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西班牙语差点就成了世界通用语言 – 译学馆
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西班牙语差点就成了世界通用语言

How Spanish, not English, was nearly the world's language | John Lewis Gladdis

我最喜欢教授的课程是关于
I think the favorite lesson that I like to teach
1588年西班牙国王腓力二世
is the Spanish Armada in 1588,
派遣西班牙无敌舰队对英国发动战争
sent there by King Philip II of Spain,
女王伊丽莎白一世领导的反击
and the defense against the Spanish Armada led by Queen Elizabeth I,
和当时西班牙舰队经历的事件
and what happened to the Spanish Armada in that situation.
我喜欢的理由是
The reason I like to teach it is
在当时 西班牙是一个超级大国
because Spain was the global superpower in that period.
几乎占领了整个新大陆
Spain had conquered almost the entire new world.
而那时的英国还只是英格兰
Britain had not—England as it was at that time—
它甚至还没有开始发展自己的殖民地
had not even begun to develop colonies.
冲突的焦点当然是天主教
And the issue, of course, was Catholicism,
西班牙试图将曾经被伊丽莎白之父亨利八世
and was Catholicism going to be brought back to England
驱逐的天主教
after it had been kicked out
重新在英格兰扶植起来
by Elizabeth ’ s father Henry VIII.
这使腓力二世认为
So this was what led Philip believing that
自己在以上帝的代理人的身份
he was an agent of the Almighty
将这支世界上规模最大的舰队
to send this largest of all naval forces
向北派遣到英吉利海峡
north into the English Channel.
试图为天主教重新征服英国
as a launch pad for the reconquest
做铺垫
by Catholicism of England.
那是1588年的八月
And that’s August of 1588.
伊丽莎白并不打算
Elizabeth ’ s strategy was not to attempt to
和西班牙舰队正面交锋
directly confront that fleet,
因为她还没有能与之匹敌的舰队
because she didn’t have a fleet that was capable of doing that.
她当然不能正面迎击西班牙军队
She certainly could not have confronted directly a Spanish army,
因为她实际上还没有自己的军队
because she had virtually no army of her own.
但她想到了借助地理环境
But she is thinking in terms of geography.
她考虑到了
She ’ s thinking in terms of
英吉利海峡平时的风向
what direction the winds blow in normally in the English Channel.
并发现如果她让西班牙舰队
And she saw that if she just allowed the Spanish fleet
缓缓顺英吉利海峡而上
to advance slowly up the English Channel—
——因为船只比较笨重 他们不得不这么做——
which it had to do because it was cumbersome—
她打算派一些英国船只在后面追赶
with a few English ships pursuing it
然后将它们逐个击破
and then pick them off as they pursue,
当到达
and then as they got up to
现在的比利时与法国交界处
the border of what’s now Belgium and France
(也就是军队原定的登陆地点时)
(where they were going to disembark their troops)
他们想到了借助风向的优势
realized that taking advantage of the winds,
引爆一些老旧的
if you just set a few old English ships on fire
英国舰船
with explosives on them.
让它们冲击庞大的西班牙舰队的中心
and send them into the middle of this huge Spanish fleet,
趁敌方惊慌失措时
that’s going to cause terror
英国舰队就能借机击败他们
and that in itself will be enough to defeat the Spanish.
一切都发生在一个夜晚
So it ’ s all happening on one evening
风向正好
with the winds in the right direction,
英国用八艘舰船
with eight ships used,
使西班牙舰队阵脚大乱
and the Spanish completely panicked
切断了己方的锚缆
to the extent of cutting their own anchor cables
一百多艘船只
so more than 100 ships self-destructed
失控自毁
in terms of losing control of the ability to navigate.
西班牙人只能落荒而逃
The only thing they could do then was to flee,
但由于风向的原因
but because of the winds,
他们不得不绕过整个英格兰和苏格兰
they had to flee around all of England, around Scotland,
沿爱尔兰海岸而下
down the Irish coast.
在仓皇逃回西班牙之前
And by the time they staggered back into Spain
补给就耗尽了
they were profoundly depleted.
这是一个重要的转折点
That’s the turning point.
这个时期可以说是
That ’ s the moment at which it can be said
西班牙帝国的巅峰 之后便走向衰落
the Spanish Empire reached its high point and then started descending.
英国逐渐开始崛起 成为超级大国
the English began to become very gradually a superpower.
吸引我的是
And I ’ m fascinated by the fact that
英吉利海峡的一夜 以及风向
it all can be reduced to a single night in the English Channel,
竟能影响世界格局的变动
and to the direction in which the winds blew.
这证明了抓住时机的重要性
So that testifies to the importance of seizing the moment.
也证明了宏观管理
It testifies to the importance of
而非微观管理的重要性
not micromanaging but macromanaging
要把权力赋予有专业素养的人
in the sense of delegating authority to the experts,
在这个案例中 就是指船长
in this case, her own sea captains.
相信他们能作出正确的决定
Trusting them to do the right thing.
相信他们能够抓住关键时机
Trusting them to take advantage of spontaneous moments.
他们没有时间向伊丽莎白女王汇报火攻的战略
They didn’t have time to consult Elizabeth about the fire ships.
也没有时间去想
They didn ’ t have time to wonder
如果他们平白无故牺牲了八艘战船
if they sacrificed eight ships,
女王会不会震怒之下砍了他们的头
will she get mad and cut off their heads?
他们认为不太可能
They figured no, it’s unlikely
因为女王本人就是一位军事家
because she’s a strategist herself.
她能理解这种牺牲会换来什么
She will understand what that sacrifice achieved.
结果正如预料的一样
And of course, that’s what happened.
这是女王的伟大胜利
So it’s her great triumph.
也是西班牙的巨大失败
It ’ s Spain ’ s great failure,
你可以认为
and you can argue it leads to
这引发了英国对北美的扩张
the development of North America by the British
同时也是今天我们使用英语
and to the fact that we are sitting here speaking English
而不是西班牙语的原因
and not Spanish now.

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视频概述

西班牙帝国从巅峰走向衰落,只在这一夜之间。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

青岩暑茶

审核员

审核员 D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1yReyCO6C8

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