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好莱坞大片即视感,BBC对《地球脉动》做了什么? – 译学馆
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好莱坞大片即视感,BBC对《地球脉动》做了什么?

How the BBC makes Planet Earth look like a Hollywood movie

这些蝗虫泛滥的影像来自于2006年英国广播公司的开创性系列作品《地球脉动》
These images of a swarm of locusts are from the BBC’s groundbreaking Planet Earth series in 2006.
而现在这一镜头源自《地球脉动》这一老招牌下的新延续——《地球脉动》2
And this footage comes from the brand new sequel to that program — this is Planet Earth 2.
你可能注意到了画面分辨率从高清到超清的进步
You might notice the improvement in resolution from HD to Ultra-HD.
但《地球脉动》2中另一个巨大的变化是 不仅蝗虫处于移动中 摄影机也是移动的
But another big change is that in Planet Earth 2, it’s not just the grasshoppers that are moving.The cameras are moving too.
《地球脉动》2之所以成为迄今BBC最具影片艺术的野生动物影像作品 部分原因就是因为这些动态的跟踪拍摄镜头
These dynamic tracking shots are a part of reason the Planet Earth 2 is the BBC’s most cinematic wildlife film yet.
冈顿:我们知道当我们正在摄影时 摄像机不会是静止不动的
GUNTON: We know when we go to the cinema now the camera’s never static.
摄影机常常是处于飞行移动中 并位于摄影机稳定器上进行追踪和拍摄
It’s always on the move, it’s always on a steadicam, it’s always on tracks, it’s always flying.
我认为 我们想用自己的方式来尝试
And I think we wanted to reflect that in our approach. Not just because we wanted to
不仅是因为对电影技术的尊重 也是因为这种拍摄方式
do homage to cinema but because the reason why cinema does that is because as soon as
移动的镜头会有更好的带入感 也就更能抓住眼球
you have that sense of moving camera it feels more immersive, it feels more connected.
观看《地球脉动》2感觉就像观看好莱坞大片
Watching Planet Earth 2 feels a bit like watching a hollywood blockbuster.
你几乎忘记这些影片中的演员们正隐藏在地球上的偏僻角落中
You almost forget that these actors are hiding in remote corners of the globe
也忘记他们是没有剧本参照的
and they do not follow scripts.
英国广播公司位于布里斯托尔的自然历史部制作野生生物影片已经有60年了
The BBC’s Natural History Unit in Bristol has been producing wildlife films for 60 years.
他们的常用演播员David Attenborough先生的嗓音 是这一类型片中最知名的
Their frequent presenter, sir David Attenborough, is most recognizable voice of the genre.
这种无与伦比的生物半盲半聋 而这决定了它所能移动的最快速度
“This extraordinary creature is half blind, half deaf, and this is just about as fast
经过数十年 他们已经逐渐
as it can move” And through the decades, they’ve continually
提升了自然类影片的观赏标准
raised the bar for the look and feel of nature films, too.
我们将用3个短片来带大家探索这一进化过程 很大程度上这是个科技的进化过程
That evolution, as we’ll explore in this 3-part series, is in large part a story of technology.
这次的巨大突破是首次使用16毫米胶卷的轻型摄像机
The first big breakthrough was lightweight, 16mm film cameras.
奈廷格尔:不知你是否记得 电视节目是从演播室开始进行的
NIGHTINGALE: If you remember, television began as a studio operation.
那有一个比人更加大的巨型电视摄影机
It just had ginormous video cameras that were larger than a person.
在之后电影工业中 当然再一次的 所有的电影设备都
Then in the film industry, of course, that was all movies, and again, they were very,
非常的笨重累赘
very cumbersome.
这些摄影机明显不能带去雨林沙漠或者其他地方
There simply weren’t cameras that you could take into the jungles and deserts and so on.
16毫米的摄影机方便携带 但在英国广播公司中却存在争议 被看做是不专业的摄像机
16mm cameras were portable, but they were controversial inside the BBC, seen as amateur
因为35毫米胶卷在当时才是播放标准
cameras, since 35mm film was the broadcast standard at the time.
但阿滕博勒坚持用更小的摄影机为他的第一次海外旅行拍摄
But Attenborough insisted on the smaller cameras for his first trips overseas.
于是当然了 他带回了之前从未被拍摄到的动物们的连续镜头
And sure enough, he came back with footage of animals that had never before been filmed,
例如这些马达加斯加的大狐猴
like these Indri lemurs in Madagascar.
56年之后 拍摄大狐猴意味着移动摄影机围绕着它们
Fifty-six years later, filming the Indri means moving the camera around them and traveling
与它们一起在林间漫游 但是这项技术在多年以前才刚刚出现
with them through the trees, but the technology they used to do this has only come around in the past few years.
问题在于稳定性
The issue is stabilization.
你能看见在BBC的1990年系列纪录片《生命之源》中的这些少见的手持拍摄画面的晃动
You can see the shaking in these rare handheld shots from the BBC’s 1990 series The Trials of Life.
空中的拍摄画面也有同样的问题
Aerial shots had the same problem.
如果他们试着去放大 那些颠簸晃动也会放大
And if they tried to zoom in, those bumps just got magnified.
制片人能在适宜的地方通过起重机 手推车和滑动器来实现具有摄影艺术的移动
Producers could achieve cinematic motion with cranes, dollies, and sliders where it was practical to do so.
但是数十年中几乎所有镜头都没有水下的
But for decades almost all the shots that weren’t underwater involved a camera on
包括三脚架上的摄影机 – 能够跟随动作的平移 倾斜 缩放的拍摄方式
a tripod — panning, tilting and zooming to follow the action.
用这种方式拍摄的动物行为当然不少
There’s definitely no shortage of incredible animal behavior to film that way.
但是一切从大约2002年就都发生了改变 那就是BBC
But it all changed around 2002. That’s when BBC switched
把《地球脉动》系列从胶卷拍摄转换成数码高清拍摄
from film to digital HD cameras for the Planet Earth series.
这种转换给了他们使用一种名叫Cineflex heligimbal的工具的机会
That switch gave them access to a tool called the Cineflex heligimbal
它是一种安装在直升机上稳定的摄像机
a stabilization system for a helicopter-mounted camera.
heligimbal顺利的传送了一些在系列影片中被定义为叙事性的广阔风光画面
The heligimbal delivered the smooth sweeping scenic shots that defined the epic look of that series.
但它依旧使他们从千米外的高空和跟随着急速移动的道路上来拍摄独特的动物们
But it also let them film individual animals from a kilometer up in the sky, and zoom way
而没有直升机的轰鸣声导致它们受到惊吓
in to follow them without the noise of the chopper scaring them off.
并且这种方式的改变使他们能够捕捉到像狩猎之类的画面
And that changed the way they could capture behaviors like hunting.
冈顿:如果你能看到人们是如何拍摄和剪辑狩猎过程的 就会知道自然环境
GUNTON: If you look at how people shot and edited hunting sequences, because of the nature
会影响你 有时不得不收起摄像机 无法持续长时间拍摄
of where you had to put the camera, you could never get long continuous shots because you
因为如果你用三脚架拍摄 狼可能会跑掉 于是你不得不冲出来
would you get a shot on a tripod, the wolf would run off, you had to jump up and get
启动汽车 到处乱晃 放下三脚架再拍另一个镜头
in the land rover, run across, put the tripod down and get another shot.
所以 这通常需要大量的剪辑和重新构造
So it always had to be quite edited and quite constructed.
比较两季《地球脉动》中的狼狩猎
Compare that to the wolf hunt in Planet Earth.
冈顿:有次看到一头狼开始狩猎 你只能飞奔过去拍摄并与它保持距离
GUNTON: Once that wolf started hunting you could just fly along, keep your distance and
那一瞬间 你只能看着这戏剧性的一幕是如何发生结束的
in one shot, you just see how that drama played out.
而且你也不会知道将要发生什么:它会绊倒吗?它会抓住它吗?
And you just do not know what’s gonna happen: is it gonna stumble, is gonna catch it, is
那只小驯鹿要跑掉了 它会马失前蹄意外跌倒吗?
the little caribou gonna run away, is it gonna stumble?
这实在是扣人心弦因为这是未受干扰的
It was so gripping because it was unmediated.
而Cineflex系统必须要求使用数码相机 因为它将从相机的数字存储器中分离多个镜头
The Cineflex system required digital cameras because it separates the lens from the camera’s
这个存储在当时还是数字录像带
data storage, which at the time was digital video cassette tape.
你不能用数字录像带拍摄
You just can’t do that with film.
400毫米变焦镜头被安装在一系列被称为平衡环的圆环中
The 400mm zoom lens is mounted inside a series of rings called a gimbal, that isolate it
在小型传感器陀螺仪的帮助下 使它独立于直升机自由运转
from the movement of the helicopter, with the help of small sensors called gyroscopes.
那些传感器探测方向上的变化 使得电机能在移动中即时纠正错误
Those sensors detect changes in orientation so that motors can correct for those movements almost immediately.
所以直升机里的摄像人员能通过操纵杆控制镜头的变化
So the camera operator can control the lens with a joystick inside the helicopter
放大镜头也不会失去画面的稳定性
and zoom in without losing any stability.
十年后 稳定技术越来越小型化 也越来越便宜 形式多样
Ten years later, that stabilization technology comes in smaller, much more affordable forms.
它可以被安装到无人机里 小巧到可以放在手中操作
It’s embedded in drones, and built into rigs that you can hold in your hands.
而且摄影机技术方面的改变恰好和BBC希望《地球脉动2》成为的样子相契合
And that technological change aligned perfectly with what the BBC wanted to do with Planet Earth 2.
冈顿:我们希望将镜头推进到和动物们最接近的距离 因为我们想看到
GUNTON: We wanted to push the proximity, getting close to the animals because we wanted to see
动物眼中的这个世界 这个星球的样子
the world’s landscapes, our planet, through the animals’ eyes.
陀螺稳定无人机提供了更直观的航拍
Gyro-stabilized drones provided more intimate aerials,
手持拍摄画面展示了穿越动物栖息地的真实场景
and handheld shots showed what it feels like to really move through these habitats.
怀特:我们追求更加情绪化的叙事拍摄技巧
WHITE: I think we’ve gone for a much more emotional narrative in these.
我们努力让观众置身于动物的世界中 去感受它们的情绪
It’s much more trying to put you in their world and what would that animal be feeling.
并非拟人化的表达 而是带领观众踏上一场
Trying not to be anthropomorphic about it, but just sort of taking the viewer on a journey
能够真实感受动物世界的旅程
where they can start to relate to how that animal might work in that world.
它比《地球脉动》更温暖、更亲近动物世界
It’s a slightly warmer, closer take on Planet Earth.
近几十年来 好莱坞制片人已经能够用Steadicam
Hollywood filmmakers have been able to get stabilized walking shots for decades using
拍摄出稳定的行进镜头
a Steadicam.
这是一个更大、更复杂的设备 它通过平衡重量和一个
That’s a bigger, more complicated rig that stabilizes the camera with balanced weights
用弹簧连接在摄像师拍摄背心上的机械手臂来稳定摄像机
and a spring-loaded arm attached to a vest that the operator wears.
ER和The West Wing公司著名的移动叙事拍摄长镜头
Those long walk-and-talk shots that ER and The West Wing made famous,
都是用Steadicam拍摄的画面
those are all Steadicam shots.
《地球脉动2》的制片人在一些镜头中使用了Steadicam
The producers of Planet Earth 2 used Steadicams for a few sequences, like this footage of
例如在南非拍摄的薮猫捕猎镜头
a serval cat hunting in South Africa.
但是大多数情况下 Steadicam笨重的机器、昂贵的价格和
But in most cases Steadicams have been too cumbersome, expensive, or inflexible for shooting
僵化的机械动作不利于野外拍摄
in the wild.
因此 《地球脉动2》制作团队依靠更轻便的手持稳定器进行拍摄
Instead, the Planet Earth 2 team relied heavily on smaller handheld stabilizers.
例如heligimbal 该设备装有能够确定三维方位的陀螺仪
Like the heligimbal, these rigs have gyroscopes that measure orientation along 3 axes and
和抵消震动的电机
motors that counteract those movements.
轻巧和多功能的优势使其能够代替
These rigs are so small and versatile that they can often replace several other tools like
滑轨和起重机等笨重工具
sliders and cranes.
怀特:在拍摄过程中 比如拍摄企鹅时 我们携带了起重机
WHITE: On some of the trips, like the trip to film the penguins, we took a crane with
还考虑过带上滑轨
us, we talked about taking sliders.
但事实上我们并没有用到它们
The reality is it didn’t come out of the box.
一切拍摄都由站在常平架上的摄影师用摄影机完成
Everything was done with a cameraman holding a camera on a gimbal.
在那种环境下 摄影师能够自由移动 他能将摄影机
In an environment like that, just to be able to move around quite freely, have a camera
拉低到企鹅的视线上 也能提升到企鹅上方
that you can put down at penguin level but be able to pick up and get above the penguins
这种拍摄方式作用很大
was just so useful.
当你接近动物时 手持拍摄稳定器非常有效
Handheld stabilizers are most effective when you can get close to the animal, and a lot
可动物们不喜欢这样 因此手持稳定器永远不会取代三脚架
of animals don’t like that, so they’ll never replace tripods.
迅速发展的设备并不仅面向专业人员
Rather they add to the rapidly growing arsenal of tools becoming available not just to pros,
每个人都可以使用 每个人都能拍摄出具有好莱坞大片范儿的画面
but to everyone, to be able to get shots that look like hollywood blockbusters.
事实上 优秀的视频并不仅依靠图片 更多的是故事
But ultimately, what makes a movie great isn’t just the pictures, it’s the story.
经过时间的积淀 自然历史协会的风格已经从教科式转变成具有艺术美感的电影风格
The Natural History Unit’s style has shifted over time from more educational to more cinematic,
但他们并没有忘记教育的初衷
but they haven’t forgotten that.
冈顿:拍摄意象的要点是抓住眼球 吸引注意
GUNTON: The imagery of course is that first thing that catches the eye, catches the attention
没有出人意料的拍摄实景 人们很快就会感到乏味
but without the revelations the storytelling brings, in the end, it palls quite quickly.
因此讲故事的能力不可能被科技取代 它对观众的吸引和引发的情绪上的共鸣
So no technology will ever replace the ability to be able to tell a story that grips and
是科技无法与之比拟的
fascinates and emotionally connects with an audience.
感谢你的收看!
Thank you for watching!
你可以在BBC美洲频道找到《地球脉动2》
You can find Planet Earth 2 on BBC America.
它将于3月25日周六播出
It will be airing Saturdays through March 25th.
你也可以在手机软件“BBC地球”的档案中找到更多片段
You can also find tons of clips from their archive on BBC Earth’s mobile app.
它叫做生命的故事 实际上我在这个视频中用的
It’s called Story of Life and it’s actually where I found a lot of the clips that I used
许多片段都是在那里找到的
in this video.
视频是免费的
And it’s free!
快去看看吧!
So check it out.

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《地球脉动》系列视频豆瓣评分高达9.9,很多人对其中新颖的好莱坞大片拍摄方式大呼过瘾,那么就让我们一起进入这个短片,看看大片是怎么拍摄出来的吧!

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木岑

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知易行难

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qAOKOJhzYXk

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