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蒙娜丽莎为什么那么有名?

How the Mona Lisa became so overrated

If you want praise of Leonardo daVinci’s Mona Lisa as art,
想找对达芬奇《蒙娜丽莎》的艺术崇拜
you can find it:
你总能找到:
But what if you think it’s just….
但是如果你认为这幅画只是
fine?
还不错……
What’s the cynic’s explanation for the Mona Lisa?
犬儒们怎么解释?
Why is the Mona Lisa so, so famous?
《蒙娜丽莎》为什么这么有名?
Is it really that much better than da Vinci’s Lady with Ermine?
它真的比达芬奇的《抱貂的女人》好多了吗?
That seems better.
这幅看起来更好
There’s one more ermine.
这还有一只貂呢
But it’s Mona who is so famous
但是《蒙娜丽莎》名气更大
that the director of the Louvre, where Mona Lisa lives,
收藏着《蒙娜丽莎》的卢浮宫馆长说
said 80% of their visitors are only there to see that one painting.
80%的游客都是冲着这幅画来的
If you don’t think Mona Lisa is famous
如果你认为 《 蒙娜丽莎》的出名
just because she’s somehow 10 times better than every other painting,
不是因为它比别的画好10倍
her story reveals something more interesting,
那就是因为她的故事展现了一些更有趣的东西
something about how art breaks into wider culture.
一些关于艺术如何融入更广泛的文化的东西
And it might never have happened if the Mona Lisa hadn’t disappeared.
如果《蒙娜丽莎》没有消失过 这些可能永远不会发生
Before Mona Lisa became a mass culture star, before she vanished,
在《蒙娜丽莎》成为大众文化明星之前 在她失窃之前
one critic made her a work of art worth taking.
一位评论家让她成为了一件有收藏价值的艺术品
And he was so over-the-top insanely in love with the painting
他非常热爱这幅画
that he single-handedly it a masterpiece.
一手将她打造成了杰作
Walter Pater’s 1873 book, The Renaissance, was key.
沃尔特·佩特1873年的著作《文艺复兴》是关键
It came out more than 350 years after Leonardo painted Mona Lisa
这本书的出现比《蒙娜丽莎》晚350年
but it defined the painting for Victorians.
但它为维多利亚时期的人们描绘了这幅画
That was key in an age when it was hard to actually see the art.
在一个很难真正看到艺术的时代 那很重要
So the words did the work.
这些话让这幅画出名了
Here is the epic semi-colon-stuffed paragraph at the center of his ode to Mona Lisa.
在他的《蒙娜丽莎颂》中 这一段充满了史诗般的描写
Highlights?
举个例子
“The animalism of Greece”
“远自希腊最原始的欲望”
“She is older than the rocks among whichshe sits.”
“她比环绕她的岩石的更古老”
“Like the vampire, she has been dead many times.”
“她像吸血鬼一样 死过很多次”
This was the purplest prose of all time.
这是有史以来词藻最华美的散文
But people loved the stuff.
但人们喜欢这些东西
Oscar Wilde thought the essay’s writing was great.
奥斯卡·王尔德也认为这篇文章写得很好
He praised “the musical of the mystical prose.”
他称赞这篇文章是“一篇神秘散文的乐章”
And every general interest profile of the Louvre,
对卢浮宫的介绍
from academic guidebooks to discussions clubs in Paducah,
从学术指南到帕迪尤卡的讨论俱乐部
used Pater’s words to talk about Mona.
都用佩特的话来谈论《蒙娜丽莎》
Other critics jumped on — Mona was a popular, secular painting that they could analyze.
其他评论家也说 《蒙娜丽莎》是一幅受欢迎的雅俗共赏的世俗画
Unlike da Vinci’s Last Supper,
与达芬奇的《最后的晚餐》不同
they could supply all the meaning.
他们可以解说这幅画的所有内涵
But even at her peak, Mona Lisa was just art world famous,
但即使在她的巅峰时期 《蒙娜丽莎》也只是艺术界的名画
not the most famous painting of all time.
不是有史以来最著名的画作
In 1907, a vandal at the Louvre targeted a picture by Ingres
1907年 卢浮宫的一名破坏者破坏了安格尔的一幅画
not da Vinci
而不是达芬奇的
And in 1910, amidst rumors of theft,
1910年 在失窃的谣言中
papers called Mona just the second most famous in the Louvre,
报纸也只称《蒙娜丽莎》是卢浮宫第二名作
after Raphael’s Sistina Madonna.
次于拉斐尔的《西斯廷娜圣母》
It took a real theft to take Mona from art syllabus highlight
让《蒙娜丽莎》从一幅艺术名作转变为大众文化的标志的
to mass culture icon
是一场真正的盗窃
These are Vincenzo Peruggia’s fingerprints.
这些是佩鲁贾的指纹
This is Vincenzo Peruggia’s mugshot.
这是佩鲁贾的面部特写
He has one because on August 21, 1911,
1911年8月21日
the former Louvre worker lifted the Mona off the wall
这位前卢浮宫工作人员将《蒙娜丽莎》从墙上取了下来
and…took it home.
然后把它带回了家
It took the Louvre a day to even notice,
卢浮宫花了一天时间才发现这幅画被偷了
but the media didn’t have as subdued of a reaction.
但媒体的反应却很激烈
The painting went missing for two years,
这幅画失踪了两年
and every time, the press — often quoting Pater
每次媒体提到这件事都会引用佩特的话
— called it the greatest portrait there ever was.
-它是史上最伟大的画作
They speculated that Mona’s smile had driven the thief mad, ,
他们推测是蒙娜的微笑使得小偷如此疯狂
they wrote art thief fan fiction
还为此编撰雅贼小说
and they constantly daydreamed about Mona Lisa’s whereabouts.
他们经常猜测蒙娜丽莎的下落
Thousands went to the Louvre just to see empty hooks hanging on the wall.
成千上万的人去卢浮宫只是为了看了墙上挂着的空钩子
The robbery and manhunt were like a two year ad campaign for the painting.
这次抢劫和搜捕就像是为这幅画做了两年的广告宣传
And because you couldn’t just Google “Mona Lisa before it was stolen,”
因为那时候你不能在网上搜“被盗前的蒙娜丽莎”
it was hard for people to see the actual painting and say, “What’s the big deal?”
人们看不到原画 或许他们看了之后会觉得没什么大不了
When Peruggia was caught, he said
佩鲁贾被捕后 他说
his goal was to bring Mona back to her native Italy.
他的目标是把《蒙娜丽莎》带回他的祖国意大利
By then, she was the most famous painting in the world
从那之后 她变成了世界上最著名的画
due, in part, to her absence.
就是因为这次失窃
Just as critics could smear prose on her blank face,
就像评论家可以抹黑一个无辜的人一样
the press could hang a reputation on those empty hooks in the wall.
媒体可以让墙上的空钩子出名
When Mona Lisa was stolen, she left a masterpiece.
《蒙娜丽莎》被盗时 她留下一幅杰作
After her recovery and a two week tour in Florence, she returned to the Louvre
在弗罗伦萨展出两周后她回到了卢浮宫
bigger than just art.
这时她已经不只是一幅艺术作品了
She was a story and a legend
她是一个故事 一个传奇
and prominently shown in every paper that reported her recovery.
各大报纸争相报道她的失而复得
It was the big reveal after 2 years of suspense,
失踪两年后 她名满天下
now with a story that merited Walter Pater’s hyperbole
佩特的歌颂和被盗的传奇成就了她
From that point on, she attracted Presidential speeches and parodies.
从那以后 她引得总统为她演讲 使得人们竞相模仿
“Also come to pay homage to this great creation of the civilization which we share.”
“我们向这伟大的创造致敬 她是我们的文明所创造的”
The momentum never stopped.
这种趋势从未停止
In the end, the cynic’s interpretation and the gob-smacked critic’s interpretation
最后 愤世嫉俗者和惊讶的评论家的观点
have something in common.
有一些共同之处
Mona Lisa isn’t a portrait, but a blank face.
《蒙娜丽莎》不是一幅肖像 而是一张空空的脸
A place for critics to paint meaning, and people to find mystery.
一个评论家发现内涵 人们发现神秘的地方
That’s why she was so famous
这就是她如此出名的原因
not because of how she’s painted, but what we see in her
不是因为画的内容 而是因为我们在她身上看到的东西
If that’s not art, then what is?
如果那不是艺术 那什么是艺术
I found one 1909 description of the Mona Lisa that seemed particularly prescient.
我发现一篇1909年对《蒙娜丽莎》是文章似乎特别有先见之明
The writer said: “Even those whose first expressions is ‘huh’
这位作家说:“即使那些第一次看到这幅画只觉得还不错的人
and proclaimed frankly that they cannot see her beauty or her interest
或者坦率地说他们看不出她的美或特殊之处的人
find themselves disputing hotly over both.”
他们会发现自己会质疑自己”
That’s probably still the case today.
现在可能依然如此

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