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建筑结构是如何成为叙利亚残忍战争的导火索的 – 译学馆
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建筑结构是如何成为叙利亚残忍战争的导火索的

How Syria's architecture laid the foundation for brutal war | Marwa Al-Sabouni

嗨 我的名字是马尔瓦 我是一个建筑师
Hi. My name is Marwa, and I’m an architect.
我出生成长在霍姆斯
I was born and raised in Homs,
一个位于叙利亚中西部的城市
a city in the central western part of Syria,
我从来没离开过这里
and I’ve always lived here.
在为期六年的战争之后
After six years of war,
霍姆斯现在已经是一个一半被摧毁的城市
Homs is now a half-destroyed city.
我的家庭和我很幸运 我们的家仍然存在
My family and I were lucky; our place is still standing.
尽管在这两年里 我们像囚犯一般呆在家中
Although for two years, we were like prisoners at home.
外面的示威游行 战争 炸弹和狙击手无处不在
Outside there were demonstrations and battles and bombings and snipers.
我丈夫和我曾经在老城区的中心广场经营
My husband and I used to run an architecture studio
一个建筑工作室
in the old town main square.
它已经被摧毁了 就像大部分老城区一样
It’s gone, as is most of the old town itself.
城市的一半居住区
Half of the city’s other neighborhoods
现在是断壁残璋
are now rubble.
自2015晚期的停火开始
Since the ceasefire in late 2015,
霍姆斯的大部分地区 都或多或少的萧条了
large parts of Homs have been more or less quiet.
经济被完全破坏 人们还在相互争斗
The economy is completely broken, and people are still fighting.
商人们不再在老城区的商场营业
The merchants who had stalls in the old city market
而在街上搭棚子进行交易
now trade out of sheds on the streets.
在我们的公寓下面 有一个木工店
Under our apartment, there is a carpenter,
糖果店 肉店 印刷店 小作坊以及更多小商铺
sweetshops, a butcher, a printing house, workshops, among many more.
我已经开始在业余时间教课
I have started teaching part-time,
而我的丈夫辗转在几个工作之间
and with my husband, who juggles several jobs,
我们开了个小书店
we’ve opened a small bookshop.
其他人做各种工作来维持生计
Other people do all sorts of jobs to get by.
当我看着被摧毁的家乡 我当然要问自己:
When I look at my destroyed city, of course, I ask myself:
是什么导致了这场毫无意义的战争?
What has led to this senseless war?
叙利亚是个包容的城市
Syria was largely a place of tolerance,
历史上就包容多样性
historically accustomed to variety,
广泛地接纳不同的信仰 血统 风俗
accommodating a wide range of beliefs, origins, customs,
商品和食物
goods, food.
我的国家是如何
How did my country —
一个从前所有人都能 和谐地生活在一起
a country with communities living harmoniously together
而且乐于讨论 他们的不同的国家
and comfortable in discussing their differences —
是怎么堕落到内战 变得充斥着暴力 人们流离失所
how did it degenerate into civil war, violence, displacement
并且陷入这个前所未有的宗教仇恨中的?
and unprecedented sectarian hatred?
我觉得 有很多原因导致了这场战争
There were many reasons that had led to the war —
社会的 政治的以及经济的原因
social, political and economic.
它们都对这场战争中起到推动作用
They all have played their role.
但是我相信有一个关键的因素被人们忽视了
But I believe there is one key reason that has been overlooked
而且这个因素对理解这一切非常重要
and which is important to analyze,
因为通过它 可以极大程度上地判定
because from it will largely depend
我们是否可以不再让它发生
whether we can make sure that this doesn’t happen again.
这个原因 就是建筑学
And that reason is architecture.
建筑学在我的国家扮演了一个重要的角色
Architecture in my country has played an important role
在创造 引导和扩大敌对双方的冲突方面
in creating, directing and amplifying conflict between warring factions,
这可能对其他国家也是如此
and this is probably true for other countries as well.
一个地方的建筑和定居在此社区的居民特点
There is a sure correspondence between the architecture of a place
有着必然的呼应
and the character of the community that has settled there.
建筑扮演者关键的角色 无论是在分散的社区
Architecture plays a key role in whether a community crumbles
还是聚集社区
or comes together.
在叙利亚 不同的传统和背景
Syrian society has long lived the coexistence
已经共存了很长时间
of different traditions and backgrounds.
叙利亚人经历过开放贸易
Syrians have experienced the prosperity of open trade
与和谐社会带来的繁荣
and sustainable communities.
他们享受着真正的归属感
They have enjoyed the true meaning of belonging to a place,
这体现在他们的建筑环境上
and that was reflected in their built environment,
体现在伊斯兰教寺院和基督教堂背靠背的建筑上
in the mosques and churches built back-to-back,
体现在各种交织在一起的露天市场和各类公共场所上
in the interwoven souks and public venues,
以及基于人性与和谐的原则而建的各种比例和大小
and the proportions and sizes based on principles of humanity and harmony.
这种混合建筑风格在残垣断壁中依旧可见
This architecture of mixity can still be read in the remains.
叙利亚的老伊斯兰教城历经多年修建而成
The old Islamic city in Syria was built over a multilayered past,
它集合容纳了一种精神
integrating with it and embracing its spirit.
当地的人们也是如此
So did its communities.
他们在一个有归属感的地方
People lived and worked with each other
生活在一起 工作在一起
in a place that gave them a sense of belonging
让他们有家的感觉
and made them feel at home.
他们共同拥有了一个极为和谐的共存环境
They shared a remarkably unified existence.
但是经过上个世纪
But over the last century,
这种地方间的脆弱的平衡逐渐地被打破了:
gradually this delicate balance of these places has been interfered with;
首先 那些殖民时期的城市规划者
first, by the urban planners of the colonial period,
当法国人热忱地在叙利亚城市里到处走动
when the French went enthusiastically about,
转变着这些他们视为不符合时代的叙利亚城市
transforming what they saw as the un-modern Syrian cities.
他们炸掉了城市街道还转移了纪念碑
They blew up city streets and relocated monuments.
他们美其名曰改良
They called them improvements,
他们就是一个漫长分散的开始
and they were the beginning of a long, slow unraveling.
我们的传统城市和建筑通过相互融合
The traditional urbanism and architecture of our cities
确保了身份特征与归属感
assured identity and belonging not by separation,
并非通过分裂
but by intertwining.
但随着时间的流逝 这种古老变得一文不值 被新生事物取代
But over time, the ancient became worthless, and the new, covered it
建筑环境和社会环境之间的和谐
The harmony of the built environment and social environment
被现代元素取代
got trampled over by elements of modernity —
被那些野蛮的 未完成的混凝土砖块
brutal, unfinished concrete blocks,
和对文化的忽视 对审美的破坏
neglect, aesthetic devastation,
被那些用社会等级 宗教信仰和经济情况来划分人民的城市分裂主义踩在脚下
divisive urbanism that zoned communities by class, creed or affluence.
而这同样发生在了社会阶层上
And the same was happening to the community.
当建筑环境发生了改变
As the shape of the built environment changed,
生活方式和人民的归属感
so the lifestyles and sense of belonging of the communities
也开始改变
also started changing.
建筑 从一个亲密和归属的象征
From a register of togetherness, of belonging,
变成了一种区别人民的方式
architecture became a way of differentiation,
人们开始相互疏远
and communities started drifting apart
她原是一个用来团结人们的建筑架构
from the very fabric that used to unite them,
原是一个用来象征他们和谐共存的地方的灵魂
and from the soul of the place that used to represent their common existence.
尽管许多原因最终导致了这场战争
While many reasons had led to the Syrian war,
但是我们不应该低估这种方式:
we shouldn’t underestimate the way in which,
这种通过特征和自尊的消失
by contributing to the loss of identity and self-respect,
城市的分区与错误的想法 薄情的建筑的方式
urban zoning and misguided, inhumane architecture
培育了宗教的分裂和仇恨
have nurtured sectarian divisions and hatred.
长久以来 和谐的社会已经变得
Over time, the united city has morphed into a city center
贫民区围绕着中心城区
with ghettos along its circumference.
随之 紧密联系着的人们分成了不同的团体
And in turn, the coherent communities became distinct social groups,
相互之间开始疏离
alienated from each other and alienated from the place.
我觉得
From my point of view,
一个地方的归属感
losing the sense of belonging to a place
和人们交流意愿的失去
and a sense of sharing it with someone else
让它变得非常容易被摧毁
has made it a lot easier to destroy.
一个明显的例子就是住房制度:
The clear example can be seen in the informal housing system,
在战争之前 这里居住着超过百分之四十的人口
which used to host, before the war, over 40 percent of the population.
是的 战争之前 将近一半的叙利亚人民住在贫民窟
Yes, prior to the war, almost half of the Syrian population lived in slums,
外围地区没有适当的基础设施
peripheral areas without proper infrastructure,
一行行的简陋空箱子组成了这片区域
made of endless rows of bare block boxes
容纳着人们
containing people,
人民基本上都属于同一个团体
people who mostly belonged to the same group,
基于宗教 阶级 出身或所有以上因素
whether based on religion, class, origin or all of the above.
这种贫民窟化的城市生活 被证明是一种切实的战争先兆
This ghettoized urbanism proved to be a tangible precursor of war.
在被疏远分类的地区之间 冲突变得更加容易发生
Conflict is much easier between pre-categorized areas —
也就是“其他人”居住的地方
where the “others” live.
那些曾经使城市连接在一起的纽带
The ties that used to bind the city together —
他们的社交 无论是通过比邻的建筑
whether they were social, through coherent building,
还是经济往来 通过露天市场的贸易
or economic, through trade in the souk,
或者宗教信仰 还是通过共存共处
or religious, through the coexistent presence —
都已经消失在了误导和没有远见的建筑环境现代化之中
were all lost in the misguided and visionless modernization of the built environment.
请允许我说句题外话
Allow me an aside.
当我了解到在世界其它地方由不同族裔组成的城市生活
When I read about heterogeneous urbanism in other parts of the world,
包括在英国城市的民族聚集区
involving ethnic neighborhoods in British cities
巴黎周边 和 布鲁塞尔
or around Paris or Brussels,
我知道到了不稳定的开始
I recognize the beginning of the kind of instability
我们已经见证了在叙利亚的灾难中的这种不稳定
we have witnessed so disastrously here in Syria.
我们已经严重地摧毁了几个城市
We have severely destroyed cities,
像霍姆斯 阿勒颇 德拉以及很多其他城市
such as Homs, Aleppo, Daraa and many others,
几乎一半的人口无家可归
and almost half of the population of the country is now displaced.
但愿这场战争会结束
Hopefully, the war will end,
作为一个建筑师 我必须要问的问题:
and the question that, as an architect, I have to ask, is:
我们要如何重建?
How do we rebuild?
为了避免再犯同样的错误
What are the principles that we should adopt
我们应该采取什么原则?
in order to avoid repeating the same mistakes?
以我来看 我们应该专注于建造
From my point of view, the main focus should be on creating places
让人们能有归属感的地方
that make their people feel they belong.
建筑和规划需要重新采取
Architecture and planning need to recapture
为和平共处创造条件的
some of the traditional values that did just that,
某些传统价值观
creating the conditions for coexistence and peace,
重拾对美的审视 不是虚有其表
values of beauty that don’t exhibit ostentation,
而是亲和性和实用性
but rather, approachability and ease,
以及慷慨和包容的道德观
moral values that promote generosity and acceptance,
建筑是让任何人都可以享受的东西 不应只是为了精英们
architecture that is for everyone to enjoy, not just for the elite,
就像以前在老叙利亚城市里那些庇荫的小巷一样
just as used to be in the shadowed alleys of the old Islamic city,
多方混合的设计促进了人民之间团结
mixed designs that encourage a sense of community.
在霍姆斯有一个地区叫做巴巴阿姆鲁
There is a neighborhood here in Homs that’s called Baba Amr
现已完全被摧毁了
that has been fully destroyed.
大约在两年前 为了重建它
Almost two years ago, I introduced this design
我向联合国人居署介绍了这种设计
into a UN-Habitat competition for rebuilding it.
这个想法是受树的启发创造一个城市架构
The idea was to create an urban fabric inspired by a tree,
它能够自然地增长和扩张
capable of growing and spreading organically,
模仿了老街巷的传统桥梁
echoing the traditional bridge hanging over the old alleys,
并包含了公寓 私人庭院 店铺
and incorporating apartments, private courtyards, shops,
小作坊 停车场 娱乐和休闲场所 树和遮阳区域
workshops, places for parking and playing and leisure, trees and shaded areas.
很明显 它离完美相距甚远
It’s far from perfect, obviously.
我是在只有几小时的供电限制內画的
I drew it during the few hours of electricity we get.
有很多可能的方式可以通过建筑去表达归属感和共同性
And there are many possible ways to express belonging and community through architecture.
但与之相比 重建Baba Amr城官方项目的提议
But compare it with the freestanding, disconnected blocks
只是些互不依附 毫无关联的街区而已
proposed by the official project for rebuilding Baba Amr.
建筑不是所有类人生命围绕的中轴线
Architecture is not the axis around which all human life rotates,
但它有启发甚至引导人类行为的力量
but it has the power to suggest and even direct human activity.
在这种意义上 移民 民族认同感和社会一体化
In that sense, settlement, identity and social integration
都是有效的城市化的生产者和产品
are all the producer and product of effective urbanism.
在老伊斯兰城
The coherent urbanism of the old Islamic city
和许多其他老的欧洲城市
and of many old European towns, for instance,
尽管他们提倡融合
promote integration,
但是这一排排毫无灵魂的房屋和高楼大厦
while rows of soulless housing or tower blocks,
即使它们很豪华
even when they are luxurious,
还是倾向于促进隔离状态和排他性
tend to promote isolation and “otherness.”
城市中 甚至像乘凉的地方 或水果种植或饮水这样简单的事
Even simple things like shaded places or fruit plants or drinking water inside the city
都会让人们对这个地方的感觉有所不同
can make a difference in how people feel towards the place,
无论他们认为它是一个宽容的地方
and whether they consider it a generous place that gives,
一个值得保留 值得奉献的地方
a place that’s worth keeping, contributing to,
还是视它为一个充满仇恨 疏远的地方
or whether they see it as an alienating place full of seeds of anger.
为了让一个地点给予人们东西 它的建筑也应该有所给予
In order for a place to give, its architecture should be giving, too.
我们的建筑环境很重要
Our built environment matters.
我们社会的结构反射了我们灵魂的结构
The fabric of our cities is reflected in the fabric of our souls.
无论在非正规的水泥贫民窟
And whether in the shape of informal concrete slums
还是被破坏的政府福利房
or broken social housing
或者被践踏的老城区
or trampled old towns
或是摩天大楼的水泥森林
or forests of skyscrapers,
这个在整个中东地区出现的
the contemporary urban archetypes
当代的都市形态
that have emerged all across the Middle East
已经成为了社区异化和碎片化的原因之一
have been one cause of the alienation and fragmentation of our communities.
我们可以从中学习
We can learn from this.
我们可以学习如何用另一种方式重建
We can learn how to rebuild in another way,
学习如何去建造一个不仅仅
how to create an architecture that doesn’t contribute only
在实用和经济方面为人们的生活做贡献
to the practical and economic aspects of people’s lives,
还要在社会 宗教和心理需求方面有贡献的建筑
but also to their social, spiritual and psychological needs.
这些需求在战前被完全地忽视了
Those needs were totally overlooked in the Syrian cities before the war.
我们需要再次建造那些居住着的不同的社会群体
We need to create again cities that are shared
共同分享的城市
by the communities that inhabit them.
如果我们这样做 人们就不会再需要去追求
If we do so, people will not feel the need
人和人之间的差异
to seek identities opposed to the other identities all around,
因为他们会感受到家的温暖
because they will all feel at home.
感谢你们的聆听
Thank you for listening.

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视频概述

是什么导致了叙利亚战争?压迫,旱灾以及宗教方面的差异都扮演着关键的角色。但是Marwa Al-Sabouni提出了另一个原因:建筑。她从霍姆斯市通过网络告诉我们,在这过去的六年里,她目睹了战争把城市撕裂的过程。Al-Sabouni 提出叙利亚的建筑把曾经包容的,多文化的社会分裂成了,只有单一特征的,被阶级和宗教区分的飞地。现在,这个国家的未来就取决于重建的方式上了。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yqAD0MX3Zk

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