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声音帮你于睡梦中巩固记忆 | DIY神经科学系列 – 译学馆
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声音帮你于睡梦中巩固记忆 | DIY神经科学系列

How sound can hack your memory while you sleep | DIY Neuroscience, a TED series

译者:Ivana Korom评论员:Joanna Pietrulewicz
Translator: Ivana KoromReviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz
Greg Gage:谁不喜欢地理考试得高分
Greg Gage: Who wouldn’t loveacing a geography exam,
不想记住地图上所有国家的位置
remembering all the locationsof the countries on a map
不想免于陷入突然忘记站在你正前方的
or avoiding embarrassing situationsof suddenly forgetting the person’s name
人的名字的尴尬境地
standing right in front of you.
事实证明 记忆就像身体的肌肉
It turns out that memory,like other muscles in the body,
能够得到巩固和加强
can be strengthened and enhanced.
但除了闪卡记忆训练
But instead of practicing with flash cards,
有一种有趣的方法
there may be an interesting way
可以在睡觉之时入侵记忆
that we can hack our memory while we sleep.
(音乐)
(Music)
我们为何要睡觉?
Why do we sleep?
自文明时期早期 就有人提出这一问题
This has been a question asked since the early days of civilization.
虽然我们也许并不知道正确答案
And while we may not know the exact answer,
但有很多关于为何需要睡眠的好理论
there are a number of really good theories about why we need it.
睡觉正是大脑将
Sleep is when the brain transfersshort-term memories
白天的短期记忆转为长期记忆的时候
experienced throughout the day into long-term memories.
这个过程叫做记忆巩固
This process is called memory consolidation,
关于记忆巩固理论 科学家不断思考
and it’s the memory consolidation theorythat has scientists wondering
我们是否能只加深某些记忆
if we can enhance certain memories over others.
最近Ken Paller和他来自西北大学的同事们
There was a paper recently in the journal”Science”
在”科学”杂志上发表的一篇论文
by Ken Paller and his colleaguesat Northwestern
说明了该理论可能是正确的
that seemed to show that this may be true,
这激起了我们的好奇心
and that picked our curiosity.
Joud一直在从事这项任务的DIY版本
Joud has been working on a DIY version of this task
来确认我们能否通过使用睡眠里的声音改善记忆
to see if we can improve memories through the use of sound in sleep.
所以Joud 你会怎么测试
So Joud, how do you test
我们能否用睡觉改善记忆呢?
if we can improve our memories with sleep?
Joud Mar’i:我们需要一个实验者
Joud Mar’i: We need a human subject.
[步骤1:玩一个游戏]
[Step 1: Play a game]
iPad上有个记忆游戏
We have a memory game that we have on an iPad,
然后我们让实验者玩这个游戏
and then we make our subject play this game and
记住这些图片以及其在屏幕上出现的位置
remember the images and where they appear on the screen.
GG:这就像我们儿时玩的记忆游戏
GG: So this is like a memory game you used to play when you are a child,
图片在哪里
which picture was where.
JM:没错
JM: Exactly.
我们还给每张图片配以相应的声音
And we tie each picturewith a sound that represents that picture.
JM:如果你看到一张
JM: So, if you can see a picture
车的图片 像这样
of a car, for example,
那么你将听到引擎声
and you would hear the car engine.
(发动引擎的声音)
(Car engine starting)
GG:在你睡觉前 我们会测试一次
GG: Just before you go to sleep we’re going to test you.
我们想看看你能记得多少图片的位置
We’re going to see how well you remember where the pictures are.
你每看一次图片 都会听到相应的声音
Every time you see the picture, you’re going to hear the sound.
接下来 实验开始
And now comes the experiment.
你将小憩一会儿
You’re going to go take a nap.
〔第二步:小憩〕
[Step 2: Take a nap]
我们将记录下你睡觉时的脑电波图
And while you’re sleeping,we’re going to be recording your EEG.
JM:然后我们就等
JM: And then we wait for them to go
它进入所谓的慢波睡眠
into what’s called the slow-wave sleep,
也就是睡眠最深
which is the deepest phase
的阶段 这时你很难醒过来
of your sleep where it’s really hard for you to wake up.
GG:先打住
GG: OK, pause.
这有些关于睡眠的知识
So here’s some information on sleep.
睡眠有四个阶段
There are four stages:
有浅睡期还有快速眼动睡眠期
we have lighter stages of sleep and REM,
我们所关心的叫做慢波睡眠
but what we’re interested inis called slow-wave sleep.
它是因我们对大脑电信号
And it gets its name from the electrical signals
德尔塔波的记录而得名
called Delta waves that we record from the brain.
在这一部分睡眠 科学家
This is the part of sleep where scientists believe
认为会开始巩固记忆
that memory consolidation can happen.
深度睡眠中
In this deep period of sleep,
我们会做出一些不自知的举动
we’re going to do something that you don’t know that we’re going to do.
JM:棘手的部分来了
JM: Here’s where the tricky part comes,
我们也要开始播放提示了
and we start playing our cues.
(汽车引擎声)
(Car engine starting)
GG:你会播放所有的提示音吗?
GG: Do you play all the cues from those things?
JM:不 有趣的在于
JM: Ok, no, the interesting part is that
我们只放一半
we only want to play half of them
看看有什么区别
to see if there’s a difference.
GG:所以你的假设是
GG: So your hypothesis is
那些睡觉时听过的提示音的人
the one that they were listening towhile they’re sleeping
醒来后 能玩得更好
they’ll do better at when they wake up.
JM:是的 正是这样
JM: Yes, exactly.
GG:当你醒来 再玩这个游戏
GG: When you wake back up and play the game again,
是会比之前玩得更好还是更差呢?
do you do better or worse than before a nap?
我们发现
What we found is
如果我们在你睡觉时播放了一种提示音
that if we played you a cue during your sleep,
比如 汽车
for example, a car —
你就会记住汽车的位置
You would remember the position of that car
在你醒来后
when you woke back up again.
但如果没有在你睡觉时播放提示音
But if we didn’t play you the cue during the sleep,
比如 吉他
for example, a guitar,
醒来后 你不大可能记得住吉他的位置
you’d be less likely to remember that guitar when you woke up.
我们给过提示的记忆
The memories that were cued
就比其他的记得更牢
they remembered better than the ones they weren’t,
即使他们醒来后
even though when they woke up,
都不知道曾听过这些声音
they don’t remember hearing those sounds.
JM:是的 我们问过他们
JM: Yes, exactly, we ask them.
GG:我们知道他们睡着了听不见 醒来后
GG: We know they’re sleeping, they can’t hear it, they wake up,
却能记住更多给了提示音的
they do better on those than the ones you didn’t play.
GG:太神奇了!JM:没错 就像魔术
GG: That’s amazing.JM: Yeah, It’s like magic.
GG:Joud对12个人进行了这项实验
So Joud ran this experiment on 12 people
得出的结论意义重大
and the results were significant.
你并非能将事情记得更牢
It’s not that you remember things better;
而是你忘却的变少了
it’s that you forget them less.
当第一次听说如果在睡觉时
I was a huge skeptic when I first heard
播放声音 能让你在记忆游戏
that you could do better at a memory test
表现得更好 我十分不信
just by playing sounds during sleep.
但是我们重做了这个实验
But we replicated these experiments.
一天中我们接受的事实
The facts and memories we collect
和记忆是无比脆弱的
throughout the day are very fragile,
它们很容易被丢失 遗忘
and they are easily lost and forgotten.
但要是睡梦中重新激活 就算我们毫无意识
But by reactivating them during sleep,even without us being aware,
似乎也能使它们更加牢固 不大可能被遗忘
it seems like we could make them more stable and less prone to forgetting.
难以置信!
That’s pretty incredible.
大脑在我们休息时 仍在工作
Our brains are still active even when we’re not.
那么如果你像我一样有些健忘
So if you’re like me and a bit forgetful,
也许一副耳机 一张软塌便可解决问题
perhaps a solution is a pair of headphones and a soft couch.

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