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网络暴力是如何出现的 – 译学馆
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网络暴力是如何出现的

How the internet turns us into trolls

2009年 推特上一名叫Leo的男子
In 2009, a man named Leo was followed on Twitter
被一个看似正常的账号所关注
by a seemingly innocuous account.
他也进行了回粉
He followed back.
毕竟 在网络上结交朋友再正常不过了
After all, why not make friends with strangers online?
不久后 他收到了这位粉丝的私聊消息
Soon after, he received the following direct message.
“你这个肮脏卑鄙的***”
“You are a dirty *** Jewish scumbag.”
他立即拉黑了这个账号
He blocked the account.
然而 一周后 同样的事再次发生了
The next week the same thing,
又有一名新粉丝 又是一连串的辱骂威胁
another new follower, another string of abusive threats.
此类事件不断发生
This happened a few more times
最终 Leo不得不对账号开启隐私模式
until Leo decided to make his account private.
但是 这样的辱骂并没有到此结束
But the abuse did not stop there.
不久后 他的博客下突然多了一大堆辱骂性的评论
Soon after, his blog got spammed with hateful comments.
紧接着 一张张令人作呕的尸体图片挤满了他的邮箱
Then his email was flooded with disgusting images of corpses.
他的脸书遭到黑客入侵
And then his Facebook got hacked,
同时 他的妻子在网络上也不断被人骚扰
and his wife started getting harassed online.
接下来事情变得越发糟糕了
And then it got really serious.
有一天 Leo收到了一个包裹
One day Leo received a package.
里面是一个装满骨灰的塑料盒
Inside was a Tupperware filled with ashes.
旁边还有一张纸条写着
The accompanying note said,
“向你在奥斯维辛的亲戚问好”
“Say hello to your relatives from Auschwitz”.
Leo对此毫无办法
Leo was at wit’s end.
这场网络暴力严重破坏了他的安全感
This troll was tearing down his sense of security
并对他的生命造成威胁
and was threatening his safety.
施暴者究竟是谁?
Who was this troll?
他们为何要不断骚扰Leo呢?
And why were they harassing Leo?
网络暴力到底是怎样产生的?
Where do trolls come from anyway?
我们来回想一下互联网发展初期
Let’s rewind to the toddler years of the internet.
90年代早期的互联网 一切都还很单纯
Back in the early 90s, things were innocent.
#想要交换兴趣吗 搜索一个网站吧#
# Interactive appetite, searching for a website #
#通往世界的窗口再次在网上向你打开#
# window to the world that’s again online. #
#旋转起来吧 现在你正沉浸在这电子舞曲里#
# Take the spins. Now you’re in with techno #
#出发吧 在网上肆意的冲浪#
# set you go and surf on the internet. #
像Usenet之类的留言板和论坛开始流行
Message boards and forums like Usenet were becoming popular
但是所谓的网络暴力几乎不存在
but self-identified trolls were pretty much non-existent.
我的意思是 显然你不用去应付那些
I mean, sure you didn’t counter Internet users
故意激怒或戏弄他人来取乐的网友
who would purposefully annoy or trick others for laughs.
不过 当他们还只是讨人厌的小群体时
But while they were a minor nuisance,
他们不会对别人造成任何实质性的伤害
they never really did any substantial harm or damage to others.
我想 我们都会认同
I think that we can all agree that
如果互联网至今仍存在这种良性的暴力行为
while these kinds of benign trolls still exist on the Internet today,
他们必定与那些 对受害者造成
they’re different from the harmful trolls
严重伤害和困扰的网络暴力不同
we encounter and think of most often.
为了清楚起见
As such for clarity’s sake,
从现在起 当我说到网络暴力时 我指的是
from now on when I say trolls, I’ll be referring to
真正恶毒且有着实质伤害那一类
the kind that are malicious and do real harm.
而其他类型的暴力行为
And these other kinds of trolls, well,
我们可以称呼它们……LULZ TROLLZ
we’ll call them, I don’t know, LULZ TROLLZ.
无论如何 虽然早期互联网时代不会存在网络暴力
In any case, while trolls didn’t exist on early internet forums,
但免不了有激烈争论
flame wars definitely did.
甚至再往前
More than ever before,
很容易就会和一个完全陌生的人发生争执
it was easy to start an argument with a total stranger.
不过这是讲得通的 想想看
And that makes sense. You know,
没有一个活生生的人站在你面前时
when you don’t have a living breathing facein front of you,
很容易会凭个人想法 任性肆意的在网上发言
it’s easy to do personalize the text from the individual.
在网络上 你的名字不叫Frank
On the internet, your name isn’t Frank.
而叫SPARTYVBALLPLYR86
It’s SPARTYVBALLPLYR86.
你也并非在与Monica谈论 绿日乐队的哪一首歌最棒
And you’re not discussing the best Green Day song with Monica.
而是在进行激烈的辩论 并愤怒的回击着POOTOILET123
You’re debating and sending rage comments to POOTOILET123.
这些辩论可能会持续几天 几周 甚至几个月
Flame wars would go on for days or weeks or months,
但你上一次
but when was the last time that
和朋友或家人进行涉及人身攻击的言论
you had an ongoing in person hurtful argument
辩论某件和Mac与苹果哪样更好
with a friend or family member about something
星球迷航与星球大战哪个更有趣 是什么时候呢
as innocuous as, Mac versus PCor Star Trek versus Star Wars.
现在互联网所提供的匿名服务
Now the anonymity provided by the Internet
是一把双刃剑
is both a blessing and a curse.
一方面 它给人们任意探索 畅所欲言的机会
On one hand, it provides people the freedom to explore and say
并且不用担心社会的评判与看法
whatever they want without concern for social judgment and repercussions.
另一方面 它能使人们肆意探索他人隐私
On the other hand, it gives people the freedom to explore
恶语相向 而不用担心社会的约束和制裁
and say whatever they want without concern for social judgements and repercussions.
很难理解 POOTOILET123作为一个人
It’s hard to understand that POOTOILET123 as a human being
却更像是宣泄真实情感的我们自己
much like ourselves with real emotions.
与现实生活不同 当有人在网络上攻击你
And unlike real life, if people come at you
或是你遭遇了一些让你不安的事时
or things get too uncomfortable on the Internet,
你只用新建一个账号 就可以远离这一切了
you just start over with a new username.
现在 对我们中大多数人来说
Now for most of us,
很可能已经体验过匿名所带来的影响
it’s likely that we’ve experienced the effects of anonymity.
对我来说 玩《火箭联盟》时
I know that when I’m playing Rocket League,
就算队友在线
I’m more likely to be on the other team
我也更可能扮演其他队的队员
and even my own teammate went online
就好像我在同时扮演两个角色
and if I were playing them in person.

Ah!
我去的
Come on!
如果你曾经看过YouTube上的评论
If you’ve ever looked at YouTube comments before,
你就会发现这儿有不少人
you know that there’s a lot of people out there
以侮辱他人来获取内心的舒适
who feel comfortable saying just awful things.
而网络暴力把这种现象带到了一个全新的高度
But trolls seem to take it to a whole new level.
这似乎成了他们在网上的例行活动
It seems ingrained in how they function online.
“网络暴力”这种叫法自90年代中期开始流行
The term “trolling” came into common usage around the mid 90s.
这时 网络暴力更多会与你
At this time, trolling was more associated with
钓鱼时所做的类似
what you might do when fishing.
一般来说 你会将鱼竿放在船后 然后
You essentially cast your rod behind your boat
再同巨魔那般缓慢的划着船
and slowly troll through the water
希望能捕到一条鱼
hoping to hook a fish.
这个比喻非常恰当
It’s a pretty good analogy.
确实 网络用户会遭到论坛上
Certainly, Internet users would go trolling by barraging
莫名其妙或具有煽动性的言语攻击
forums with off-topic and inflammatory comments
以“捕鱼”并中止谈话
in order to catch a fish and disrupt the conversation.
Leo正是这些“鱼”中的一员
Leo was absolutely being hunted.
这个匿名者在网络与现实中同时向他施暴
This anonymous person trolled him online and in real life.
以至于Leo即使在家中也毫无安全感
Leo didn’t feel safe in his own home.
在收到邮件的两天后
Two days after receiving the ashes in the mail,
他在门前发现了一朵枯萎的花
he found dead flowers on his doorstep
旁边还有一张写着他妻子推特账号的卡片
with his wife’s Twitter handle written on a card.
不仅如此 那天晚上他还收到了一条私信
Later that night, he received a DM.
“总有一天当你回家时 会有人割掉你的**喉咙
“You’ll get home some day and your *** throat will be cut
杀死你的儿子”
and your son will be gone.”
为什么施暴者要用家人来威胁?
Why was this troll threatening his family?
为什么施暴者要发布那些性别或种族歧视的言论
Why do trolls post sexist or racist comments
或是向失去孩子的父母发送死亡威胁?
or send death threats to the parents of dead children?
为什么他们又要不断攻击和恐吓其他人?
Why do they repeatedly harass and terrorize others?
在这表面下 必有强大的黑暗势力在作崇
There must be something dark happening under the surface.
嗯……也许这种势力与心理学上的黑暗四角有关
Well, perhaps there’s a correlation with the Dark Tetrad.
黑暗四角是对“黑暗三性格”的延伸
The Dark Tetrad is an expanded version of the Dark Triad
它描述了与网络暴力密切相关的几个特性
that describes several closely associated traits.
其中包括马基雅维利主义
These include machiavellianism,
自恋癖 心理变态
narcissism, psychopathy,
以及同样不可少的虐待狂
and, last but not least, sadism.
而施暴者似乎符合这些特征里的几项
Trolling seems to fit a few of these.
不是吗?
Don’t you think?
是的……心理学家也这样认为
Yeah. Well, psychologists thought so, too.
因此他们设计了一些实验来验证这个假设
So they developed surveys to test this hypothesis.
在2014年进行的一项针对那些享受向
A 2014 online survey of people
他人施暴的网络调查显示
who said that they enjoyed trolling others
他们明显具备黑暗四角中的某些特性
found a positive correlation with several dark tetrad traits
包括心理变态 马基雅维利主义以及虐待狂
including psychopathy, machiavellianism, and sadism.
将大量时间用于网络评论上的人
People with the most time posting comments online,
更有可能是心理变态
more closely correlated to psychopathy.
虽然这种行为可能不只是
It’s likely that this kind of behavior
在网络互动中存在
is not exclusive to online interactions.
但是它会使你更容易接触那些与你契合的人
However, it is easier to connect with similar people
并远离网络上那些令人不快的负面影响
and distance yourself from the negative repercussions online.
一些研究表明
Several other studies showed that
总体来看 虐待狂更可能做出网络暴力的行为
sadism in general is most closely associated with trolling behavior.
我猜这是因为施暴者把快乐建立在受害者痛苦上
I guess trolls just enjoy seeing other people suffer.
或者这仅仅是“网言无忌效应”带来的恶果
Or maybe it’s the result of the Online Disinhibition Effect.
约翰·斯威勒教授曾提出过一个心理学理论
This was a psychological theory designed by John Sweller
他认为 有六个因素导致了
that proposed that there are six factors
我们在社会抑制下的松散状态
that contribute to our loosening of social inhibitions.
第一个是 匿名性
The first is dissociative anonymity.
这就是刚才我们所谈到的
This is what we were talking about earlier
因为匿名能在网上隐藏你的真实身份
in terms of hiding your true identity online.
所以 你会认为网上所做的一切与现实生活无关
You feel like it can’t be linked back to your real life,
于是对自己的行为不加约束
so you feel less responsible for your actions.
第二个则是不可视性 不是施暴者的不可视性
Next is invisibility, not invisibility of the troll,
而是受害者的不可视性
but invisibility of the person being trolled.
没有与他人的眼神交流或肢体语言
Without the eye contact or body language of another person,
我们更容易口无遮拦
it’s easier to say whatever we want.
因此 我们更倾向于向别人发送邮件
Hence why we send emails rather than
而不是进行痛苦的面对面交流
having difficult face-to-face conversations.
第三个是异步性
Third is asynchronicity.
在现实生活的交谈中
In a normal in-person exchange,
你很少有时间去思考如何回答对方的话
you don’t have that much time to respond to what another person is saying,
可能仅仅几秒后就得回复 不过这听起来有点奇怪
maybe a few seconds, but, then it gets weird.
但在网上 你随时可以与对方结束或重新开始聊天
But online you can disengage and re-engagewhenever you want.
同时 你可以花很长时间去想
Likewise, you can spend as long as you like
给那个“耶尔克•布莱恩”一个完美回答
devising that perfect response to that jerk Brian.
第四个是唯我论的投入
Fourth is solipsistic introjection.
这听起来很难理解 但想象你看到这条评论时
That’s a mouthful but imagine reading this comment.
你会认为这个人长什么样 或声音听起来怎么样
What does this person look like or sound like?
大多数情况是 你所想象的并非他们的真实模样
Most likely, it’s not what they’re actually like.
你只是在脑海中创造了这个人的形象
You created a character of this person in your mind,
并与这个幻想出来的人聊天
and you’re carrying out a conversation with this constructed version of a person.
第五个则是脱离现实的想象力
Fifth is dissociative imagination.
这是引发网络暴力的确切因素之一
This is a real troll element here.
事实上 网络聊天变得
Essentially, online conversations become
越来越虚假而脱离了现实
more of a fantasy rather than reality.
人们把聊天视作一场游戏
The person treats interactions like a game
而不是一次真正的交流
rather than real exchange.
就像在一个RPG电子游戏里
It’s like in an RPG videogame
你会做出一些 你绝不会在现实中做出的可笑决定
where you make ridiculous choices that you wouldn’t make in real life.
最后一个是 对权威的藐视
Finally, the minimization of authority.
当没有明确的权威人物时 暗势力便会茁壮发展
When there’s no clear authority figure, toxicity thrives.
在有版主且清楚制订了规则的环境下聊天时
Communities with moderators and clearly defined rules
可以用禁言或删帖的方式惩罚施暴者
can easily punish trolls by banning them or removing posts.
但不受监管的聊天区 却会变成施暴者的滋生地
But unmonitored spaces can be a breeding ground for this stuff,
并且不出所料 一群施暴者还会吸引越来越多的施暴者
and unsurprisingly, trolls seem to attract more trolls.
最后 许多这些因素汇集在一起
It turns out that many of these factors
导致Leo遭受网络暴力
contributed to the making of Leo’s troll.
噢 没错
Oh, that’s right.
最终Leo找到了幕后黑手
He found out who it was.
Leo在一个精通网络的人的帮助下
See, Leo had been tracking this troll for a while
追踪施暴源头一段时间了
with the help of a tech-savvy contact.
他准确找到了攻击者的IP地址
He pinpointed the IP address to this assailant,
然而它所在的位置却使他惊讶
and its location surprised him.
怎么回事?
Why?
因为它就在他朋友的家里
Because it was coming from a friend’s house.
当Leo与施暴者 也就是他朋友委屈流泪的
Leo confronted his troll, the 17-year-old sonof his friend
17岁儿子面对面时 施暴者终于承认
who, with tears running down his face,
他以为这只是一场游戏
revealed that he thought it was all a game.
但是当一个活生生的人真正站在他面前时
But with a living breathing man in front of him,
他终于意识到 这并不是什么游戏
he finally understood that this was no game.
现在对施暴者为什么这么做 还没有统一的意见
At this point there’s no consensus for why trolls do what they do.
你也许会感到惊讶
It might surprise you that
尽管新闻上有很多关于网络暴力的报道
despite all the conversation about trolls in the news
而且它们也在社交媒体上掀起了巨大影响
and their outsized impact on social media,
目前为止依旧没有太多 关于施暴者心理的调查
there really hasn’t been much research intothe psyche of trolls,
大多数研究称 我们现在唯一有的是施暴者自述报告的数据
and most of the research said we do have is based on self-reported data,
而这数据并非完全可靠
which isn’t necessarily reliable.
我是说 毕竟
I mean after all,
为什么施暴者不能同样愚弄一项网络调查呢?
why wouldn’t a troll also troll an online research study?
在我看来 大多数施暴者是由于内心深处的
But in my opinion, I think that a lot of troll behavior
不安全感和脆弱 才会想向别人施暴
comes from deep-seated insecurity or vulnerability.
我始终不明白为什么总有人 要恶毒的对待那些
I just can’t understand why someone would want to be so malicious
女人 有色人种或是失去子女的父母
towards women or people of color or parents of deceased children.
我曾读过很多关于早期施暴者的故事
I’ve read a lot of stories of former trolls
似乎他们所有人都认为
and all of them seem to say the same thing
他们施暴是因为 对生活怀有错误的愤怒
that person would admit that they had misplaced anger about their own life,
或是嫉妒那位被他们骚扰的受害者
or they have felt jealous of the person that they were harassing,
或是他们因为家庭成员的去世 也被人施暴过
or they themselves were hurting because a family member had recently passed.
但是不管施暴者为什么这样做
Regardless of the reasons why they do what they do,
我们中的大多数人都很难像Leo那样
we most likely won’t have the same opportunity
站在他的施暴者的面前
that Leo had of standing up to his troll.
所以 我最好的建议是 只需无视他们
And so my best advice is simply ignoring them.
使他们感到羞耻 辱骂他们或是对他们进行负面报道
Feeding them with shame or rants or negative attention
只是投其所好罢了
just gives them what they want.
估计大约95%看这个视频的人
Statistically about 95% of you watching this video
都不会把自己视为施暴者
do not identify ourselves as trolls.
但是 我们在哪儿都能看见他们
And yet, we see them everywhere.
这是因为 他们频繁的评论
That’s because they comment more often
并比普通用户收到更多的回复
and receive more replies than the average user.
但很可能在未来的某天 我们也会卷进某些形式的网络暴力中
But likely, we’ve all engaged in some type of trolling behavior at some point.
如果你曾做过施暴者
If you’ve got a story of your own,
我也很愿意听听你的故事 不管你悔恨与否
I’d love to hear about it and whether or not you regret it.
希望你能在下方评论留下你的想法
Leave your thoughts in the comments below.
感谢观看这期视频
Thanks for watching and until next time,
我叫Micah 在观看下一期前 想想我所说的话
I’m Micah. Think about it.

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译制信息
视频概述

介绍了Leo遭受网络暴力的故事。并告诉我们网络暴力是怎样产生的。

听录译者

Imagist

翻译译者

Little_Fo

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRQrk2tbAEA

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