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STEM是如何产生的:为什么科学家需要人文学者 – 译学馆
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STEM是如何产生的:为什么科学家需要人文学者

How STEM Was Born: And Why Scientists Needs Humanists | Earl Lewis

在过去的十几二十年里 大量的评论家都谈论到
A number of commentators over the last decade maybe two decades have talked about what I
所谓的技能发展 也就是说 在你开始第一份工作时 是否具备
think of as skills development meaning do you have the requisite skills to be able to
这份工作所要求的能力?
enter your first job.
像:阅读能力
Can you read well?
写作水平
Can you write well?
编程能力 等等
Do you have the ability to code, et cetera?
实际上我认为 我们经常会混淆了技能和技能发展与教育之间的关系
I actually think we often times confused skills and skills development with education.
教育实际上是用来鼓励个体思考
An education is actually designed to actually encourage the individual to consider questions
前人没有思考过的问题 让个体真正有能力把大量的信息组装起来
they hadn’t considered before, to actually be able to assemble a vast array of information
再把信息整合并提出自己推敲出来想法
and then to synthesize that information and to come up with perhaps what one would think
作为自己新的答案
of as new answers.
而不是说要去学习最新的科技
It’s not about learning the most recent technique.
这其中的问题在于 如果你只学习现成的知识
And the challenge is that if you only talk about skills development the way knowledge
而新一轮知识的产生只需要18个月
is produced these days a generation is 18 months.
因此这就意味着 等到你实际上结束学业的时候
And so that means by the time you’ve actually finish school often times you’re already behind
很多时候你已经落后于潮流 学的一些知识也已经过时
the curve and some of that information is obsolete.
如果你受过真正的教育并且主动学习 知道如何追求新知
If you’re really truly educated you then learn and you know how to go about pursuing the
追求可以整合并运用到已知领域的信息
new acquisition of information and that information that you can then synthesize and apply to
这就意味着你没有落后于潮流 你紧跟着时代的步伐
what you already know means then that you’re not behind the curve, you’re keeping pace
尽管科技领域和美国人生活的其他方面一直在
with the change that’s always occurring in both technology and other aspects of American
发生变化
life.
我爱STEM: 科学、技术、工程和数学
I love STEM: science, technology, engineering and math.
实际上 我记得大约在1998年 我在美国国家科学基金会的一个会议上
I actually can remember circa 1998 being at a meeting at the National Science Foundation
那时候这个单词还不是STEM 而是SMET: 科学 数学 工程和技术
and it wasn’t even STEM yet, it was SMET: science, math, engineering and technology.
我们当时都坐在那讨论要不要叫它SMET
And we were all sitting there going are you sure you want to call it SMET?
然后一年之后回首 这个单词由SMET变成了STEM 于是我们追问
And we came back a year later and it turned from being SMET to STEM and we go why is it
为什么现在是STEM而不是SMET
now STEM and not SMET?
他们说 嗯 不管你们相不相信 我们去了国会为SMET要资金
And they said well, believe it or not we were up on Capitol Hill asking for money for SMET
一个国会议员的助理问:“为什么你们要为淫秽小说要钱?”
and one congress person’s aid goes, “Why do we want money for smut?”
(助理)听错并误解了所说的内容
Misunderstanding and miss hearing what was being said and they realized at that point
他们在那时意识到 他们需要调整字母顺序
that they need to re-order the alphabet.
由此产生了STEM
And so hence was born STEM.
实际上 STEM还花了六七年时间才真正获得一些关注
The long story is that actually it still took another six or seven years for STEM to actually
因为许多公共政策制定者和其他人把STEM看作是
gain some traction because a lot of both public policy makers and others thought of STEM as
类似干细胞的研究 他们对干细胞没多大兴趣
related to stem cell research and they were hesitant to get into the political cultural
也不想涉及干细胞研究的政治文化论战中
wars over stem cell and stem cell research.
但通过科学界的同事们的坚持不懈 现在我们可以在所有地方听到它
My colleagues in the sciences persevered and we now hear all over the place we need to
我们需要在科学 技术 工程和数学上投资
make investments in science, technology, engineering and math.
事实上 我也确信我们需要这样做 意识到我所考虑的是当今世界的大挑战
While I actually believe we need to do so, I also realize that what I think of are these
这个棘手的挑战要求我们运用所有才能和调查来解决
grand challenges in the world, these gnarly problems that require us to really mobilize
我们解决不了那些问题 除非我们去找
a whole array of talent and research, we can’t answer those questions only by asking what
一位科学家或者一位工程师寻求答案
a scientist would think of it or an engineer.
我想举一个我最喜欢的例子
The example I give is one of my favorite examples.
几年前 我出席一个亚特兰大的会议 当时我还在埃默里大学
I was in a meeting in Atlanta some years ago when I was still at Emory University and we
在乔治亚理工学院的工作结束了之后 我朋友们和另一些埃默里大学的同事们
were over at Georgia Tech and our friends at Georgia Tech and colleagues from Emory
以及来自CDC的前职员们当时正坐在房间里谈论水资源
and former officials from the CDC were sitting in the room talking about water and the need
并提出对于净化水资源方案的需求一事
to come up with a solution to clean water.
他们当时正在讲一个关于一个西非村庄的故事
And they were telling a story about a West African village.
这个村庄需要干净的水
And in this West African village there was a need for clean water.
那里的妇女每天都要长途跋涉去被污染的河边打水
The women would trek every day down to the river that was contaminated and that was actually
这会导致了各种本可以预防的疾病而开始滋生
leading to all kinds of infections that could be prevented.
因此一个国际组织开展调查并给他们筹集资金
So one of the international agencies provided research and dollars for them to then drill
来打井
a well.
工程师们来做了调查 然后在村子的正中间
The engineers came in and did their survey and drilled the well right in the middle of
打了井
the village.
然而令人惊讶的是 妇女们无视这口井 依旧去被污染的河边打水
To their surprise the women walked past the well and kept going to the contaminated river.
工程师们大惑不解
And the engineers were mystified.
最后工程师们认为他们应该带一些人类学家和性别专家来
Finally the engineers thought well maybe we should bring in some anthropologist and gender
和妇女们谈谈
experts to talk to the women.
他们这样做了 并且问了妇女们一个简单的问题:
They finally did and they asked the women a simple question, “Why are you walking past
“为什么你们无视一口有着十分干净的水的井而去被污染的河挑水?“
a well and perfectly clean water to go to the river with the contaminated water?”
妇女们回答道 我们知道这里的水更好 但是并不知道
And the women said look, we understand that this water is better here, but you don’t understand
为什么我们非要去河边
why we walk to the water.
那不仅仅是用来打水的 还是我们为离开村里的男人和孩子
It’s not only a utilitarian function of retrieving water, it’s a way for us to get away from
在日常事务中休息的一种方式
the menfolk in the village, from the children, to break up the routine of the domestic household.
其实 对我们来说 有一口井在那里并没有让我们更满意
For us to have this well right there actually doesn’t serve our purposes.
最后工程师们只有把井填掉 在更远的地方打了井
So they actually moved the well, they drilled it farther away to both assist the women and
这样既让她们保留自己的文化习惯 又提供了干净的水
allow them to have their cultural practices maintained and to also provide clean water.
但是在这个例子中 科学家需要人文学者 人文学者需要科学家
But it’s a case where in this case the scientists need a humanist and the humanists need a scientist.
我的问题是 我们发现并尝试解决的那些问题
And as I think about the kind of problems that we craft and the ones that we identify,
真的只是所提出的问题本身吗?
it’s really about what is the question being posed?
谁才是回答这个问题的最好的对话者?
Who are the best interlocutors to be part of answering that question?
我们又该怎样组成一个团队呢?
And how do we go about assembling the team?
对我来说 STEM很重要 但是当我们
And so for me at the very list least STEM is important, but all over the place when
遇到那些很棘手的挑战的问题时 我认为
we look at those grand challenges, those gnarly problems, I do come away thinking scientists
科学家需要人文学者 人文学者需要科学家 我们需要对方来帮助我们解决这些问题
need humanists and humanists need scientists and we need both to help us solve these problems.

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视频概述

一个科学家向我们讲述STEM这个单词是如何产生的,以及讨论为什么科学家需要人文学者。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

red

审核员

萨默之光

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PV1XR7NQyNE

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