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运动如何增强心脏功能?

How the Heart Changes with Exercise

This video is sponsored by Athletic Greens.
本视频由Athletic Greens赞助
Find the link in the description below.
网页链接在下方详情页中
What weighs 8 to 10 ounces,
什么东西重8到10盎司
can fit in the palm of your hand and pumps thousands of liters of fluid per day?
能放在手掌里 每天泵数千公升的液体?
Well, you probably guessed it, the human heart.
好吧 可能你猜到了 就是人的心脏
This is such an amazing organ.
这是个如此神奇的器官
This thing beats about 100,000 times per day,
这东西每天跳动约10万次
which translates to approximately 35 million beats per year
相当于每年约3千5百万次
and about 2.5 billion beats in the average lifetime.
一生平均约25亿次
Relative to its size, the heart packs quite the punch
相对于其体积 心脏强而有力
and when we exercise, we further increase the demands placed upon the heart.
锻炼时 我们进一步增加了对心脏的要求
So, in this video, we’re going to talk about some of the amazing adjustments
本视频中我们将谈论你从休息状态
that the heart and cardiovascular system make
进入高强度锻炼状态时
when say you go from a resting state all the way up to a state of intense exercise.
心血管系统所做的神奇的调节
We’ll also discuss some of the amazing adaptations that can occur within the heart
我们也会讨论你继续运动时
when you continue to exercise.
心脏内部发生的惊人适应
I think the numbers and the changes will astound you.
我觉得这些数字和变化定会使你震惊
So, let’s jump right into the heart.
就让我们直奔心脏内部吧
#人体解剖研究所#
So, let’s start by painting the overall picture of the heart
那就让我们首先描述心脏的整体图景
and its relationship to the muscle tissue
及其与我们运动时会用到
that we’ll be using during exercise.
的肌肉组织的关系
Now all of us have a pretty good idea that the heart is a pump
现在大家都熟知心脏是一个泵
and its main job is to pump blood to the tissues of the body.
其主要工作是将血泵送到身体各组织
Now, keep in mind, we’re going to be focusing on muscle tissue in this example
记住 现在我们将重点关注本例中的肌肉组织
but these principles can be applied to the other tissues in the body.
但其原理也可运用到身体的其他组织中去
So, let’s take a look at this heart dissection we have on the tray here
那我们来看托盘上的这个心脏解剖标本吧
and you can see we’ve done some dissection work here
你看我们已做了一些解剖
we’ve opened up into a chamber here,as well as a chamber here
打开了这里的心腔 及这里的心腔
and you can see the large blood vessels that we’ll talk about in just a second.
你可看到这些大血管 我们稍后会讲
Now, when we’re talking about delivering blood effectively to muscle tissue,
现在 当我们谈到把血高效地输送到肌肉组织时
we’ve gotta talk about the most powerful chamber of the heart
我们势必讨论心脏最强大的心腔
called the left ventricle
即左心室
and where we were looking earlier, this is an inside view of the left ventricle,
前面我们看过的 这是左心室内部视角
the most powerful chamber of the heart
它是最强大的心腔
because it has to pump blood to the entire body
因为它得把血泵送至全身
and you can see how thick the muscular wall is,
你可以看到它的肌肉壁有多厚
especially when we compare it to the thickness of the right ventricle
尤其是我们将之与右心室的厚度相比时
which only has to pump blood to the lungs in as you can see is thinner.
右心室只需将血泵入肺部 你看它便更薄
But this more powerful left ventricle, when it pumps,
但是这个更强大的左心室在泵血时
it’s going to pump blood through a valve
它会将血液经由瓣膜
and into this tube that you can see the probe coming out here
泵入这个管状器官 即这根探针伸出之处
called the aorta.
这叫主动脉
Now let me show you the aorta on this other cadaver dissection here.
现在给你看另一个尸体解剖的主动脉
The aorta you can see and appreciate how massive it is here
你可以看到这个主动脉
and how much elastic recoil it has.
并体会它的厚重与弹力
This thing is the size of a garden hose.
它有花园浇水用软管那么大
It’s the largest artery in the human body.
是人体最大的动脉
Keep in mind arteries take blood away from the heart,
记住:动脉将血输出心脏
and the aorta, as this main artery,
作为最重要动脉的主动脉
is going to have multiple branches of other arteries coming off it,
将有多个其他动脉分支从此分岔
kind of like freeway off-ramps to deliver blood to the head and neck,
就像高速公路出口匝道 将血输送到头颈部
the upper limbs, the trunk, and even the lower limbs.
上肢 躯干甚至是下肢
And speaking of the lower limbs,
说到下肢
let’s use some muscles like the quads that we all know and love
让我们用一些参与了各种运动
because they get involved in all sorts of different exercises
因而大家都了解与喜欢的股四头肌
to help us complete this picture
来帮助我们理解
of the heart’s relationship to getting the blood to the muscle tissue.
心脏将血输送到肌肉组织的关系图
So, here you’re taking a look at an anterior or a front view of a right thigh.
在这里你看到的是右大腿的前视图
You can see some of the quadricep muscles exposed.
你可看到一些股四头肌暴露在外
I’m going to actually reflect this really cool muscle called the sartorius
我将把这块超酷的缝匠肌折回
so that we can see the amazing femoral artery.
以便让我们看到这个神奇的股动脉
Now, you have to imagine as blood is passing down through the femoral artery,
现在你得想象 当血通过股动脉向下流动时
there’s going to be other smaller arterial branches coming off
还有其他较小的动脉分支在此分岔
and penetrating into the surrounding muscle tissue
并穿透到周围的肌肉组织当中
and as those arteries continue to branch, get smaller, and penetrate the tissue,
当那些动脉继续分岔 变小并穿透到组织中时
we’re going to start changing the name from artery
我们将要将动脉改名
to arteriole, and an arteriole is just a smaller artery.
为“小动脉” 即较小的动脉
Those arterials will then flow into another blood vessel type called the capillary
然后那些小动脉将流入另一类血管——毛细血管
and this is where the magic happens.
这是奇迹发生的地方
Capilaries are tiny little exchange vessels
毛细血管是微小的交换血管
that allow for exchange to the bloodstream and the surrounding tissue
它让血管与周围组织进行物质交换
and in the case of exercising muscle, oxygen demand is going up dramatically.
肌肉在锻炼的情况下 氧气需求急剧上升
So, oxygen will diffuse from the bloodstream into the muscle tissue
氧气会从血液扩散到肌肉组织中
while at the same time, all the carbon dioxide
同时 肌肉中所有的二氧化碳
and metabolic waste products from the muscle
和代谢废物
will diffuse into the capillary and therefore the bloodstream.
会扩散到毛细血管中 因而进入血液
So, you get this flip flop or exchange between the two.
从而实现两者之间周而复始的交换
Now that capillary is now said to have deoxygenated blood
现在我们把毛细血管里流的血叫“缺氧血”
because it’s low in oxygen but high in carbon.
因为其含氧量低但二氧化碳含量高
It will then flow out into a venule, which is a tiny vein,
然后它会流出到“小静脉” 即微小的静脉中
then drain into a little bit larger veins, leave the muscle tissue
然后流入略大的静脉 离开肌肉组织
and instead of going into the femoral artery,
然后流入股静脉等静脉
we would drain into a vein like the femoral vein.
而不是进入股动脉
and we say that veins go back to the heart
我们说静脉血回到心脏
and that’s exactly where we’re going.
这正是我们的目的地
All that deoxinated blood from the body
全身所有的缺氧血
is going to flow into this chamber that we refer to as the right atrium
都将流入这个叫右心房的心腔
The right atrium will then pass that blood into the right ventricle where the probe is here
然后右心房将血输送到这个探头所在的地方——右心室
which we talked about earlier which will take blood to the lungs
我们之前讨论过 它会将血液带到肺部
which is really important to get rid of the carbon dioxide,
这对于血液排出二氧化碳
get more oxygen back into the blood.
获取更多氧气非常重要
That oxygenated blood will now go back to the left atrium here
现在的含氧血会回到这里的左心房
and let me just open it up so you can see that clearly.
让我打开它让你看得清楚些
Once we’re in the left atrium, that blood can then pass where we started
血液一旦进入左心房 就可以从这个出发点
back into that powerful chamber called the left ventricle.
流回到那个叫“左心室”的强大心腔
Now you may have noticed I didn’t mention any of the specific names of the valves
你可能已注意到我没有提到具体瓣膜的名字
but that’s because that’s our quiz question of the video.
因为那可是我们的视频测试题!
Can you name all four valves of the heart?
你能说出所有四个心脏瓣膜的名字吗?
Post them in the comments
请将答案发在评论中
and we’ll pin a comment at the top with all the correct answers.
我们会将所有正确答案放在置顶评论中
Now, keep in mind that this flow that we just discussed
现在请牢记:我们刚才讨论的血液流动
is going to be occurring at rest as well as during exercise.
不仅在锻炼时 也在休息时发生
It’s just during exercise, we’re going to see dramatic changes
只是在锻炼时我们才会看到
in that flow and the output from the heart.
这种血流和心脏输出的剧变
And one thing I want to mention, when it comes to health, wellness,
我想提到的一件事就是 当谈到健康
and participating in exercises that are going to create a strong and efficient heart,
和参加一些能打造一个强大而高效心脏的运动时
it’s important to feel your best and provide your body with the nutrients that it needs.
保持最佳状态 并提供身体所需的营养是很重要的
That’s why I’m excited to take a second to discuss AG1 by Athletic Greens.
所以我很兴奋地抽点时间讨论Athletic Greens的AG1
AG1 is a dietary supplement that contains 75 vitamins,
AG1是一种膳食补充剂 含75种维生素
minerals, probiotics, and is sourced from whole food ingredients.
矿物质 益生菌 源自纯天然食品成份
I don’t know if you’ve ever found yourself with like 10 different supplement bottles
不知你是否曾经手头有10瓶不同的补充剂
or 10 different supplements in your hand thinking “this is a little much or a little inconvenient”.
或10种不同的补充剂 觉得有点多 不太方便
With AG1, you can help minimize that
使用AG1你可减少这种情况
as this is an extremely comprehensive supplement in just one scoop
因为这是一个非常全面的补充剂 只需一勺
so you can really help simplify your health routine
从而能真正帮助简化你的健康常规
I’ve been taking this product for a while now
我服用这个产品现已有一段时间了
and all I do is take a scoop from this trusty little canister,
我只需要从这个可靠的小罐子里舀一勺
dumping it in the eight ounces of water, shake it up, and I’m good to go.
把它倒进8盎司的水里 摇一摇就可以喝了
Some of the benefits of AG1 that I’m most excited about
AG1最让我兴奋的一些好处
are related to the activities that I participate in.
与我参加的活动有关
I actually play a lot of basketball, do some resistance training,
我实际上打了很多篮球 做了一些力量训练
and recently started training for long distance obstacle course races
最近开始了长距离障碍赛的训练
and as we’ll find later in this video,
正如本视频所说的那样
your heart and body not only require proper stimulus,
你的心脏和身体不仅需要适当的刺激
but also a proper recovery in order to make the necessary adaptations.
还需要适当的恢复 以便做出必要的适应
So the sustained energy levels that I experience throughout the day,
因此我全天经历的持续能量水平
as well as enhanced recovery between workouts that AG1 can help provide
及AG1在锻炼间隔期间提供的增强恢复
is something that’s extremely important to me
对我而言是及其重要的东西
because I want to be able to be energized during those workouts
因为我希望能够在锻炼期间充满活力
as well as recover as quickly as possible
并尽快恢复
so I can be ready for that next workout.
以便能为下一次锻炼做好准备
AG1 is also keto, paleo, and vegan friendly and is also NSF certified,
AG1也是生酮饮食 原始饮食 素食 并获NSF认证
which means what’s written on the label is actually going to be found in that powder.
这意味着标签上所写的内容会真实可靠
If you’re ready to start experiencing the benefit of your Greens,
如果您准备体验Greens的好处
go to athleticgreens.com/humanatomy
请访问athleticgreens.com/humanatomy
and they’ll give our viewers a free one year supply of immune supporting vitamin D
首次购买的观众将免费获赠一年增强免疫力的维D
as well as five free travel packets with your first purchase.
和5盒免费的旅行便携装
The link is in the description below.
购买链接在以下详情页中
So coming back to this concept of the heart
现在我们的话题回到
and vasculature delivering blood effectively to an exercising muscle
将血高效输送到运动肌肉的心脏和脉管系统
Now remember we use the quads in this example
还记得我们在本例中使用股四头肌吗?
and as the quads began to exercise or any muscle for that matter,
当股四头肌或任何肌肉开始锻炼时
oxygen demand increased dramatically,
氧气需求急剧增加
so therefore a need for more blood to that muscle tissue
因而肌肉组织血量需求更多
but how much of an increase in blood are we talking from a resting muscle to an exercising muscle
但我们谈论的是肌肉从休息到运动需要增加多少血量
Well let me give you some numbers
好吧 我给你提供一些数字
If we were to take a muscle at rest and look at the average blood flow,
如果我们观察一块肌肉静止时的平均血流量
we’d see that it was about three to four milliliters
我们会发现每 100 克肌肉组织
per minute per 100 grams of muscle tissue.
血流约为 3至4 毫升/分钟
So in other words,
换言之
if we were to take 100 grams segment of this quadricep muscle here,
如果我们在这里割取 100 克股四头肌
at rest we’d see about three to four milliliters passing through in a minute
休息时每分钟约有3至4毫升的血流通过
but when we exercise,
但是当我们锻炼时
that can increase up to 200 milliliters per minute
同样的100克肌肉组织内
in that same 100 grams of muscle tissue.
血流会增加到200毫升/分钟
Now if that doesn’t surprise you or impress you,
假如你还不觉得惊讶或印象深刻
they’ve actually measured in the quadriceps of elite marathon runners
有人实测了精英马拉松运动员的股四头肌
a change of up to 400 milliliters per minute
同样的 100 克肌肉组织中
in that same 100 grams of muscle tissue.
血流变得高达 400 毫升/分钟
That’s crazy! To give you a visual on that,
真是太疯狂啦!给你看看视觉效果
here’s four milliliters of fluid here that you can see finally focusing in,
这是4毫升液体 镜头聚焦后你就能看清
We’ve also got 200 milliliters here and four hundred milliliters there.
这是200毫升 那是400毫升
That’s a crazy change in blood flow through an exercising muscle.
这是运动肌肉内血流量的疯狂变化
But what is accounting for these changes?
但这些变化的原因是什么?
Well, we’re going to talk about what we’ll call three circulatory adjustments
好吧 我们来讨论一下三种“循环调节”
that the body performs to accommodate or to increase this blood supply.
这是身体为适应或增加供血而进行的调节
One is an increasing cardiac output.
第一是心输出量增加
Two, we’re going to see vasoconstriction of peripheral arterioles
第二是外周小动脉的血管收缩
and three is somewhat similar to two where we’ll see
第三种有点类似于第二种
a forceful contraction of the walls in a lot of the veins throughout the body
我们将看到全身许多静脉壁的强力收缩
and we’ll explain some of the similarities and differences between two and three.
稍后我们会解释第二与第三种调节的一些异同
but let’s start with number one, increasing cardiac output.
但先从第一种开始——增加心输出量
Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one minute,
心输出量是一分钟内从心脏泵出的血流量
and there’s two main factors that influence this.
影响因素主要有两个:
One is the heart rate or the number of heartbeats per minute
第一是心率 即每分钟的心跳次数
and two, stroke volume.
第二是“每搏量”
Stroke volume is the amount or the volume of blood pumped out during each beat
即心脏每次搏动时泵出的血容量
and both of these will increase during exercise.
这两者都会在运动中增加
Most of us have a pretty good idea that when we go running around and exercising,
大部分人都清楚 当我们跑来跑去锻炼时
our heart rate will go up and during intense exercise,
我们的心率会上升 剧烈运动时
we can see heart rates close to 200 beats per minute.
心率可接近 200 次/分钟
Now, many of you have probably heard of like calculating your max heart rate
现在许多人可能听说过计算“最大心率”
and there’s a general rule of thumb of 220 minus your age.
一般的经验法则是220减去你的年龄
So, in theory, we can have a 20 year old that would have a max heart rate
所以理论上说一个20岁的人最大心率
of about 200 beats per minute.
约为200次/分钟
Now, again, the stroke volume is this other thing we have to talk about—
现在我们要再次谈论的另一件事是“每搏输出量”
the volume of blood that’s going to be pumped out of this left ventricle during each beat.
即心脏每次博动时从左心室泵出的血容量
The left ventricle, the force of the contraction can almost double during exercise
在运动期间左心室的收缩力几乎可以加倍
and so therefore, the volume of blood that’s going to be pumped out each beat will increase.
因此每次心脏搏动泵出的血流量都会增加
So, let me give you guys some numbers.
那我给大家一些数据吧
We’ve been talking numbers during this video
本视频中我们一直在讲数据
but this is going to help solidify this even more, I think.
但我认为数据有助于巩固这一点
The average adult male, healthy adult male
普通的 健康的成年男性
has a cardiac output of about 5.6 liters of blood per minute during rest.
休息时的心输出量约为5.6升血/分钟
Female of similar age would have about 4.9 liters per minute.
年龄相近的女性约为4.9升血/分钟
So, we’re around that five-liter range but during exercise,
所以我们处于5升血/分钟这个范围 但锻炼时
let’s say we took a person who has a functioning, normally functioning heart
假设我们挑选一个心脏功能正常
but isn’t exercising a ton consistently,
但没有持续大量锻炼的人
their heart could go up to about 13 to 15 liters per minute during exercise.
其心脏在运动时会上升到约13至15 升血/分钟
So, that’s still a pretty dramatic change
所以这变化仍然是非常巨大的
but again, when we talk about those people who are consistently exercising,
可当我们再次谈到那些持续锻炼者
training for marathons and elite athletes,
参加马拉松训练者 和精英运动员时
we can see cardiac output go up from 30 to 40 liters per minute.
可以看到其心输出量增加到30至40 升/分钟
These are amazing adaptations the heart can do
这是我们通过持续运动不断挑战
when we consistently challenge it and exercise it through consistent activity
锻炼心脏时 它能做出的惊人适应
and we’ll get more into these long-term adaptations
稍后我们将更多地讨论
that can occur through consistent activity later
靠持续运动可产生的长期适应
because we still need to cover the second and third circulatory adjustments.
因为我们还要讲解第二和第三种循环调节
That second circulatory adjustment was vasal constriction of the peripheral arterioles
第二种循环调节是外周小动脉的血管收缩
and what does that mean?
什么意思呢?
Well, those tiny little arteries, those arterioles,
那些微小动脉会收缩变窄
will constrict and narrow therefore decreasing the blood supply
从而减少对这些非肌肉组织
to these non-muscular tissues like the intestines or say like the skin.
例如肠道或皮肤的血液供应
Now why would the body do this?
为什么身体会这样干?
Well we’re essentially taking or shunting or “lending” more blood
我们本质上是给正在锻炼的肌肉组织
to the muscle tissue that’s exercising in this moment.
运输 调派 或“借送”更多的血液
If the goal is to run up a mountain or exercise,
如果你的目标是跑上山或锻炼身体
then we’re not going to divert extra blood to say like the intestines
那么我们不会像肠道一样转移额外的血
to digest or absorb your last meal.
来消化 吸收你刚用过的餐
Now, of course the arterioles feeding the muscle tissue itself,
现在给肌肉组织供血的小动脉
those going to stay open or vasodilated
当然会保持开放或扩张状态
and that’s controlled at the actual local level within the muscle tissue itself
实际上这一状态会被控制在肌肉组织自身的局部水平
but there’s two exceptions we need to discuss regarding this vasoconstriction.
但对于这种血管收缩 有两个例外需要讨论
First, the brain. It doesn’t make sense to constrict the blood vessels to the brain.
首先是大脑 收缩通往大脑的血管是说不通的
Those are going to stay open
它们将保持开放
because the brain is going to participate in coordinating skeletal muscle activities
因为大脑将参与协调骨骼肌活动
as well as say like making split second decisions say in sports.
和运动时瞬间决策之类的活动
The other is the heart.
另一个是心脏
The coronary arteries are something you definitely do not want to constrict.
冠状动脉是你绝对不想收缩的
You want these blood vessels going to the heart muscle itself to stay open
你希望这些通往心肌本身的血管保持开放
so that cardiac output can be maintained at the necessary level.
以便心输出量可以维持在必要的水平
Now on the circulatory adjustment number three,
现在讲第三种循环调节
the powerful or forceful contraction
即全身静脉肌肉壁的
of the muscular wall of the veins throughout the body.
强力收缩
So, we’re getting to this idea of vasoconstriction again
所以我们再次回到血管收缩这个概念
and you might be thinking, “well, that’s similar to adjustment number two”
你可能会想“嗯 这类似于第二种调节”
but remember, arteries and arterials take blood away from the heart
但别忘了 动脉和小动脉将血液从心脏输出
whereas venules and veins take blood back to the heart.
而小静脉和静脉将血液输回心脏
So, we’re going to get a different result here.
所以会有不同的结果
So, let’s take a look at this cadaver dissection
那我们来看这个尸体解剖
and use this femoral vein as an example again
并再次使用这条股静脉为样本
and imagine blood returning to the heart through this vein
想象一下血液通过这条静脉回流到心脏
but let’s also imagine we get this powerful contraction of the muscular wall of that vein.
也设想我们的静脉肌肉壁进行了强力收缩
That would decrease the amount of blood pulling in the venous system
这将减少静脉系统的血液汇集量
as well as force blood back towards the heart
并迫使血液流回心脏
or in other words, we’d say increases venous return
换句话说 这会增加静脉血回流
and therefore, more blood going to the heart
从而使更多的血流向心脏
and we have to think about this one key concept here.
在此处我们必须考虑一个重要概念
The amount of blood that’s being returned to the heart,
回流至心脏的血液量
that same amount needs to also be pumped out of the heart
必须等同于从心脏泵出的血液量
because we need to have inputs equaling outputs in this situation.
因为这种情况下 我们的输入要等于输出
We don’t want to have this traffic jam or this backup of blood
我们不想出现血流“交通堵塞”或“备用”
because that would create a problem.
那会产生麻烦
Luckily, the heart has a built-in mechanism
幸好心脏有一个内置机制
that whatever amount of blood is returned to the heart,
就是不管返回心脏的血流量有多少
that same amount is automatically almost reflexively pumped out of the heart.
同样的量几乎是反射性地自动从心脏泵出
This is referred to as the Frank Starling Law of the Heart
这被称为“弗兰克·史达林心脏定律”
which essentially states as an increased amount of blood returns to the heart
它实质上是说随着返回心脏血液量的增加
that will cause stretch on the walls of the heart
这将导致心脏壁伸展
and the myocardium or the heart muscle will respond to that by contracting more forcefully
心肌则会对此做出反应 进行更加有力的收缩
to expel that extra amount of blood that was returned.
以排出返回的多余血液量
So in other words we get an increased blood volume, increased stretch,
换言之 我们增加了血容量 增加了拉伸
myocardium or heart muscle response by contracting more forcefully
心肌做出了更加强力的收缩反应
and you can see that this circulatory adjustment number three
由此可见这第三种循环调节
is really closely related to the first adjustment we mentioned with cardiac output
与我们提过的第一种心输出量调节密切相关
because as that increase blood volume comes back to the heart,
因为随着返回心脏的血容量增加
the heart reflexively contracts to force that excess blood that came out
心脏反射性地收缩 以迫使多余血液流出
and thereby increasing cardiac output.
从而增加心输出量
Up to this point, we’ve talked about cardiovascular adjustments
至此 我们已经讨论了在实际运动时
that occur in the actual moment of exercise.
发生的心血管调节
Yet, throughout the video, we’ve alluded to these long-term adaptations
然而整个视频我们都提到了心脏和其他心血管组织
that could occur with the heart and other cardiovascular structures,
可能发生的长期适应
especially in well-trained individuals and elite athletes.
训练有素的个人和精英运动员尤为如此
So,what are these adaptations
那这些适应是什么?
and what makes it so an elite athlete could push 400 milliliters
什么让精英运动员能推动400毫升血
through 100 grams of muscle that we talked about earlier
流经我们之前讲到的100 克肌肉
or increase their cardiac output to 30 to 40 liters per minute?
将他们的心输出量增加至30至40 升/分钟?
Well, a big part of that answer lies within the myocardium of the heart.
这个答案主要在于心脏的心肌
So, as we already know, the myocardium makes up 95% of the heart wall
我们已知心肌占心脏壁的95%
and is essentially the heart muscle that is going to do all of the pumping.
它本质上是负责所有泵血工作的肌肉
Now, in elite athletes, they’ve seen increases in myocardial mass of up to 50 to 75%.
现在精英运动员的心肌质量增加了50至75%
So, this is definitely going to get thicker and stronger.
所以这肯定会更厚更强大
Now, one thing we have to think about here
现在我们在此需考虑一件事
is that the actual myocardium or muscle tissue is made up of multiple cardiac muscle cells.
就是实际的心肌或肌肉组织是由多个心肌细胞组成的
So, when a tissue gets bigger or larger, we kind of have to think,
所以当一个组织变大时 我们必定会想
okay, is it going to do it by increasing the number of cells
好吧 它是靠增加细胞数
or by increasing the size of the cells that we already have?
还是靠增加已有细胞的体积来实现呢?
Now, one of the interesting things is that
现在说件有趣的事
the myocardium or the muscle cells that make up this myocardium,
心肌或构成心肌的肌细胞
they cannot divide or undergo mitosis
不能分裂和有丝分裂
and just a little bit of a side note,
说句题外话
that’s why I tell my students that a heart attack is so detrimental
所以我告诉我的学生: 心脏病非常有害
because any of the cardiac muscle cells that you kill potentially during a heart attack
因为你在心脏病发作时可能杀死的任何心肌细胞
cannot be replaced and typically gets replaced with scar tissue instead.
均无法更换 而常会被疤痕组织代替
So, that leaves us with the other option to increase the myocardial size
所以这留给我们另一种增加心肌体积的选择
and that is through increasing the size of the cells that we already have through hypertrophy
那就是通过增大我们已经肥大的细胞
and a larger cell is a stronger cell and so overall this myocardium gets stronger
大细胞更强壮 故总体上该心肌就更强壮
and can therefore contract more forcefully.
从而可以收缩得更有力
So, let’s give us this idea of or a scenario of
因此我们设想一个场景来说明
how that would make sense in the real world.
它在现实世界中的意义
Let’s say you started training for a marathon or a half marathon
假设你开始训练马拉松或半程马拉松
and in the initial stages of training,
在训练初始阶段
you get to this certain pace and you stay at this steady pace
你达到特定的速度 并保持此稳定速度
and your heart rate’s at 165 beats per minute
你的心率为165次/分钟
and over time as you get in better shape
随着时间的推移 当你的体型变得更好
or your myocardium gets a little bit larger and stronger,
你的心肌变得略大或更强时
maybe at that same pace,
也许以同样的速度
your heart rate might start going down to 155 beats per minute
你的心率可能会开始下降到155 次/分钟
and that’s because when the heart muscle is stronger,
那是因为当心肌变强壮时
that increases the stroke volume.
每搏输出量会增加
So, each beat is more efficient and pumps out more blood per beat.
从而每次心脏搏动效率更高 泵血量更大
That’s also why people who are training
正因如此 训练的人
tend to start seeing a decrease in their resting heart rate.
静息心率往往会下降
Instead of 60 beats per minute – needing 60 beats per minute to get a certain amount of blood out,
不再是 60 次/分钟(即每分钟需 60 次才泵出一定量的血)
you might only need 55 or 50 after you’ve trained longer
在更长期的训练 拥有更高效的心脏
and you’ve had a more efficient heart or stronger myocardium.
或更强大的心肌之后 你可能只需55或50次
The other adaptation we’ll see is an increase in microvascularization
我们将看到的另一个适应是微血管的增加
or in other words, the blood flow to the muscle tissue.
即流向肌肉组织的血液增加
So, let’s use this example of this quadriceps muscle here
在此我们使用这个股四头肌做样本
and if we are to zoom in and zoom in to this muscle tissue,
如果我们放大并再放大这个肌肉组织
again we would see those tiny little blood vessels that we referred to as capillaries
我们会再看到那些叫毛细血管的微小血管
and as someone exercises, the number of capillaries increases.
当人锻炼时 毛细血管的数量会增加
So, therefore, we have even more blood able to penetrate the muscle tissue
因此更多的血液就能够穿透肌肉组织
and therefore more oxygen.
从而氧气就更多
Now, we could go over the adaptations that occur in the actual muscle tissue.
我们可以研究实际肌肉组织所做出的适应
However, I don’t think you guys want to watch a 40-minute video
可我觉得各位不想看40分钟的视频
so we’ll save muscular adaptations for a later video
所以我们把肌肉适应留给下一期视频来讲
but hopefully you guys learned something amazing about your heart
希望你们学到了一些你们过去不懂的
and cardiovascular systems that you didn’t already know.
关于心脏和心血管系统的神奇知识
Be sure to check out that link from Athletic Greens below
请务必查看下方Athletic Greens的链接
and if you feel like it, you can like, subscribe, and be sure to leave a comment
如果喜欢 你可以点赞 订阅 务必评论
especially one with that quiz question we asked earlier in the video
尤其要对我们之前问过的视频测试题评论
and we’ll see you next time.
我们下次再见

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译制信息
视频概述

大家都知道运动有益健康,但你知道持续的运动是如何增强心脏功能吗?本视频从人体解剖的角度告诉你答案。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Beau

审核员

审核员EL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OM-AeVyW1kk

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