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推开一扇门——绿野仙踪的彩色世界 – 译学馆
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推开一扇门——绿野仙踪的彩色世界

How Technicolor changed movies

你知道电影《绿野仙踪》的这个场景么
You know this scene from The Wizard of Oz.
它发生于桃乐茜在黑白色的堪萨斯州的清唱之后
It happens just after Dorothy croons in sepia-toned Kansas,
托托摇着尾巴 房屋被龙卷风卷起
Toto wags his tail, and the house gets caught in a tornado.
桃乐茜从褪色影片进入彩色世界
She travels from a faded film strip to a Technicolor world.
不过关于这个场景有三件事你可能会弄错
But there are three things about this scene you might get wrong.
而且每件事都有助于揭示彩色印片法的真实历史
And each one helps show the real history of Technicolor.
这些误解解释了“成功的彩色印片法”是什么
These misconceptions explain what the “Technicolor triumph” really was,
从在技术方面彩色印片法如何发挥作用
from the technical aspects that made it work,
到为什么该科技能以某种方式接管电影
to exactly why it took over the movies
并重塑20世纪的面貌
to the way in which the technology shaped the look of the 20th century.
谎言#1《绿野仙踪》不是首部彩色电影
Lie # 1 – Wizard of Oz is not the first Technicolor movie.
甚至连第一部彩色电影的边儿都沾不上
Not even close.
你或许知道这个 但很多人是不知道的
You might know that, but a lot of people don’t.
快来马里兰科学中心 让你成为这方面的行家
Come on Maryland Science Center, you’re better than this.
对于电影中的颜色 历史学家芭芭拉·福禄克基尔
Historian Barbara Flueckiger has an exhaustive timeline
有一个详尽的时间线
of color in film, from
从手绘电影到第一部彩色电影
hand-painted film to the first movie filmed in “kinemacolor,”
《到海边去》
A Visit to the Seaside.
其间彩色印片电影异军突起了
But Technicolor stood out,
它甚至在《绿野仙踪》之前就有很长的历史了
and even it has a history that long predates The Wizard of Oz.
赫伯特·克拉姆斯 丹尼尔·弗罗斯特·康斯托克
Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock,
和W·伯顿·威斯科特于1914年创办了公司
and W. Burton Wescott founded the company in 1914,
在麻省理工技术的奠基下 卡尔莫斯和康斯托克一拍即合
with the “Tech” referring to MIT, whereKalmus and Comstock met.
首先他们的这种影片混合了红色和绿色
It started by merging red and green –
合并成一个看起来大概长这样的新图像
into a new image that roughly looked like this.
你可以比较一下在20年代末到30年代初
You can see the look in this range
期间电影图像的差别
of movies from the late 1920s and early 30s.
图像的肤色还算过得去
It could do passably well with skin tones,
但是不知道为什么他们的着装上没有蓝色
but there’s no blue in these dresses for a reason.
而1932年彩色印片法出现
Blue came into the mix in 1932,
蓝色就成为色彩家族的第三员猛将
when Technicolor added the key third strip.
彩色印片法首次出现在沃特·迪士尼的动画《花与树》里
They showed off the process in Walt Disney’s Flowers and Trees,
这个生动的动画形象
a gorgeous animated feature
是植物学家的噩梦
that was a botanist’s nightmare.
而电影《绿野仙踪》里也有一些邪恶的树
You know, there are evil trees in Wizard of Oz, too.
“你觉得自己在干什么?”
“What do you think you’re doing?”
无论如何 要让彩色印片法生效
Anyway, in order to get Technicolor to work,
是一个相当困难的过程
it was an insanely difficult process.
彩色印片法的制作工序严丝合缝
Technicolor distributed guides like these
我们可以做一个理性的数字模拟 就用这个场景
and we can make a reasonable simulation digitally, with a scene like this.
那么这是一个乐高积木人
So here’s a scene of some Lego people
很明显 这家伙崇拜阿拉伯半岛的劳伦斯?
who are apparently worshipping Lawrence of Arabia?
不管事实如何 我们就从这幅图开始吧
Not sure what’s going on here, but it’sour starting image.
对彩色印片摄影机来说
A technicolor camera would typically take
它通过棱镜进行拍摄
that picture and shoot it through a prism
然后把光分为红 蓝
that split the light into red, blue,
和绿 三个胶片
and green negatives for the picture.
然后这些底片被翻转成正片“模型”
Those negatives were then flipped into positive “matrices,”
最终会被补充颜色的染料浸润
which eventually got soaked with dyes of the complementary colors.
所以红色的模型变成蓝绿色 绿色的变成洋红
So the red matrix turned cyan, the green one magenta,
蓝色的变成黄色
and the blue one yellow.
然后颜料被浸染
Then the dye was transferred
这就是所谓的“胶片染印法”
— this was called a “dye transfer process” to create
它能创造华丽的彩色成品图像
a final gorgeous Technicolor image.
但如果你是像我一样的人
So if you’re anything like me,
可能这个解释会让你感到不明觉厉
that explanation might make you feel like the scarecrow.
“哦 我好挫 因为我没脑子”
“Oh I’m a failure because I haven’tgot a brain.”
所以咱们换个解释
So let’s try it again,
你只需关注红色通道
but only look at that red channel.
所以你要把眼光放在主人公身上即可
So keep your eye on the View-Master,
你要紧盯着卢比克魔方
the red in the Rubik’s cube,
或者乐高小伙的帽子
or maybe the Lego guy’s hat.
现在图像有点暗
It is all kind of dark now,
因为胶片是红色的
because that’s just the red color in the negative.
现在翻转模型 红色真的变亮了
Now flipped in the matrix, that red is really bright,
这意味着染色时
which means that when it’s dyed,
图像不会染上蓝绿色
it won’t get a lot of cyan.
这一点不容小觑
And that makes sense.
蓝绿色是红色的互补色
Cyan is the complementary color — it’sthe anti-red.
所以如果你想要红色
So where you want a lot of red,
不想要蓝绿色
you do not want a lot of cyan.
那么当两种颜色混合
That way, when it comes together,
你会得到许多洋红色和一些黄色
you get a ton of magenta and some yellow.
这样蓝绿色就不明显了
You don’t have a lot of cyan,
因为它和红色抵消了
because the cyan cancels out the red.
在彩色印片法早期
In the earlier days of Technicolor,
人们也必须放大对照物
they also had to amp up the contrast.
电影公司会在模型下添加黑色和白色的图层
The company would add a black and white layer
以担当“掌门人”的作用
underneath the matrices to serve as something called “the key”.
你能从一些电影中看到早期的效果:
You can see the results early,
1934年的《理想与现实》
in films like 1934’s La Cucaracha,
《孤松踪迹》《罗宾汉》
The Trail of the Lonesome Pine, and Robin Hood,
这些都是很棒的例子
all of which came out well
它们都早于《绿野仙踪》
before the Wizard of Oz.
我们很容易就能大致勾画出
It’s easy enough to roughly copy
《绿野仙踪》里的彩色印片法科技
the technology that “ Technicolored ” the Wizard of Oz.
红绿蓝通道 色彩浴 网眼 副本
RGB split, color bath, mesh, repeat.
而且胶卷条的录入过程也是故事的一部分
But the film strip processes are just part of the story.
谎言#2 场景真假
Lie #2 the scene?
黑白世界不能变成彩色
It’s not going from a black and white world to a color one.
事实上真实场景的颜色是墨色调的
The set was actually painted sepia-tone
所以相同的彩色印片法过程
so the same Technicolor process could be used
可以用于亮版的《绿野仙踪》
for the bright Oz reveal.
今天就更容易了
Today, it’s much easier.
我用手画一个正方形 然后单击
I can draw a box with my hand and with a click,
黑白彩色就会混合分布
black and white and color play together.
在《绿野仙踪》时代他们甚至就有技术来做这种效果了
They even had techniques to do stuff like this in the Oz days.
但是人们建造暗房这一事实正表明
But the fact that they built a sepia
彩色印片法在技术上的局限是如何
house shows how Technicolor’s technical limitations
影响所有彩色电影的
shaped all color movies.
这是《绿叶仙踪》时代所用的一部摄影机
“This is one of the cameras that was used to film The Wizard of Oz.”
它重达400到500镑
“It weighs 4 to 500 pounds,
比普通的电影摄像机要大
and these cameras were bigger than ordinary motion picture cameras
因为他们必须在同一时刻
because they had to run three strips of film
处理电影的三个胶片
through them at any given time.”
那么你记得这个场景吗?
So remember — this scene?
这个场景是用这种超大的照相机制作的
That had to be done with this beast of a camera.
三个胶片不只需要更多空间
Those three strips didn’t just require more space,
还需要大量的光线
they needed tons of light.
在这种三张胶片电影中
That set had to be blazingly overlit to get enough light
摄影师必须打上强光才能使画面足够亮
through to these three strips of film.
据说拍摄这个场景时现场温度达到了100华氏度
The set was reportedly 100 degrees Fahrenheit at times.
这听起来也是个棘手的问题
Sound was an issue, too.
当你将电影的三个胶片放置于摄影机中时
“It’s so loud when you’re running three strips
摄影机会产生巨大的噪音
of film through a camera, so they had
所以人们在照相机周围搭建了一个隔音罩
to build this blimp around it.
隔音罩里填满了隔音材料
It’s filled with soundproofing material
这样当你制作有声电影时
so when you’re making a sound film you don’t
摄影机的声音就不会全部回荡在工作室里
get all the sound from the camera throughout the studio there.”
彩色印片法的利大于弊
Technicolor’s advantages outweighed its limitations.
它的主要优点在于
It’s main advantage was the way
捕捉场景色调的方式
in which it could capture the tone of a scene.
同期的两部电影可能有不同的面貌
Two movies made in the same year could have a different look,
不仅是因为
not just because of the
摄影机前面所立物体的不同
choices made in front of the camera.
彩色印片法的顾问和导演
Technicolor consultants and directors tweaked the palette
会通过调整蓝绿色 洋红色和黄色的比例
of the film by adjusting the cyan,
来改变图像调色板的颜色
magenta and yellow dyes.
复杂的颜色转换过程
The complicated dye transfer process gave Singin’
使电影《雨中曲》呈现洋红的肤色
in the Rain some of its magenta-hued
以及浓度较深的饱和色
skin and deep saturated colors.
然而胶卷和科技并不是使彩色印片电影与众不同的
The film and technology weren’t the only things that gave Technicolor movies
唯一方式
their distinctive look.
一部彩色电影的成功还取决于摄影机所录制的内容
It also shaped the world that they chose to film.
谎言#3:这个女孩儿不是真正的桃乐茜
Lie #3: This isn’t the real Dorothy.
她是朱迪·嘉兰的“替身”
It’s Judy Garland’s body double.
朱迪穿戴了特制的衣服和装扮来匹配墨色世界
She wore specially designed clothes and makeup to match the sepia world,
这样朱迪·嘉兰才能更顺利地被改成彩色
so Judy Garland could swoop in,
进而以同一个镜头同一条蓝色裙子
in the same shot and a blue dress,
来拍摄彩色版的《绿野仙踪》
to join Technicolor Oz.
这些彩色影片 包括《绿野仙踪》在内
These movies, and Oz,
无不从头到脚地考验着彩色印片法的能力
were shaped around Technicolor’s abilities, from head to toe.
你目前所看到的是剧本第二页的一幕
“The second page that you see here is the part
展示的是红宝石鞋登场的一幕
of the script that shows the ruby slippers
而实际情况是
being unveiled, but what it shows is
它们当时是银色的鞋子
that they were still silver shoes at this point,
但是电影制片人真的非常想
but the producers of the film really wanted
炫耀一下他们花大价钱投资的彩色印片法
to show off that Technicolor that they were
所以他们选择了
paying for, so they wanted them to
把原来的银拖鞋染成闪发光的红宝石色 和黄色的砖路相映成趣
be sparkly ruby slippers that would look good against the yellow brick road.
所以他们在制作过程中把鞋变成了红宝石色
So they changed it at the middle of production to ruby slippers.”
目前这双鞋被存放在低光保护区
Today the shoes are kept under low light to preserve them,
但当初拍摄时
but during the shoot they
为了适应摄像机并让鞋上的亮片保持闪耀它可没少受光线的荼毒
were blasted with light to accommodate the camera and make those sequins sparkle.
这些不是心血来潮——
These weren’t just on-set decisions —
彩色印片法总是在窗帘后面拉上细线来控制灯光
Technicolor was always pulling strings behind the curtains.
请看《绿野仙踪》的工作人员
Look at the credits for Wizard of Oz,
还有影片《孤松踪迹》和《一个明星的诞生》
and The Trail of the Lonesome Pine, and A Star is Born,
这种例子不胜枚举
and so on and so on.
你会看到一长串名单
You’ll see one name over and over.
娜塔莉·卡尔马斯
Natalie Kalmus.
曾嫁给彩色印片法的创始人何波·卡尔马斯
Once married to Technicolor cofounder Herb Kalmus,
早些年间
she ruled with an iron fist over
娜塔莉一直在彩色印片商中占据重要席位
Technicolor productions for many of the early years.
她经手了300多部电影
Kalmus had over 300 film credits
还给彩色印片法的制作提出了建议
where she gave Technicolor advice —
有时甚至还能告诉导演们具体做法
and sometimes told directors what to do.
这是“网路电影资料库”对这个生于1882年的女子所作的介绍
This is the IMDB page for a woman born in 1882.
在《颜色意识》之类的史料记载中
In documents like “Color Consciousness,”
娜塔莉把触手伸到了艺术领域——写了一篇关于艺术颜色理论的文章
she extended her reach into art — the essay includes aesthetic color theory.
“红色:危险 血腥 生命 高温
“Red: danger, blood, life, heat.
绿色:自然 户外 自由 新鲜”
Green: Nature, outdoors, freedom, freshness.”
娜塔莉·卡尔马斯的影响是值得注意的
Kalmus’s influence was significant,
这也从侧面反映了彩色印片法的效力
but it’s as important as a reflection of Technicolor’s power.
彩色印片法有自己的一套程序
Technicolor had its own processing facilities,
其员工在娜塔莉离开公司后
and its own camera crew that continued Natalie
仍然发扬着她的理念
Kalmus’ work after she left the company.
科技和生产过程给了彩色印片法重要的竞争力
The technology and the production process gave Technicolor a significant competitive
使其脱颖而出
advantage to alternatives being used.
尽管芭芭拉·福禄克基尔的网页上展示着许多可选的摄影方法
Despite all those alternatives shown on Barbara Flueckiger’s website,
但导演们仍对彩色印片法无法自拔
studios stuck with Technicolor for a long time.
彩色印片法的系统很可靠
It had a reliable system and
无需借助任何特殊设备
could be shown in any theatre in splendid color,
就能在任何剧院展现最棒的色彩
without requiring special equipment.
彩色印片法甚至像伊士曼印片法一样
Technicolor eventually fell to cheaper processes
在50年代跌入廉价过程的谷底
through the 1950s, like Eastman Color,
后者用的是单胶片
that used a single strip.
电影《教父2》
The Godfather, Part II was one
标志着彩色印片法的终结
of the final major releases to use the Technicolor we recognize.
但由于胶片染印法的使用 旧的印刷仍然保留着惊人的活力
But old prints remain surprisingly vibrant today due to the dye transfer process used.
现在我打个响指
Today, I can snap my fingers and be
就能置身于黑客帝国或者《怪奇物语》的颠倒时空中了
in The Matrix or in Stranger Things’ Upside Down.
好的
Ok.
这些是粉尘吗?
What are all these dust particles?
这是石棉?
Is this asbestos?
我身上盖了一层石棉?
Am I covered in asbestos right now?
而彩色印片法并非一键获得的——
Technicolor was never just a click —
其效果体现了相机的强弱
the look was formed by the camera’s strengths
以及艺术配色
and weaknesses, the artistic choices made for color,
还少不了彩色印片公司的
and the Technicolor company’s
设备和监督
infrastructure and supervision.
从这个《绿野仙踪》的关键场景中
In that key scene from the Wizard of Oz,
你可能不会知道桃乐茜的“替身”这件小事
you might not have known the trivia about Dorothy’s double,
也不会知道黑白色的门
or the sepia doorway,
也不知道该影片并不是彩色印片法初次粉墨登场
or even that it wasn’t Technicolor’s debut.
但有一件事非常容易理解 非常直观
But one thing is easy to understand, intuitively.
电影的精髓就在于此
The movie is all about it.
即彩色印片法不是一个开关 一扇门
Technicolor wasn’t a switch or a doorway.
它是整个世界
It was a whole world,
在“另一端”翘然以待
just waiting on the other side.
浏览芭芭拉·福禄克基尔的网站
You can nerd out a lot more on Technicolor
你就能获得更多彩色印片法的相关信息
by checking out Barbara Flueckiger’s website,
或者你可以访问伊士曼之家
or Eastman House, which was really generous
这些网站都很有名气 上面有许多彩色印片法的照片
with their time and a lot of the images that you saw in this video.
我会把这两个链接放在下面
I’ve linked both of those below.
你可以看一下知名导演对本视频的评论
You can see the director’s commentary
我们还有另外一个视频
for this video in an additional video that we’ve
我在里面分享了一下荧幕后的信息
made where I share some behind-the-scenes info and a few
还有一些本视频未尽的相关细节
of the details that couldn’t quite fit in.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

从电影《绿野仙踪》的三个问题说起,透视彩色印片法如何改变电影。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mqaobr6w6_I

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