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每次咀嚼食物都在影响着你的大脑,你能感觉到吗 – 译学馆
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每次咀嚼食物都在影响着你的大脑,你能感觉到吗

How the food you eat affects your brain - Mia Nacamulli

食物对大脑的影响
Your Brain on Food
如果把你大脑中的水分抽干
If you sucked all of the moisture out of your brain
并将其分解为组成它的营养成分
and broke it down to its constituent nutritional content,
那会是什么样呢
what would it look like?
你脱水的大脑的成分大部分会是脂肪
Most of the weight of your dehydrated brain would come from fats,
也叫脂质
also known as lipids.
在余下的脑组织中
In the remaining brain matter,
还有微量营养素
traces of micronutrients,
葡萄糖
and glucose.
当然 大脑
The brain is, of course,
比其他视觉上的各部分都多
more than just some visual treasonous parts
但每一部分都有特定的功能
but each component does have a distinct impact on functioning,
或与身体成长有关 或与情绪有关 或与能量有关
development, mood, and energy.
所以你感受到的饭后的无精打采
So that post-lunch apathy,
或深夜的惊醒
or late-night alertness you might be feeling,
都可能只是简单地因为食物对大脑产生了作用
well, that could simply be the effects of food on your brain.
在大脑所有的脂肪中 欧米茄3和6极为重要
Of the fats in your brain, the superstars are omegas 3 and 6.
这两种基础脂肪酸
These essential fatty acids,
能延缓大脑功能衰减
which have been linked to preventing degenerative brain conditions,
且只能通过食物获得
must come from our diets.
因此吃富含欧米茄的食物
So eating omega-rich foods,
比如坚果 种子类食物 和富含脂肪酸的鱼类
like nuts, seeds, and fatty fish,
对于细胞膜的形成和保持极为重要
is crucial to the creation and maintenance of cell membranes.
欧米茄类脂肪酸是对大脑有益的脂肪酸
And while omegas are good fats for your brain,
但是长期摄入其他如反式脂肪酸饱和脂肪酸一类的脂肪酸
long-term consumption of other fats, like trans and saturated fats,
却可能会对大脑健康造成损害
may compromise brain health.
此外 促进生长的基础营养元素
Meanwhile, proteins and amino acids,
比如蛋白质和氨基酸
the building block nutrients of growth and development,
操控着我们的感觉和行为
manipulate how we feel and behave.
氨基酸中包含传递到神经递质的先导成分
Amino acids contain the precursors to neurotransmitters,
神经递质是在神经元之间传递信号的化学信使
the chemical messengers that carry signals between neurons,
它影响着诸如情绪 睡眠 注意力 体重
affecting things like mood, sleep, attentiveness, and weight.
这也是为什么我们在吃完一顿富含蛋白质的饭后
They’re one of the reasons we might feel calm after eating a large plate of pasta,
会感到格外清醒的一个原因
or more alert after a protein-rich meal.
食物中的化合物之间互相混杂
The complex combinations of compounds in food
会促进脑细胞分泌令人清醒的去肾上腺素
can stimulate brain cells to release mood-altering norepinephrine,
多巴胺 和血清素
dopamine, and serotonin.
但这些激素进入你的脑细胞却是一个艰难的过程
But getting to your brain cells is tricky,
氨基酸在这一过程中也要努力争取有限的进入名额
and amino acids have to compete for limited access.
均衡的饮食能使大脑摄入的这些化学信使
A diet with a range of foods helps maintain a balanced combination
保持着均衡状态
of brain messengers,
使你的情绪也不至于失衡
and keeps your mood from getting skewed in one direction or the other.
和身体的其它器官一样
Like the other organs in our bodies,
大脑也得益于微量元素的稳定摄入
our brains also benefit from a steady supply of micronutrients.
水果和蔬菜中的抗氧化剂
Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables
能增强大脑抗击自由基的力量(自由基会破坏脑细胞)
strengthen the brain to fight off free radicals that destroy brain cells,
使大脑能较长时间地保持较好的工作状态
enabling your brain to work well for a longer period of time.
倘若不摄入重要的微量元素
And without powerful micronutrients,
比如维他命B6 B12 或叶酸
like the vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid,
我们的大脑将更容易受到脑部疾病和智力下降的影响
our brains would be susceptible to brain disease and mental decline.
追踪体内矿物铁 矿物铜 矿物锌
Trace amounts of the minerals iron, copper, zinc,
矿物钠的浓度高低 也为大脑的健康和早期认知发展奠定了基础
and sodium are also fundamental to brain health and early cognitive development.
为了使大脑更有效地转换合成
In order for the brain to efficiently transform and synthesize
这些重要的营养元素
these valuable nutrients,
它需要补充很多的能量
it needs fuel, and lots of it.
尽管人的大脑只约占体重的2%
While the human brain only makes up about 2% of our body weight,
但却消耗了高达20%的能量
it uses up to 20% of our energy resources.
这些能量大部分来自葡萄糖或血糖
Most of this energy comes from carbohydrates
葡萄糖和血糖是由我们的身体分解碳水化合物而产生
that our body digests into glucose, or blood sugar.
大脑前额叶对葡萄糖含量的下降十分敏感
The frontal lobes are so sensitive to drops in glucose, in fact,
营养素一旦不足
that a change in mental function
神经功能就会有异
of nutrient deficiency.
假定我们定时定量摄入葡萄糖
Assuming that we are getting glucose regularly,
那这种特别的碳水化合物又是怎么影响我们的大脑的?
how does the specific type of carbohydrates we eat affect our brains?
碳水化合物有三种状态 淀粉 糖类 以及纤维素
Carbs come in three forms: starch, sugar, and fiber.
但是在很多营养成分标签上
While on most nutrition labels,
他们却被笼统地归为碳水化合物
they are all lumped into one total carb count,
糖类和纤维素所占碳水化合物的比重
the ratio of the sugar and fiber subgroups to the whole amount
影响着身体和大脑的反应程度
affect how the body and brain respond.
像白面包等高血糖指数的食物
A high glycemic food, like white bread,
会快速分解出葡萄糖 投入血液
causes a rapid release of glucose into the blood,
之后血糖浓度增加速度才会放慢
and then comes the dip.
然后血糖浓度会慢慢下降
Blood sugar shoots down,
另外 燕麦 谷类和豆类
On the other hand, oats, grains, and legumes
分解成葡萄糖的过程较缓慢
have slower glucose release,
因此可以保证情绪稳定的时间更长
enabling a steadier level of attentiveness.
想要保持大脑能量
For sustained brain power,
选择富含营养素的多样性膳食结构极为重要
opting for a varied diet of nutrient-rich foods is critical.
尽管进食是简单的咬 嚼和吞
When it comes to what you bite, chew, and swallow,
但是你吃的食物会直接并且深远的影响
your choices have a direct and long-lasting effect
你的身体最重要的器官
on the most powerful organ in your body.

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不同的食物对大脑的影响不同

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