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压力是如何威胁你的健康的 – 译学馆
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压力是如何威胁你的健康的

How stress affects your body - Sharon Horesh Bergquist

《压力与身体健康》
Cramming for a test.
考试前临时抱佛脚
Trying to get more done than you have time to do.
想要完成更多的事 但你的时间却不允许
Stress is a feeling we all experience
压力是一种我们都有过的感觉
when we are challenged or overwhelmed.
当我们面临挑战或被压垮时就会感到压力
But more than just an emotion,
但压力不仅是一种感觉
stress is a hardwired physical response
压力是一种本能的生理反应
that travels throughout your entire body.
它会让我们整个身体都有感觉
In the short term,stress can be advantageous,
短期内 压力对我们是有利的
but when activated too often or too long,
但如果频繁感到压力或持续时间过长
your primitive fight or flight stress response
我们对压力本能的反抗或逃避
not only changes your brain
不仅会改变我们的大脑
but also damages many of the other organs and cells throughout your body.
还会伤害到我们体内的诸多器官和细胞
Your adrenal gland releases the stress hormones cortisol
肾上腺会分泌应激激素皮质醇
epinephrine ,also known as adrenaline,
肾上腺激素 也叫做肾上腺素
and norepinephrine.
和降肾上腺素
As these hormones travel through your blood stream,
这些激素游走在我们的血液中
they easily reach your blood vessels and heart.
它们很容易进入我们的血管和心脏
Adrenaline causes your heart to beat faster
肾上腺素让我们心跳加速
and raises your blood pressure,
并使血压升高
over time causing hypertension.
长此以往 我们会患上高血压
Cortisol can also cause the endothelium,
皮质醇还会导致内皮组织
or inner lining of blood vessels,to not function normally.
或者血管内模层功能异常
Scientists now know that this is an early step
科学家们目前知道
in triggering the process of atherosclerosis
这是诱发动脉粥样硬化
or cholesterol plaque build up in your arteries .
或导致胆固醇斑块在动脉中堆积的第一步
Together, these changes increase your chances of a heart attack or stroke.
总之 这些变化会增加罹患心脏病或中风的几率
When your brain senses stress,
当大脑感受到了压力
it activates your autonomic nervous system.
我们的自主神经系统就会被激活
Through this network of nerve connections,
通过神经的联系网
your big brain communicates stress to your enteric,
我们的大脑会将压力信号传递给肠道
or intestinal nervous system.
或者肠道的神经系统
Besides causing butterflies in your stomach,
压力除了让你焦虑不安
this brain-gut connection can disturb the natural rhythmic contractions
这种大脑和肠道的联系还会干扰肠道
that move food through your gut,
让其在运输食物时无法自然有节奏的收缩
leading to irritable bowel syndrome,
从而导致肠道易激综合征
and can increase your gut sensitivity to acid,
并且还会增加肠道对酸的敏感度
making you more likely to feel heartburn.
让我们更容易感到胃灼热
Via the gut’s nervous system,
通过肠道的神经系统
stress can also change the composition and function of your gut bacteria,
压力还会改变肠道细菌的组成和功能
which may affect your digestive and overall health.
这可能会影响消化功能和整体健康状况
speaking of digestion does chronic stress affect your waistline?
说到消化 那慢性压力会影响我们腰围吗?
Well, yes.
答案是肯定的
Cortisol can increase your appetite.
皮质醇会增加我们的食欲
It tells your body to replenish your energy stores
它会告诉身体去摄入高热量的食物和碳水化合物
with energy dense foods and carbs,
来补充能量储存
causing you to crave comfort foods.
让我们对美食产生食欲
High levels of cortisol can also cause you to put on those extra calories
高浓度的皮质醇会让这些多余的热量
as visceral or deep belly fat.
转化为内脏或腹部的脂肪
This type of fat doesn’t just make it harder to button your pants.
这些脂肪不仅让我们更难扣上裤子上的扣子
It is an organ that actively releases hormones
它还是一个在积极释放激素的器官
and immune system chemicals called cytokines
一种在免疫系统里叫做细胞因子的化学物质
that can increase your risk of developing chronic diseases,
这种细胞因子会增加我们患慢性病的风险
such as heart disease and insulin resistance.
如心脏病 胰岛素抵抗
Meanwhile, stress hormones affect immune cells in a variety of ways.
同时 压力激素还通过诸多方式影响免疫细胞
Initially, they help prepare to fight invaders and heal after injury,
最初 它们帮助抗击入侵者 并帮助修复损伤
but chronic stress can dampen function of some immune cells,
但慢性压力会削弱一些免疫细胞的功能
make you more susceptible to infections,
让我们更易感染疾病
and slow the rate you heal.
并减慢身体的治愈速度
Want to live a long life?
想活久一点吗?
You may have to curb your chronic stress.
那就必须要控制我们的慢性压力
That’s because it has even been associated with shortened telomeres,
因为慢性压力甚至还和端粒缩短有关
the shoelace tip ends of chromosomes that measure a cell’s age.
类似鞋带的染色体末端可用来计算细胞年龄
Telomeres cap chromosomes to allow DNA
端粒戴在染色体头上 在细胞分裂时
to get copied every time a cell divides
端粒能让染色体完成复制
without damaging the cell’s genetic code,
并且保证不损伤细胞的基因序列
and they shorten with each cell division.
每次细胞分裂后端粒都会缩短
When telomeres become too short,
当端粒变得很短时
a cell can no longer divide and it dies.
细胞就不能再分裂 细胞也会死亡
As if all that weren’t enough,
这还不是全部
chronic stress has even more ways it can sabotage your health,
慢性压力还会通过多种方式破坏我们的健康
including acne, hair loss, sexual dysfunction,headaches,
包括痤疮 脱发 性功能紊乱 头疼
muscle tension, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, and irritability.
肌肉紧张 注意力不集中 疲劳和易怒
So, what does all this mean for you?
所以 以上这些对我们意味着什么?
Your life will always be filled with stressful situations.
我们的生活将总是充斥着压力
But what matters to your brain and entire body
但对于我们的大脑和身体最重要的是
is how you respond to that stress.
如何应对压力
If you can view those situations
如果你能把所在处境视作一种
as challenges you can control and master,
你能控制并战胜的挑战
rather than as threats that are insurmountable,
而不是一种无法克服的威胁
you will perform better in the short run
那么短期内你能表现得更好
and stay healthy in the long run
并能长期保持健康

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视频概述

短期适当的压力有益于目标的实现,但长期过大的压力则严重危害我们的健康,这则视频介绍了压力威胁我们健康的方式及其危害

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v-t1Z5-oPtU

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