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自杀倾向如何通过家庭和学校传播 – 译学馆
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自杀倾向如何通过家庭和学校传播

How Suicidal Tendencies Spread Through Families and Classrooms

防止一个人自杀是怎样拯救很多生命的
How preventing one suicide can save many lives
那么让我们来关注一些
So we focus attention on some of the behaviors
正能量和乐观之下的阴暗面
on the very dark side of the spectrum of hopefulness and optimism,
即自杀行为
which is suicidal behaviors.
通过深入了解文献
When we dug into that literature,
我们知道了自杀是年轻人的一个重要死因
we saw the importance of suicide as a cause of death for young people,
而对于15至19岁的美国青少年来说 我认为
and for teenagers it’s the number two cause of death for, I think,
自杀是第二大致死因素
ages 15 to 19 in the United States.
很多关于自杀的研究把重心
A lot of the scholarship that’s focusedon suicide
放在个人风险因素上
has focused on individual risk factors
—包括遗传因素和身体或精神的痛苦
—both genetics and the presence ofphysical and emotional pain
我们要做的是稍微扩展一下
—and what we wanted to do is think a little bit broader
与自杀有关的社会风气和社会历程的思路
about social contagion and social processes related to suicide.
在社会风气的蔓延进程中 自杀也在研究之列
In processes of social contagion and suicide have also been understudied
因为社会的传染和社会进程对青少年的影响
because social contagion and social processes for adolescent suicide
往往出现在一些名人的自杀新闻之后
often comes up in the news when a celebrity commits suicide,
公共政策规定媒体
and there are public policies for the media not to
不能报道名人自杀行为
report celebrity suicides in order to not have spikes of
以免激起青少年模仿自杀行为
adolescents committing suicide as copycatting.
最近媒体也开始接受培训
More recently the media has being trained
在报道名人自杀事件的同时
that if there is a celebrity suicide to report
也要提供热线和信息
the story but also report hotlines and information for
来帮助那些有同样自杀想法的青少年
adolescents who are feeling the same way.
政府出台了一系列涉及潜在社会风气蔓延和自杀的公共政策
So there’s a lot of public policy interestin the potential for contagion and suicide.
因此我们也在研究中加了这一项
So we focused some attention on that in ourstudy, too.
因此我们开始调查有关自杀信息的测量数据
So what we did was we begin to survey data that hadinformation on suicide,
并思考社会历程
and to think about social processes,
我们找的资料不仅有关人们的自杀意图
we found data that had notjust your own suicidal attempts
或自杀倾向
or suicidality
还有其家人最近是否有过自杀行为
but also whether or not family members hadrecently committed suicide.
我们想要追踪我们想要看到的社会历程
And our thinking was in order to trace a socialprocess we wanted to see,
在某种意义上 “首例病人” ——
in some sense, patient zero—
家庭中有一个人自杀——
which would be a family member having committed suicide—
然后通过青少年的社交网络追踪到该信息
and then trace that through an adolescent social network.
因此我们调查了去年有自杀情况的家庭
So we measured family suicides that occurredin a previous year.
我们了解了一下家里的自杀现象
We examined the impact on the adolescents in the families
对青少年的影响
that had family suicides,
但接着我们思维一转 提出这样一个问题:
but then we pivoted and asked the question:
家庭自杀行为的影响是否蔓延到学校班级呢?
do those family processes spill over into the classroom?
因此我们调查了去年家中
So we examined the impact of having a classmate
有人自杀的同学对班级产生的影响
who had a family member commit suicide in the last year.
接着我们就发现了一种严重的影响
And, again, we found very large effects that
即同班同学的家庭成员中
seemed to work through having a classmate’s
有人自杀
family member commit suicide,
会影响到该同学
affecting the classmate him or herself,
然后这种自杀行为会扩散到班级里
it then spills over into the classroom on the suicidal behaviors
间接影响到同班学生的行为
of those who are not directly affected.
研究中另一项令人惊讶的发现是
And the other surprising finding in that study
家庭成员自杀会增加
was that these pathways between a family member committing suicide,
青少年自杀倾向
an adolescent increasing their suicidality and then spilling over into
并在班级扩散 但影响路径只顺着性别传播
the classroom is that that process only followsgender lines,
意思就是如果我是班上的女同学
meaning that if I’m a female student in a classroom
那么只有班里的女生的家人自杀
it only matters to me whether females in my classroom
才会影响到我
had family members who’ve committed suicide.
家中有人自杀的男同学
Having males in my classroom who had familymembers commit suicide
并不会影响到我
does not affect my suicidality.
这是一个有趣和令人惊讶的发现
So it’s a very intriguing and surprisingfinding.
它不仅说明了自杀影响的
It says something both on the potential for
蔓延风险 也说明了
spillovers for contagion in suicide but also
这有点复杂因为一旦这种风险蔓延到教室里
that it’s a little bit more complicatedbecause once it moves into the classroom
我认为这些自杀行为的传染途径是利用先前的社交网络
I think these suicide contagions take advantage of preexisting networks
即教室里女生和女生交朋友 男生和男生交朋友
where girls are friends with girls and boys are friends with boys
一个同学家里发生了自杀事件
inside classrooms, and when a bad thing happens
只会影响到
to a classmate’s family then that news and those effects
同性别的特定人群
seem to travel on gender-specific lines.
和虐待儿童调查一样
And similar to the child abuse examination
我们发现家庭成员或者
where we found that family members or family
家庭事件会影响到班里的同学
processes spilled into the classroom,
有可能会有关于
there’s a policy implication here that
一些成功预防自杀的项目的政策出现
successful suicide prevention programs
让没有接受治疗
again have this potential for spilling over on people who aren’t
或者无意接受治疗的人不会受到影响
treated themselves or who aren’t intervened on themselves.
如果你能成功阻止
If you can successfully prevent a suicide, in our case,
一位家庭成员自杀 不仅减少了该家庭成员自杀企图
in a family member that actually reduces the likelihood of a suicide attempt
也减少了同班同学自杀的可能性
in both the adolescent in the family but also the adolescent’s classmates.
所以再次说明当你为了
So again this has the possibility of a larger bang for your buck
预防自杀投入大量金钱
where you spend money to reduce suicide
或是预防一个家庭成员自杀时
or spend money to prevent suicidein a single family
不管是这个家庭还是这个家庭成员的同学
but you gain the benefits of both the family
都会因此而获益
and the classmates of the family.

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视频概述

自杀行为不仅会影响到家庭成员,还会影响到班级同学

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Thalie

审核员

审核员 HZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uvM5ebv6D-Q

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