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肠道菌群对消化系统的作用 – 译学馆
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肠道菌群对消化系统的作用

How the food you eat affects your gut - Shilpa Ravella

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Light up the world
数万亿的细菌 病毒及真菌寄生在人体内
Trillions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi live on or inside of us,
与它们保持友好 和谐的关系
and maintaining a good, balanced relationship with them
(对我们来说)是大有裨益的
is to our advantage.
同时 它们形成了肠道菌群这样一个
Together, they form the gut microbiome,
在我们身体里发挥重要作用的生态系统
a rich ecosystem that performs a variety of functions in our bodies.
肠道菌群能够分解身体不能直接吸收的食物
The bacteria in our guts can break down food the body can’t digest,
并产生重要的营养物质
produce important nutrients,
调节免疫系统
regulate the immune system,
对抗有害的细菌
and protect against harmful germs.
我们暂时还没有
We don’t yet have the blueprint
弄清楚哪些是肠道需要的好细菌
for exactly which good bacteria a robust gut needs,
但却知道 菌类的多样性
but we do know that it’s important for a healthy microbiome
对一个健康的菌群是非常重要的
to have a variety of bacterial species.
影响肠道菌群的因素有很多
Many factors affect our microbiomes,
包括我们的环境
including our environment,
抗生素等药物
medications like antibiotics,
甚至与我们是否是剖腹产所生也有关系
and even whether we were delivered by C-section or not.
饮食 同样如此 对我们的肠道健康来说
Diet, too, is emerging as one of the leading influences
它正逐渐起到主导作用
on the health of our guts.
我们没法控制所有这些影响因素
And while we can’t control all these factors,
但可以通过调节我们的饮食
we can manipulate the balance of our microbes
来达到菌类的平衡
by paying attention to what we eat.
从水果 蔬菜 坚果 豆类以及所有的谷物中获取的食用纤维
Dietary fiber from foods like fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, and whole grains
对肠道菌群来说是最好的营养物
is the best fuel for gut bacteria.
菌类消化吸收纤维时
When bacteria digest fiber,
就会产生短链脂肪酸以滋养肠粘膜屏障
they produce short chain fatty acids that nourish the gut barrier,
提高免疫力
improve immune function,
而且能帮助(我们)预防炎症 降低患癌症的风险
and can help prevent inflammation, which reduces the risk of cancer.
你摄入的纤维越多
And the more fiber you ingest,
负责纤维消化的菌类就越充盈于你的肠道
the more fiber-digesting bacteria colonize your gut.
最近的一项研究中 科学家把南非农村实验组的
In a recent study, scientists exchanged the regular high-fiber diets
常规高纤维的饮食
of a group of rural South Africans
换成了非裔美国人的高脂肪 肉类比重大的饮食
with the high-fat, meat-heavy diets of a group of African-Americans.
仅仅经过两周高脂肪 低纤维的西式餐饮后
After just two weeks on the high-fat, low-fiber, Western-style diet,
非洲农村实验组就显示结肠炎症增加
the rural African group showed increased inflammation of the colon,
同时丁酸盐也减少了
as well as a decrease of butyrate.
这就是 短链脂肪酸 降低患结肠癌风险 的想法 的由来
That’s a short chain fatty acid thought to lower risk of colon cancer.
同时 转换成高纤维 低脂肪饮食的一组
Meanwhile, the group that switched to a high-fiber, low-fat diet
取得了积极的成果
had the opposite result.
那么 当我们食用低纤维的加工食物时 我们的肠道菌群出了什么状况呢
So what goes wrong with our gut bacteria when we eat low-fiber processed foods?
过低的纤维意味着给肠道菌群提供的营养物质减少了
Lower fiber means less fuel for the gut bacteria,
本质上讲 就是把它们活活饿死了
essentially starving them until they die off.
这导致菌群种类变少
This results in less diversity
饥饿不堪
and hungry bacteria.
事实上 有些甚至开始以内部黏液为食
In fact, some can even start to feed on the mucus lining.
我们还知道特殊食物能够影响肠道细菌
We also know that specific foods can affect gut bacteria.
在最近的一个关于菌群的研究中
In one recent microbiome study,
科学家发现 水果
scientists found that fruits,
蔬菜 茶 咖啡 红酒 以及黑巧克力
vegetables, tea, coffee, red wine, and dark chocolate
都和增加细菌的多样性相关
were correlated with increased bacterial diversity.
有些食物 包括多酚类
These foods contain polyphenols,
(它们)是自然存在的抗氧化化合物
which are naturally occurring antioxidant compounds.
另一方面
On the other hand,
膳食脂肪含量较高的食物
foods high in dietary fat,
像全脂牛奶 含糖苏打
like whole milk and sugar-sweetened sodas,
都和细菌种类的减少有关
were correlated with decreased diversity.
食物的制备方法也有一定的关联
How food is prepared also matters.
微加工 可以使新鲜食物保留更多的纤维
Minimally processed, fresh foods generally have more fiber
并能提供更好的营养物质
and provide better fuel.
轻蒸的 嫩煎的 或生鲜蔬菜
So lightly steamed, sautéed, or raw vegetables
都比炒熟的菜更为有益
are typically more beneficial than fried dishes.
还有其他食品制作方法也能够产生有益菌
There are also ways of preparing food that can actually introduce good bacteria,
(这种有益菌)又被称作益生菌 是生活在你的肠道中的一种细菌
also known as probiotics, into your gut.
食物经过发酵 就会充满有益菌
Fermented foods are teeming with helpful probiotic bacteria,
像乳酸菌 双歧杆菌
like lactobacillus and bifidobacteria.
在冷藏技术发明之前
Originally used as a way of preserving foods
(它们)被用作保存食物的方法
before the invention of refrigeration,
发酵始终是全世界通用的(保存食物的)一种方法
fermentation remains a traditional practice all over the world.
像朝鲜泡菜 德国泡菜 印尼豆豉 康普茶
Foods like kimchi, sauerkraut, tempeh, and kombucha
(都)给我们的饮食提供多种选择和活力
provide variety and vitality to our diets.
酸奶是另一种给肠道提供有益菌类的发酵食物
Yogurt is another fermented food that can introduce helpful bacteria into our guts.
(但)并不是说所有的酸奶都对我们有好处
That doesn’t necessarily mean that all yogurt is good for us, though.
含太多糖分的品牌就没有足够的菌类
Brands with too much sugar and not enough bacteria
实际上 可能不会有什么帮助
may not actually help.
这些是一般常识
These are just general guidelines.
在我们完全弄懂前 还有很多的研究工作(要做)
More research is needed before we fully understand
这些食物到底是怎样与我们的菌群相互作用的
exactly how any of these foods interact with our microbiomes.
我们可以看到二者正相关的关系
We see positive correlations,
但却不能对肠道内部进行直观的观察
but the insides of our guts are difficult places to make direct observations.
比如 我们到现在也不知道
For instance, we don’t currently know
这些食物是不是直接对菌群多样性的变化起作用
whether these foods are directly responsible for the changes in diversity,
或是还有其他更复杂的反应发生
or if something more complicated is happening.
虽然才刚刚开始探索我们的肠道 这片无际的荒漠
While we’re only beginning to explore the vast wilderness inside our guts,
我们已经大概了解了一点肠道菌群对消化系统健康的重要性
we already have a glimpse of how crucial our microbiomes are for digestive health.
重大的消息是 我们有能力为我们腹部的细菌提供能量
The great news is we have the power to fire up the bacteria in our bellies.
多补充纤维
Fill up on fibers,
(食用)新鲜 发酵的食物
fresh and fermented foods,
这样你就能坚信 强健的肠道能促成你强大的人生
and you can trust your gut to keep you going strong.

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视频概述

原来我们人体的肠道内部竟也别有一番天地,如此多的菌群生活其中对维持我们的消化系统发挥重要作用,涨知识了。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

启点—飞雪群山

审核员

Ah~Qiu

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1sISguPDlhY

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