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过年少吃糖,糖是如何干扰你的味觉、肠胃甚至大脑的

How sugar affects the brain - Nicole Avena

想象一下温热 粘软的饼干
Picture warm, gooey cookies,
嘎嘣脆的糖果 柔软可口的蛋糕
crunchy candies, velvety cakes,
用冰淇淋高高堆起的华夫饼筒
waffle cones piled high with ice cream.
流口水了吗?
Is your mouth watering?
想吃甜食了吗?
Are you craving dessert?
你知道为什么吗?
Why?
大脑中究竟发生了什么 让我们对糖如此难以抗拒?
What happens in the brain that makes sugary foods so hard to resist?
“糖”是用来描述一类被称作碳水化合物分子的概括性词汇
Sugar is a general term used to describe a class of molecules
很多食物和饮料中
called carbohydrates, and it’s found in a wide variety
都发现了它的存在
of food and drink.
只要检查一下你买的甜食上的标签
Just check the labels on sweet products you buy.
葡萄糖 果糖 蔗糖 麦芽糖
Glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose,
乳糖 右旋糖 淀粉
lactose, dextrose, and starch
都是糖的不同形式
are all forms of sugar.
高果糖含量的玉米糖浆 果汁 原糖和蜂蜜也是糖的不同形式
So are high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, raw sugar, and honey.
糖不仅仅存在于糖果和甜点中
And sugar isn’t just in candies and desserts,
也被添加到番茄酱 酸奶
it’s also added to tomato sauce, yogurt,
果脯 加味水或麦片中
dried fruit, flavored waters, or granola bars.
既然糖无处不在 那么理解它是怎样影响大脑的
Since sugar is everywhere, it’s important to understand
就很重要了
how it affects the brain.
当舌头触碰到糖时会发生什么?
What happens when sugar hits your tongue?
吃一点点的糖会让你想要吃更多?
And does eating a little bit of sugar make you crave more?
你尝了一口麦片之后
You take a bite of cereal.
包含其中的糖会激发甜味感受器
The sugars it contains activatethe sweet-taste receptors,
甜味感受器是舌头上味蕾的一部分
part of the taste buds on the tongue.
这些感受器会向上给脑干输送一条信息
These receptors send a signal up to the brain stem,
然后 脑干复制信息后再传递到前脑的许多区域
and from there, it forks off into many areas of the forebrain,
其中一个区域就是大脑皮层
one of which is the cerebral cortex.
这个区域的不同部分处理不同的味觉:苦
Different sections of the cerebral cortex process different tastes: bitter,
咸 鲜 和我们此处的“甜”
salty, umami, and, in our case, sweet.
由此 信号激发起大脑的奖赏效应
From here, the signal activates the brain’s reward system.
该奖赏效应是一系列穿过大脑中不同区域的
This reward system is a series of electrical and chemical pathways
电的或化学的通道
across several different regions of the brain.
这是个复杂的网络
It’s a complicated network,
但却帮助回答了一个简单的下意识的问题:
but it helps answer a single, subconscious question:
我要不要再来一次?
should I do that again?
那种你吃奶奶做的巧克力蛋糕时得到的温暖而朦胧的感觉
That warm, fuzzy feeling you get when you taste Grandma’s chocolate cake?
那就是你的奖励系统在说话“嗯嗯…… 当然了!”
That’s your reward system saying, “Mmm, yes!”
不仅仅食物会激发奖励系统 社交
And it’s not just activated by food. Socializing,
性行为 毒品
sexual behavior, and drugs
也是激发奖励机制的
are just a few examples of things and experiences
一些事情或经历
that also activate the reward system.
但若刺激过度 奖励系统就会出现些令人遗憾的情况:
But overactivating this reward system kickstarts a series of unfortunate events:
失控 暴食 对糖的忍耐度增加
loss of control, craving, and increased tolerance to sugar.
还是让我们回到刚开始吃麦片的时候吧
Let’s get back to our bite of cereal.
麦片进入到你的胃中并最终进入内脏
It travels down into your stomachand eventually into your gut.
猜猜会怎样?
And guess what?
这里也有糖类感受器
There are sugar receptors here, too.
它们不是味蕾 但也给大脑发信号
They are not taste buds, but they do send signals
告诉大脑你已经吃饱了
telling your brain that you’re full or
或是你的身体应该产生更多的胰岛素
that your body should produce more insulin
用以分解你正在进食带来的额外的糖分
to deal with the extra sugar you’re eating.
我们奖励系统中的主要传递物质是多巴胺
The major currency of our reward system is dopamine,
一种重要的化合物(神经递质)
an important chemical or neurotransmitter.
前脑中有许多多巴胺感受器
There are many dopaminereceptors in the forebrain,
但是它们分布不均匀
but they’re not evenly distributed.
特定区域的感受器分布十分密集
Certain areas contain dense clusters of receptors,
这些多巴胺的聚集地就是我们奖励系统的一部分
and these dopamine hot spots are a part of our reward system.
酒精 尼古丁或海洛因等药品
Drugs like alcohol, nicotine, or heroin
会使多巴胺传递过度
send dopamine into overdrive,
导致一些人不停地追求那种快感
leading some people to constantly seek that high,
换句话说 就是用药成瘾
in other words, to be addicted.
糖类同样也促使多巴胺分泌 尽管不如药品那么激烈
Sugar also causes dopamine to be released, though not as violently as drugs.
激发多巴胺的食物中很少见到糖类
And sugar is rare among dopamine-inducing foods. Broccoli,
比如西兰花 就不含糖类
for example, has no effect,
这也许解释了为什么
which probably explains why it’s so hard to
让孩子们吃素菜那么困难
get kids to eat their veggies.
说到健康的食物
Speaking of healthy foods,
我们假设你很饿 并决定采纳均衡的饮食
let’s say you’re hungry and decide to eat a balanced meal.
刚开始时 你的多巴胺含量在奖励系统的聚集区急剧上升
You do, and dopamine levels spike in the reward system hot spots.
但是如果你在接下来的
But if you eat that same
很多天都吃相同的菜的话
dish many days in a row,
多巴胺分泌的就会越来越少 并最终停止分泌
dopamine levels will spike less and less, eventually leveling out.
这是因为在食物面前
That’s because when it comes to food,
我们的大脑已经进化到只对新的或不同口味给予特殊的注意力
the brain evolved to pay special attention to new or different tastes.
这又是为什么呢?
Why?
两个原因:其一 为了去除已经变质的食物
Two reasons: first, to detect food that’s gone bad.
其二 因为我们的食谱越多元化
And second, because the more varietywe have in our diet,
我们就越可能获得所需要的营养素
the more likely we are to get all the nutrients we need.
而为了保证这种多样化
To keep that variety up,
我们需要能辨别新的食物
we need to be able to recognize a new food,
更重要的是 我们需要想着一直吃新的食物
and more importantly, we need to want to keep eating new foods.
这就是为什么当厌倦了一种食物时多巴胺的含量就为零了
And that’s why the dopamine levels off when a food becomes boring. Now,
现在我们再回到那一餐
back to that meal.
如果健康均衡的饮食被富含糖类的食物代替
What happens if in place of the healthy, balanced dish,
会发生什么呢?
you eat sugar-rich food instead?
如果你很少吃糖或每次吃得不多
If you rarely eat sugar or don’t eat much at a time,
影响就类似于均衡的饮食
the effect is similar to that of the balanced meal.
但是如果你吃的太多 多巴胺反应不能呈平稳状态
But if you eat too much, the dopamine response does not level out.
换句话说 吃太多的糖会持续感到开心
In other words, eating lots of sugar will continue to feel rewarding.
这样的话 糖就表现得有点像毒品了
In this way, sugar behaves a little bit like a drug.
这似乎是人们一直关注含糖食品的一个原因
It’s one reason people seem to be hooked on sugary foods. So,
所以 回想下所有这些不同种类的糖
think back to all those different kinds of sugar.
每种糖都是独一无二的 但是每次它们被消化的时候
Each one is unique, but every time any sugar is consumed,
就会激发起大脑中的多米诺效应 带来奖励的感觉
it kickstarts a domino effect in the brain that sparks a rewarding feeling.
吃得太多太频繁 事情就会过度 所以
Too much, too often, and things can go into overdrive. So, yes,
过度消耗糖类确实会对大脑产生成瘾的后果
overconsumption of sugar can have addictive effects on the brain,
但是偶尔吃一小块蛋糕并不会对你造成伤害
but a wedge of cake once in a while won’t hurt you.

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视频概述

为什么我们一吃甜食就停不下来?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

海参崴

审核员

审核员V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lEXBxijQREo

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