggest stories of the year.
这是我们发布新闻后冰岛的场景
This is the scene in Iceland the day after we published.
这是接下来众多抗议的首次抗议
It was the first of many protests.
冰岛总理不得不辞职
The Icelandic prime minister had to resign.
这也是众多辞职的首个
It was a first of many resignations.
我们关注着许多名人 比如莱昂内尔·梅西
We spotlighted many famous people such as Lionel Messi,
世上最著名的足球运动员
the most famous soccer player in the world.
当然还有一些意料之外的结果
And there were some unintended consequences.
在我们公布他们的穴巢后
These alleged members of a Mexican drug cartel were arrested
墨西哥毒品组织的成员被捕
after we published details about their hideout.
他们曾用那个地址
They’d been using the address
注册了海外公司
to register their offshore company.
我们所做的事情中也蕴含了一丝讽刺意味
There’s a kind of irony in what we’ve been able to do.
网络技术 它曾经打破了商业模式
The technology — the Internet — that has broken the business model
使得我们重塑了新闻行业
is allowing us to reinvent journalism itself.
这种动力将会产生
And this dynamic is producing
前所未有的透明度和影响力
unprecedented levels of transparency and impact.
我们展示了一群记者
We showed how a group of journalists can effect change across the world
如何利用大量的泄漏信息结合新方法和老式新闻技术
by applying new methods and old-fashioned journalism techniques
引得全世界的轰动
to vast amounts of leaked information.
我们把约翰豆给我们的所有重要的信息集中在一起
We put all-important context around what was given to us by John Doe.
通过资源共享
And by sharing resources,
我们就能继续挖掘信息
we were able to dig deep —
由于牵扯到金融方面
much deeper and longer than most media organizations allow these days,
所以比如今的大多数媒体的报道都更有深度和广度
because of financial concerns.
这曾经有很大的风险
Now, it was a big risk,
而且不是每个故事都能用这个方法来报道
and it wouldn’t work for every story,
但巴拿马泄密文件事件表明
but we showed with the Panama Papers
无论你身在何处 都可以写任何一个国家的事件
that you can write about any country from just about anywhere,
然后选择你的战场守护你的果实
and then choose your preferred battleground to defend your work.
有人尝试申请法院禁令
Try obtaining a court injunction
禁止我们在76个国家发布新闻
that would prevent the telling of a story in 76 different countries.
他们想要阻止这一切
Try stopping the inevitable.
在我们发布新闻不久后 我收到了约翰内斯的短信
Shortly after we published, I got a three-word text from Johannes:
Wintris已经到来
“Wintris has arrived.”
也许它的到来开辟了新闻界的新时代
It had arrived and so, too, perhaps has a new era for journalism.
谢谢
Thank you.
布鲁诺·朱萨尼:谢谢杰拉德
Bruno Giussani: Gerard, thank you.
我想你会把这些掌声
I guess you’re going to send that applause to the 350 journalists
送给跟你一起奋战的那350名记者 对吧
who worked with you, right?
我有几个问题想问你
Now, a couple of questions I would like to ask.
第一个是
The first one is,
你跟世界各地的新闻同行们
you’d been working in secrecy for over a year
秘密工作了一年多
with 350-something colleagues from all over the world —
你有没有想过
was there ever a moment when you thought
那些泄漏的信息也许会被再次泄漏
that the leak may be leaked,
你们这个记者联盟中也许会有人违反协议
that the collaboration may just be broken
自行发布消息
by somebody publishing a story?
或者其他人知道了
Or somebody not in the group releasing some information
会泄漏其中一些信息
that they got to know?
杰拉德:一直以来危机都伴随着我们
Gerard Ryle: We had a series of crises along the way,
包括当今世界发生的重大事件
including when something major was happening in the world,
那个国家的记者想要立刻发布
the journalists from that country wanted to publish right away.
我们得让他们冷静下来
We had to calm them down.
也许最大的危机就是在我们发布新闻的前一周
Probably the biggest crisis we had was a week before publication.
我们向普京的同僚提出了一系列严肃的问题
We’d sent a series of questions to the associates of Vladimir Putin,
不仅没有得到答复
but instead of responding,
克里姆林宫还举行了新闻发布会谴责我们
the Kremlin actually held a press conference and denounced us,
谴责整个事件其实是西方的一个阴谋
and denounced the whole thing as being, I guess, a plot from the West.
那个时候 普京以为事情只是跟他相关
At that point, Putin thought it was just about him.
当然了 很多编辑
And, of course, a lot of editors around the world
对此都非常紧张
were very nervous about this.
他们以为事情要暴露了
They thought the story was going to get out.
他们所花的大量时间
You can imagine the amount of time they’d spent,
大量资源以及金钱都要打水漂了
the amount of resources, money spent on this.
所以我花了一周时间来安抚他们
So I had to basically spend the last week calming everyone down,
有点像一个将军安抚他的军队
a bit like a general, where you’re holding your troops back:
冷静 保持冷静
“Calm, remain calm.”
当然了 最后他们都冷静了下来
And then eventually, of course, they all did.
布鲁诺·朱萨尼:几周前
BG: And then a couple weeks ago or so,
你把大量的文件当开放数据库公布了
you released a lot of the documents as an open database
人人都能通过关键词搜索到
for everybody to search via keyword, essentially.
杰拉德:我们认为
GR: We very much believe
那些境外公司的基本信息
that the basic information about the offshore world
应该公之于众
should be made public.
但是跟我们一起奋战的记者的重要的文件
Now, we didn’t publish the underlying documents
我们没有发布
of the journalists we’re working with.
但是基本信息 比如人名
But the basic information such as the name of a person,
他们的海外公司 公司的名字
what their offshore company was and the name of that company,
现在在网上都能查到
is now all available online.
实际上 最大的资源都公开了
In fact, the biggest resource of its kind basically is out there now
布鲁诺·朱萨尼:杰拉德 谢谢你所做的一切
BG: Gerard, thank you for the work you do.
杰拉德:谢谢
GR: Thank you.

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视频概述

巴拿马泄密文件是年度爆炸性新闻,我们只知道其中那些令人咋舌的新闻,却不知道文件是如何泄露出来的。实际上,在这背后有来自世界各地的记者的奋战。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

启点—丘丘

审核员

霜霜

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qNvDRuGK84I

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