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蒙古帝国是如何覆灭的-中世纪历史动画纪录片

How the Mongols Lost China - Medieval History Animated DOCUMENTARY

“王侯将相”
After Khubilai Khan’s death in 1294,
在1294年 可汗忽必烈死后
his successors ruled over the most powerful kingdom on earth,
他的继任者们继续统治着这个世界上最强大的王朝
the Yuan Dynasty.
元朝
A little over 70 years later, the Dynasty was pushed from China,
70多年后 元朝被推翻 从而退出中国历史舞台
their rulers a shadow of the men Chinggis, Möngke and Khubilai had been.
而此后的统治者们身上都多少带有些成吉思汉 蒙哥和忽必烈的影子
Today, we take you through
今天 我们将带您了解
the combined economic, environmental, political and military factors
导致蒙古失去天命 结束统治中国的
that led to the Mongols losing the Mandate of Heaven, and China itself.
经济 生态 政治 军事多重综合因素
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By the time of Khubilai Khan’s death in 1294, he had outlived his designated heir,
在1294年忽必烈去世时 他的指定继承人已先他而去
passing it instead onto his drunken grandson Temür Öljeitü.
于是他的汗位传给了酗酒的孙子铁穆耳
In the almost 40 years from Khubilai’s death
在从忽必烈去世
to the ascension of Toghon Temür Khan in 1333,
到1333年妥懽帖睦尔登基的近40年里
nine khans were enthroned:
有九位可汗登上过王位
of them, only Temür Öljeitü reigned over a decade.
其中 只有铁穆耳在位超过十年
Rampant alcoholism and assassinations meant few khans lived past 35.
疯狂酗酒和遭受暗杀致使很少可汗能活过35岁
Temür Öljeitü attempted to continue the policies of his grandfather,
铁穆耳试图延续他祖父的政策
but within a year the treasury was nearly empty,
但不到一年 国库因过分挥霍而告罄
almost totally spent on lavish gifts for the princes after his enthronement.
登基后 他将钱几乎都花在给诸王买贵重礼物上
He learned too of the intense corruption of the Yuan court.
他也知道元朝的严重腐败
The quota for court and capital officials was set at 2,600 persons.
朝堂和都城官员的人数原本限定为2600人
In the first year of Temür Öljeitü’s reign,
然而据统计 在铁穆耳继位的第一年
it was found to be over 10,000.
官员人数就超过了10000
A 1303 investigation led to some 18000 clerks and officials being charged with bribery.
1303年 有18000名官员在一个调查中被指控受贿
In typical fashion, Temür Öljeitü lacked the commitment to push through with charges,
而典型情况是 铁穆耳无法下定决心严厉处理这些受贿官员
and most of the accused maintained their posts.
其中大多数人都保住了自己的职位
While it has been common to attest the Yuan Dynasty’s economic failings
尽管元朝的经济衰退普遍被证实
to corruption to lavish gift-giving, of which there was no shortage of,
是由无度的腐败和奢侈送礼造成的
recent studies have highlighted a greater struggle.
但最近的研究却发现 其背后有一个更严重的困境
The fourteenth century was the start of the Little Ice Age,
在十四世纪 小冰河期开始时
a global climatic shift towards generally cooler and wetter temperatures.
全球气候普遍向更冷更潮湿的方向转变
Those strongly affected the Asian monsoon season,
这对亚洲季风气候产生了严重影响
which in the fourteenth century manifested into
在14世纪 这种影响使欧亚大草原出现
a general trend of intense colds and snowfall in the Eurasian steppe,
一种急剧降温和降雪的普遍趋势
droughts in north China and unending rains and typhoons in southern China.
中国北部因此出现干旱 南部出现持续暴雨和台风
These began to be felt in the very first years of Temür Öljeitü’s reign.
这些现象在铁穆耳统治的最初几年就出现了
In 1295, typhoons struck the Yangzi River delta.
1295年 台风侵袭了长江三角洲
The Yellow River broke its banks in multiple places and caused repeated flooding.
黄河多处决堤 洪水泛滥
And a dry spell from the previous years resulted in plagues of locusts that eradicated crops
而前几年的干旱导致蝗灾成灾 庄稼颗粒无收
and continued for the rest of the decade.
这种状况一直持续了十余年
In Mongolia, harsher winters starved herds
在蒙古 牧群在酷寒的冬天遭遇饥荒
and forced thouands south to seek support from the Khaan.
这迫使数千人向南方寻求可汗的帮助
These ecological problems directly tied into the Yuan’s economic woes.
而这些生态问题与元朝的经济困境有着直接联系
Khubilai continued the Song policy of Huangzheng,
忽必烈延续了宋朝的荒政政策
government-provided disaster relief,
即政府提供赈灾物资
in the form of cash, grain, rice, animals and other supplies.
以现金 粮米 畜牧和其他物资的形式来赈灾
It fit well into Khubilai’s efforts at reconstruction
这很契合忽必烈在重建社会秩序
and relieving the burdens of the lower classes.
和减轻下层阶级负担方面所做出的努力
None of Khubilai’s heirs dared repeal such a law,
忽必烈的后继者都不敢废除这些法律
for it was a basis of Yuan legitimacy.
因为它是元律的根基
However, in a century of unprecedented climatic disasters over a vast geographic area,
然而 前所未有的气候灾害在这片广阔的土地上持续了一个世纪
this was an impossible burden.
这是一个让人无法承受的负担
The detailed Chinese records and the Yuanshi
中国详细的历史记录和元史
reveal a dynasty facing yearly crises.
揭示了这个每年都面临危机的朝代
From 1272 until 1357,
从1272年到1357年
there was a major famine somewhere in China almost every other year.
中国的一些区域几乎每隔一年就发生一次大饥荒
Over 56 earthquakes were recorded.
记录的地震次数超56次
Super typhoons on the southern coast
一边是南部沿海地区的超级台风
coincided with super snowstorms in the steppe.
一边是草原上的超级暴风雪
Exceptionally cold winters and unexpected frosts
这异常寒冷的冬天和突如其来的霜冻
meant certain crops could no longer be grown in the north.
意味着在北方种植的某些作物将无法存活
The densely populated Yangzi River Delta,
人口稠密的长江三角洲
home to one of the most economically and agriculturally vital areas of the empire,
作为国家经济和农业的至关重要的地区之一
suffered annual droughts, flooding, epidemics, starvation and typhoons,
却每年遭受干旱 洪灾 流行病 饥荒和台风
which destroyed towns and farmland,
这些灾难摧毁了很多城镇和农田
causing thousands more to die in the ensuing famines.
导致数千人死于随之而来的饥荒
In 1301 alone,
仅1301一年
a spring drought in the Yangzi Delta was followed by a massive typhoon.
长江三角洲接连遭遇了春旱和一场大规模台风的侵袭
Arable farmland was destroyed for 50 kilometers along the coastline,
沿海的50公里的耕地全部被毁
and a 40-meter-high wave pushed 280 kilometres inland.
40米高的海浪向内陆推进了280公里
17,000 were killed during the storm,
17000人在风暴中丧生
and 100,000 starved in the aftermath.
还有10万人在风暴过后遭受饥饿
Only a month later flooding displaced people in Manchuria.
仅一个月后 洪水就使满洲人流离失所
A freak August snowstorm killed herds in Mongolia.
八月 蒙古的牧群在一场反常的暴风雪中被冻死
The imperial capital of Dadu was flooded.
帝国的都城元大都被洪水淹没
And a locust plague struck Hebei province.
一场蝗灾袭击了河北省
Survivors needed government relief.
灾民需要政府的救济
Grain and rice shortages caused the Yuan to cover costs only with cash.
粮食的严重短缺导致元朝政府只能用现金弥补财务收支
And to provide more cash, more had to be printed,
为了有更多的现金 只能去印刷更多的钱
to the point it outstripped government revenues.
印刷的钱甚至都超过了政府的收入
Inflation was the result,
结果导致了通货膨胀
and Yuan paper money became ever more worthless over the 1300s.
于是元朝纸币在14世纪变得越来越不值钱
With seemingly unending waves of natural calamities
自然灾害看起来没完没了
and an ever-more worthless currency,
货币越来越不值钱
it seemed the Yuan were losing the Mandate of Heaven, the right to rule China.
元朝似乎正在失去天命 失去统治中国的权利
On Temür Öljeitü’s death in 1307 without surviving children,
铁穆耳在1307年去世 没有留下子嗣
factions formed around his nephews.
他的侄子们各有拥趸 形成不同派别
His nephew Qaishan was a man of the steppe
他的侄子海山生活在草原
with no love or understanding of Chinese culture,
对中国文化既不喜欢也不了解
hoping to rule like a nomad
他希望像游牧民族那样
through his noyad, Mongol military elite.
通过诺颜 即蒙古军事精英 来统治这个国家
Lavish gifts, princely titles and palaces were spent on his friends and allies.
他将奢华礼物 王族头衔和宫殿赠予他的朋友和盟友
Four months into his reign,
在位四个月后
Qaishan found he spent over a year’s worth of government revenue.
海山发现他已经花费了政府超一年的收入
In a panic, he spent the rest of his reign trying to address this,
活在恐慌中的他在统治期间一直试图解决这个问题
increasing taxes and collecting debts cancelled by Temür Öljeitü.
增加了税收 并且继续收取之前铁穆耳取消了的债务
A new currency was put into circulation,
一种新的货币开始流通
based on an exchange of 1:5 with the old.
它与旧货币的兑换率为1:5
The volume of currency printed in 1310
在1310年 新货币的印刷发行数量
was 7 times higher than the previous three years,
是前三年的七倍
succeeding only in furthering inflation.
而这仅仅是加剧了通货膨胀
On his death, in 1311 he was succeeded by his brother Ayurburwada.
1311年海山死后 他的弟弟爱育黎拔力八达继位
The new khan unleashed a violent purge of his brother’s officials,
这位新可汗推翻了之前的朝廷班子
reversed his policies, and abolished his currency.
撤销了之前的政策并废除了流通的货币
Ayurburwada wanted a more traditionally Chinese-Confucian government,
爱育黎拔力八达想建立一个更传统的推行儒学的中国政府
and reinstated the civil service examination system to choose officials.
并且恢复了选拔官员的科举制度
He promoted the translation of Chinese classics into Mongolian,
他鼓励用蒙古文翻译汉语典籍
and began the codification of the Yuan legal system.
并开始编纂元朝法律体系
Such was the ongoing back and forth with each new khan,
这就是每一任新可汗持续重复的事情
with the top layer of government usually suffering a bloody overhaul
每次换任 政府高层通常就要经历一场血腥的变革
and total reversal of policies with each succession.
颁布彻底整改的政策
Ayurburwada died in 1320, aged only 35:
爱育黎拔力八达于1320年去世 年仅35岁
his son and successor, Shidebala spent most of his reign
他的儿子硕德八剌继任 统治期间大多时间
battling Ayurburwada’s powerful mother,
都在与爱育黎拔力八达权高位重的的母亲斗争
only to be assassinated in 1323.
最终硕德八剌在1323年被暗杀
His successor, his cousin Yesün-Temür,
他的继任者——堂兄也孙铁木儿
was likely involved in the plot,
很可能参与了这场暗杀的阴谋
and after only five years on the throne died in 1328 of illness,
然而也孙铁木儿在位仅五年就于1328年因病去世
also only 35.
同样是年仅35岁
Yesün-Temür’s eight-year-old son Ragibagh
也孙铁木儿八岁的儿子阿速吉八
was enthroned at Shangdu on the efforts of Yesün-Temür’s Chancellor,
在父亲的大臣帮助下 在上都登基
but the plan went awry
但登基计划失败了
when the Central Capital at Dadu was seized
因为大都的中央都城
by the head of the powerful Qipchaq Guard, El-Temür,
被强大的钦察卫队的首领燕帖木儿占领
who placed Prince Tüq-Temür on the throne.
燕帖木儿将图帖睦尔扶持上了王位
El-Temür violently seized Shangdu,
并且夺占了上都
and young Ragibagh Khaan disappeared in the chaos.
而年轻的可汗阿速吉八在战乱中失踪了
Soon after, Tüq-Temür’s older brother Qoshila
不久之后图帖睦尔的哥哥和世㻋
returned from his exile in the Chagatai Khanate.
结束了察合台汗国的流放 回到了上都
In August 1329 they met in a warm reunion,
在1329年8月 他们团聚了
Tüq-Temür recognizing his brother’s overlordship.
图帖睦尔承认了他哥哥的君主地位
Four days later Qoshila was dead, and Tüq-Temür returned to the throne.
四天后和世㻋去世 图帖睦尔重新登上王位
But Tüq-Temür did not enjoy power for his efforts,
但是图帖睦尔并没有因他的地位而享受权力
for El-Temür of the Qipchaq and his ally Bayan of the Merkit held real power,
因为钦察汗国的燕帖木儿和他的盟友蔑儿乞氏的伯颜掌握了实权
reducing the Khaan to a figurehead
使可汗成为有名无实的傀儡
The Khaan dedicated his reign to studying Chinese classics, practicing his calligraphy,
图帖睦尔在位期间致力于研究中国经典文化 练习书法
and suffering immense guilt over his brother’s murder.
并且为他哥哥的死感到内疚
When he died in 1332, he had declared his brother’s son Irinjibal
他在1332年去世前 宣布他哥哥的儿子懿璘质班
as his heir in place of his own minor son.
代替他的小儿子成为他的继承人
An aging and ill El-Temür reluctantly agreed
年老病弱的燕帖木儿虽不情愿但也只好同意了
and the six-year-old Irinjibal was duly enthroned as Great Khan,
六岁的懿璘质班正式登基成为大汗
only to die two months later.
然而他仅在位两个月就去世了
The court pressured El-Temür to recall
朝廷向燕帖木儿施压 要求其召回
Irinjibal’s exiled older half-brother Toghon Temür,
懿璘质班被流放的同父异母的哥哥妥懽帖睦尔
though not before El-Temür married his daughter to him.
但这是在燕帖木儿将女儿已经嫁给他之后了
Toghon Temür was the longest-reigning Yuan sovereign after Khubilai,
妥懽帖睦尔是继忽必烈之后在位时间最长的元朝君主
ruling from 1333 until his death in 1370.
从1333年开始统治国家 直到1370年去世
At first he, like his predecessors, was a puppet.
起初 他像前几任可汗一样 只是个傀儡
On El-Temür’s death, his ally Bayan took his place.
燕帖木儿死后 盟友伯颜接替了他的位置
He desired restoration to an imagined ”good old days” under Khubilai
伯颜希望能恢复理想中忽必烈在位的“美好时期”
and sought to enforce separations between Mongols and Chinese which had blurred over previous decades.
并试图强行将在过去十几年里界线早已模糊的蒙古族和汉族分开
Chinese were banned from many government offices,
汉族人被禁止担任政府职位
forbidden from learning Mongolian and other west Asian languages,
禁止学习蒙古语和其他西亚语言
the civil service examinations were cancelled, the general population disarmed,
科举考试取消 老百姓上缴兵械
and their horses were confiscated.
而且他们的马也被没收了
Yet Bayan also wanted to make the government more efficient by cutting court expenditures,
伯颜想通过削减朝廷开支来提高政府效率
and reducing stress on the empire’s population by decreasing the high fees on the salt monopoly,
通过降低盐业垄断导致的高额费用来减轻帝国百姓的压力
encouraging agriculture, and improving and speeding up the government relief system.
鼓励发展农业 加速完善政府救济体系
All his efforts were, of course, signed off
当然 他这些努力都获得了
by the young Toghon Temür, who lived in fear of him.
年轻的惧怕他的妥懽帖睦尔的批准
Bayan’s centralization of power,
伯颜的集权
and willingness to respond to rumours of threats with great violence
以及他以暴力来回应谣言威胁的残忍手段
galvanized resistance to him, including by his own nephew, Toghto.
激起了人们对他的不满反抗 包括他自己的侄子脱脱
In spring 1340, Toghto and Toghon Temür exiled Bayan,
1340年春天 脱脱和妥懽帖睦尔流放了伯颜
who died a month later.
伯颜一个月后去世了
With him went the last of those who wanted to go back to the ‘old ways,’
和他一起走的是最后一批想回到“旧时期”的人
succeeded by those who recognized, and even celebrated the sinicization of the Mongol dynasty.
随之而来的是一些认可甚至赞颂蒙古王朝中国化的人
The new generation of court leadership was symbolized by Toghto.
新一代的朝廷由脱脱领导
Only 26 years old at Bayan’s ouster,
在伯颜被流放时 脱脱只有26岁
Toghto was well educated and raised to prominence by his uncle.
他受过良好的教育 并由他的叔叔抚养成才
Unlike Bayan,
与伯颜不同的是
Toghto had no misconceptions about restoring things to Khubilai’s time.
脱脱并没有重建忽必烈时代这类错误的观念
To Toghto, Chinese culture and Confucianism were to be appreciated
对他而言 中国文化和儒家思想是值得欣赏的
Believing all dynastic problems could be solved
相信所有的朝政问题都可以通过
with a steady hand and powerful government,
一个平稳而强大的政府来解决
Toghto sought to centralize and strengthen the Yuan with a variety of reforms.
脱脱试图用各种改革来加强集权 巩固统治
His first period as chancellor
在他初期担任丞相之时
saw the removal of the last of Bayan’s allies,
伯颜最后的盟友被铲除
the restoration of the civil service examinations,
科举制度得到恢复
greater incorporation of Confucian scholars into government than ever before,
儒家学者比以往任何时候都更多的融入政府
and actual visibility to Toghon Temür Khaan.
妥懽帖睦尔可汗不再只是傀儡
The Khaan’s family gave a decree, denouncing his uncle Tok Temür for murdering Qoshila
可汗家族下令 谴责他的叔叔图帖睦尔谋杀了和世㻋
and had Tok Temür’s surviving son executed.
并且处死了他的儿子
Toghon Temür’s own son Ayushiridara was entrusted to Toghto to be raised and educated,
妥懽帖睦尔将自己的儿子妥欢帖睦尔托付给脱脱抚养教育
and Toghto put great energy into molding the boy
脱脱花费了大量精力将他塑造成
into an ideal Confucianized Mongol ruler.
一个理想的受儒家思想教化的蒙古统治者
Throughout this political upheaval, the environmental crises only worsened.
在这场政治动荡中 环境危机进一步恶化
The flight of the Mongols and other peoples of the northwest
蒙古人和其他西北民族大逃亡的情况
grew so bad that in 1323,
在1323年变得如此严重
39% of the money printed was spent
以至于印制出的炒币有39%被用于
on trying to send the refugees back with aid,
尝试援助难民返回家乡
before ultimately forbidding anyone from leaving Mongolia on pain of death.
但最终 所有人被禁止离开蒙古 违者处死
Intense flooding every year of the 1320s annihilated croplands,
14世纪20年代 每年都有严重的洪水淹没农田
and inflation only continued to rise,
并且通货膨胀持续加剧
and the population grew ever more agitated.
人们变得越来越焦虑
Over Tüq Temür’s three-year reign, 21 rebellions broke out
仅在图帖睦尔三年的统治期间 就爆发了21次叛乱
No new revenues could be found to pay for these expenditures
政府没有新的渠道获得收入 入不敷出
while the costs of relief, war, the court, and corruption
而此时 救济 战争 朝庭和腐败造成的开支
continued to soar alongside inflation.
受通货膨胀的影响不断飙升
While Chancellor Toghto imagined carrying out great works to dazzle his contemporaries,
尽管脱脱想成就伟大事业 让同时代的人来赞叹他
his plans were cut short by the environment.
他的计划因这些环境问题而中止
This was a decade of annual earthquakes,
这十年来每年都会发生地震
unseasonal snowstorms eradicating entire herds,
非季节性的暴风雪会致使整个牧群丧生
severe flooding, widespread famine,drought, and epidemic,
严重的洪水 泛滥的饥荒 干旱和流行病
including, in the opinion of some scholars, the start of the bubonic plague.
同时 在一些学者看来 黑死病也始于这个时期
For the general population, the field of frustration finally began to bloom
随着广大人民的沮丧情绪不断酝酿
into violent uprisings in the 1340s.
最终在14世纪40年代 起义爆发
In 1341, there were over 300 bandit uprisings across central China
在1341年 中国中部地区发生了300多起土匪起义
including the Red Turban Movement.
其中包括红巾军起义
So-called for their red headbands, this was a number of loosely connected groups
这一起义因红头巾而得名 由一些联系较为松散的团体发起
which espoused a radical Confucianism
他们拥护极端儒家思想
calling for a drastic change of society through military means
通过军事手段呼吁对社会进行彻底的改革
to return to an older ‘purer’ China.
以回归到更古老 “更纯粹”的中国
Toghto resigned his position in 1344, allowed his successor to take the blame,
脱脱于1344年辞职 让他的继任者来收拾烂摊子
then returned triumphant in 1349 when recalled by the court.
之后他于1349年被朝廷召回 得意洋洋地重回朝堂
As by then Toghon Temür Khaan had grown bored of governing,
但由于当时妥懽帖睦尔可汗已经厌倦了治国理政
Toghto was now the dominant figure of the Yuan realm.
所以脱脱成为了当时元王国的主宰者
Toghto ordered the printing of great sums of money to tackle his greatest scheme:
脱脱下令印刷大量纸币来实行他最伟大的计划
forcing back the Yellow River to once more enter the sea south of the Shandong peninsula.
迫使黄河再次流入山东半岛以南的海域
Back in 1344, twenty days of nonstop rain caused the River to break its banks
早在1344年 20天不间断的降雨导致河水决堤
and flood numerous districts and cities,
淹没了许多地区和城市
cutting off the Grand Canal and draining into the Huai River, which caused it to rise and
切断了大运河并且流入淮河 导致淮河水位上涨
threaten the salt fields in Shandong and Hebei provinces.
威胁到山东和河北各省的盐田
All before settling into a course north of the Shandong Peninsula,
在洪水流入山东半岛北部地区之前
the threat to the salt fields was a particular concern,
其对盐田的威胁尤其令人担忧
as the salt trade and its taxes provided six-tenths of Yuan yearly revenue.
因为盐业的贸易及税收所带来的收益占元朝每年收入的60%
While the Grand Canal needed to be kept open
一方面 大运河需要保持开放
to transport rice and grain north to feed the capital of Dadu,
以便向北运输大米和谷物来满足大都都城的粮食供应
there was intense opposition to the project to reroute the Yellow River,
另一方面 人们强烈反对黄河改道工程
but Toghto forced the plan through.
但是脱脱强行执行了这个计划
Printing 2 million ingots worth of new currency to pay for it,
并且印刷了价值200万锭的新货币投入此工程
from May to December, 1351
从1351年5月到12月
150,000 labourers, and 20,000 soldiers
十五万名工人和两万名士兵
dug a 140-kilometer long channel to successfully reroute the river.
挖掘了一条140公里长的渠道 成功改变了这条河的航线
Once more the Grand Canal was fed,
大运河再次得到供水
the salt fields were protected and the Yellow River exited into the sea south of Shandong.
盐田得到保护 黄河成功流入山东南部的海域
Toghto’s project was designed to protect the producers and economy of the Yuan Dynasty,
脱脱的这项工程是为了保护元朝的生产和经济
but it accidentally sparked off its ultimate collapse.
但它却意外致使元朝最终分崩离析
The large gathering of workers, hungry and weak from years of famine,
由于多年饥荒 工人们饥肠辘辘 体弱多病
punished by cruel overseers trying to meet a strict timetable,
他们要严格遵守时间表 不然就会受到残忍监工的惩罚
and paid in money only a little above worthless,
但他们的报酬却少得可怜
was fertile soil for the Red Turbans.
红巾军起义由此酝酿
Even as work continued on the canal, a massive revolt erupted in the Huai River valley.
就在运河施工的同时 淮河流域爆发了大规模的叛乱
The Yuan were taken by surprise, and a number of cities fell in quick succession,
元朝政府措手不及 许多城市迅速沦陷
with few city walls having been rebuilt after the initial conquest.
在首次被攻破后 甚至都来不及重建城墙就继续战斗
In the first engagements, the government forces were poorly prepared and beaten back,
在第一次交战中 政府军队由于准备不足被击退
including an army commanded by Toghto’s brother.
包括由脱脱的哥哥指挥的军队
These are not the highly mobile horse archers of the conquest,
打败他们的并非灵活性强的骑兵弓箭手
but generally local Chinese militias commanded by Mongols and Central Asians.
大多是由蒙古人和中亚人指挥的当地中原民兵
But Chancellor Toghto was custom-made for this emergency.
但是丞相脱脱对这种紧急情况了如指掌
He immediately organized the defence, raise new armies and conscripted militias.
他立即开始进行防御 并组建了新的军队 征召了民兵
New training and command structures were implemented.
重建指挥系统 开始了新的训练
He knew he had to tread carefully,
他知道必须谨慎行事
lest mismanaged and underpaid troops join in the revolts.
以免管理不善 报酬过低 致使士兵不满从而加入叛乱
In a dizzying juggling effort, Toghto constantly shuffled larger military units,
在令人眼花缭乱的变动中 脱脱不断调整较大的军事单位
transfering and reappointing commanders around the empire
在帝国内部重新调动和任命指挥官
to prevent them from forming alternate powerbases.
以防他们造反
The Yellow Army, mostly Chinese volunteers,
主要由中原的志愿军组成的
under Mongol and Turkic commanders in yellow uniforms,
由穿着黄色制服的蒙古和突厥的指挥官领导的黄军
became Toghto’s “nationwide apparatus of pacification,”
成为了历史学家约翰•达尔德斯口中的
as termed by historian John Dardess.
脱脱的“全国平定机构”
Leading the most important campaigns himself,
脱脱在亲自领导的最重要的战役中
Toghto began to halt, then push back, and finally overrun the rebellion.
最初按兵不动 然后反击 最终平息了叛乱
By the end of 1352,
到1352年底
Toghto had brought the Huai River valley back under control.
他已经重新控制了淮河流域
Methodically, they retook cities and by the end of 1354,
他们稳步夺回了各个城市 到1354年底
Toghto was about to crush the final major figure of a largely broken movement,
脱脱将消灭这场临近尾声的运动的最后一个主要人物
Zhang Shicheng, now isolated in his capital at Gao-Yu.
在自己的都城高邮孤立无援的张士诚
And at the last moment, Toghon Temür Khaan snatched defeat from the jaws of victory.
在最后一刻 妥懽帖睦尔可汗将唾手可得的胜利拱手让出
For unclear reasons, the Khaan ordered Toghto dismissed at the start of 1355.
由于一些未知的因素 他在1355年初下令解雇了脱脱
A short-sighted and inept monarch,
作为一名目光短浅又无能的君王
perhaps fearful of Toghto’s growing might,
他或许恐惧着脱脱日益强大的权力
yet at the same time unable to replace him,
然而却取代不了脱脱的地位
Toghon Temür ensured that Toghto’s carefully balanced military machine collapsed instantly
他致使脱脱苦心经营的军事运作即刻崩溃
much of the army deserting, and the Red Turban rebellion exploded with new vigour.
大部分军队荒废 于是红巾军叛乱再次爆发
Toghto, a loyal servant to the end,
脱脱 一个到最后一刻仍忠诚的仆人
accepted his dismissal and was assassinated the following year.
接受了他被解雇的事实 并在第二年被暗杀
Toghon Temür sat almost idle as the Red Turban warlords
当红巾军为了从元朝手中夺过统治权而战斗时
fought for the right to succeed the Yuan.
妥懽帖睦尔几乎毫无招架之力
After the battle of Lake Poyang,
在鄱阳湖之战不久后
this was Zhu Yuanzhang who soon declared the Ming Dynasty.
朱元璋就建立了明朝
Toghon Temür had little power over his remaining commanders,
妥懽帖睦尔在余下的大臣们面前毫无威信
who fought each other as much as the Red Turbans.
他们像红巾军一样互相争斗
By the end of the summer of 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang, now enthroned as the Hongwu Emperor,
1368年夏末 朱元璋登基为洪武皇帝
sent his trusted general Xu Da to take Dadu.
派他亲信的大将徐达去攻下大都
Toghon Temür and his heir Ayushiridara fled to Mongolia
就在明朝军队到达前的几天
only days before the arrival of the Ming armies.
妥懽帖睦尔和他的继承人逃到了蒙古
And on the 20th of September, 1368,
在1368年9月20日
Dadu came into Chinese rule for the first time in over 400 years.
大都四百多年来第一次被汉族人统治
The Hongwu Emperor renamed the city to Beiping, meaning ‘pacified north’.
洪武皇帝将城市改名为北平 意为“北方安宁平定”
In time, the city became the capital of the Ming Dynasty
后来 这个城市成为了明朝的都城
and was renamed to Beijing, the name it holds today.
并改名为北京 也就是今天的北京
Aside from a few Yuan loyalists who held out for another twenty odd years,
除了那少数几个又活了二十几年的元朝拥护者
Mongol rule in China ended in 1368.
蒙古人对中国的统治于1368年结束
The Yuan Dynasty, contrary to common depictions,
与往常的描述相反的地方是
had responded vigorously to a dramatic climatic emergency,
元朝在遇到多变而紧急的气候灾难时进行了积极应对
but could not overcome such a massive crisis.
只是没能克服如此巨大的危机
Few states, though, could have survived such a threat
其实很少有国家能够在这种威胁中幸存下来
while simultaneously suffering rampant political and economic turmoil
更何况元朝还同时遭受着因环境危机而不断加剧的
that was continually compounded by the environmental crisis.
政治和经济的动荡
In this respect, it remains impressive that the successors of Khubilai Khaan
就这一点来说 忽必烈可汗的继任者们持续统治了近70年
lasted even 70 years.
这是一件了不起的事情
More videos on Mongol history are on the way,
更多关于蒙古历史的视频还在制作中
so make sure you are subscribed and have pressed the bell button to see it
请确保你已订阅并点击关注 以便继续收看
Please, consider liking, commenting, and sharing – it helps immensely.
请点赞 评论 分享 这是对我们巨大的支持
Our videos would be impossible without our kind patrons and youtube channel members,
视频的发布得益于好心的赞助人和YouTube频道成员

whose ranks you can join via the links in the description to know our schedule,
你可以通过视频描述中的链接加入我们 获知播放时间表
get early access to our videos,access on Discord and much more.
提前看到我们的视频 在Discord访问我们等等
This is the Kings and Generals channel, and we will catch you on the next one.
这是王侯将相频道 我们下一个频道再会

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视频概述

蒙古帝国的覆灭普遍被认为是贪污腐败和奢华浪费导致的,然而最新研究显示,十四世纪小冰河时期的自然灾害才是为元朝覆灭带来致命一击的元凶。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iCgGoYGjeds

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