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阿基米德是怎样在洗澡时发现定理的 – 译学馆
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阿基米德是怎样在洗澡时发现定理的

How taking a bath led to Archimedes' principle - Mark Salata

一些极好的学习机遇
Some of the best opportunities to learn
往往存在于我们所困惑的时刻
are the moments in which we are perplexed.
存在于每一个你开始思考并且开始提问的时刻
Those moments in which you begin to wonder and question.
历史上曾发生过的这些时刻
These moments have happened throughout history.
会导致一些真正惊人的发现
and have led to some truly amazing discoveries.
关于这些故事,我们来举一个例子。
Take this story, for example.
曾经有位叫阿基米德的人。
There once was a fellow named Archimedes.
他在公元前287年,出生于西西里岛叙拉古。
He was born in 287 B.C. in the city of Syracuse in Sicily.
他是一个古希腊的数学家、科学家、工程师。
He was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer,
发明家和天文学家。
inventor, and astronomer.
有一天,阿基米德被西西里的国王(希耶隆二世)召见。
One day, Archimedes was summoned by the king of Sicily
国王要阿基米德去调查是否这个金匠欺骗了他。
to investigate if he had been cheated by a goldsmith.
国王说他给了金匠足够的黄金
The king said he had given a goldsmith the exact amount of gold
需要他去制作一个皇冠
needed to make a crown.
然而,当这个皇冠做好后,国王怀疑这个金匠欺骗了他
However, when the crown was ready, the king suspected that the goldsmith cheated
在皇冠中掺入了一些银
and slipped some silver into the crown,
金匠自己偷了一些金子
keeping some of the gold for himself.
国王要阿基米德来解决这个问题
The king asked Archimedes to solve the problem.
但是前提是:他不准弄坏皇冠
But there was a catch: he couldn’t do any damage to the crown.
有一天,阿基米德在洗澡的时候。
One day, while taking his bath,
阿基米德注意到浴缸的水面在上升
Archimedes noticed that the water level in the bathtub rose
他在浴缸里沉下去水就溢出来了
and overflowed as he immersed himself into the tub.
他突然意识到水转移多少
He suddenly realized that how much water was displaced
取决于他身体沉入了多少
depended on how much of his body was immersed.
这个发现让他十分激动,他跳出了浴缸
This discovery excited him so much that he jumped out of the tub
一丝不挂的大街上跑,喊着: Eureka
and ran through the streets naked, shouting ‘Eureka!’
这个来自于古希腊的词意思是:我发现了
Which comes from the ancient Greek meaning ‘I found it.’
他发现了什么?
What did he find?
是的,他发现了解决国王问题的方法
Well, he found a way to solve the king’s problem.
正如你所看到的那样,阿基米德需要去检查皇冠的密度
You see, Archimedes needed to check the crown’s density
看看它是否和纯金做的密度一样
to see if it was the same as the density of pure gold.
密度是物体的质量除以体积
Density is a measure of an object’s mass divided by its volume.
纯金密度很大,但是银的密度要小一些
Pure gold is very dense, while silver is less dense.
所以如果皇冠里掺了银,那么这时皇冠的密度就会比用纯金做的要小
So if there was silver in the crown, it would be less dense than if it were made of pure gold.
但是无论用什么来制作,这个皇冠是一样的形状
But no matter what it was made of, the crown would be the same shape,
意思是它们体积一样
which means the same volume.
所以,如果阿基米德先测出皇冠的质量
So if Archimedes could measure the mass of the crown first,
然后再测量它的体积
and then measure its volume,
他就能算出皇冠的密度
he could find out how dense it was.
但是测量皇冠的体积没有那么容易,它的形状不规则
But it is not easy to measure a crown’s volume – it has an irregular shape,
这和简单的盒子和球不同
that’s different from a simple box or ball.
你无法测量出它的尺寸和样子像你想要的其他形状一样
You can’t measure its size and multiply like you might for other shapes.
这个解决方案,阿基米德意识到
The solution, Archimedes realized,
让皇冠“洗澡”
was to give the crown a bath.
把它放入水中然后观察有多少水排出来
by placing it in water and seeing how much water was displaced,
他就可以测量出体积来
he could measure the volume,
他计算出了这个皇冠的密度
and he’d calculate the density of the crown.
如果这个皇冠的密度少于用纯金做的皇冠
If the crown was less dense than pure gold,
那么这个金匠无疑是欺骗了国王
then the goldsmith most definitely cheated the king.
当阿基米德回到国王面前验证他的研究时
When Archimedes went back to the king and did his test,
用这个故事说明原理,后来阿基米德发现这个金匠的确欺骗了国王
the story says, he found that the goldsmith had indeed cheated the king,
而且在里面掺杂了一些银,如今
and slipped some silver in. These days,
用这种排开水来测量体积的方法被称为
using the way an object displaces water to measure volume is called
阿基米德原理,下一次当你在洗澡时
Archimedes’ principle. The next time you take a bath,
你可以见到阿基米德原理
you can see Archimedes’ principle in action,
或者你也可以发现一个属于你自己的天才的想法呢
and maybe you’ll have a genius idea of your own.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijj58xD5fDI

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