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索马里海盗是如何赚钱的?

How Somalia’s Pirates Make Money

This video is sponsored by Skillshare.
本视频由Skillshare赞助播出
The first 500 people to use the link in the description
点击详情链接的前500名用户
get their first two months free.
可以免费试用Skillshare两个月
This is the TI Europe,
这是“泰欧号”
one of the four largest ships in the world.
世界四大轮船之一
And here’s a banana for scale.
下面来看看它的规模
At 380 meters long, or twelve hundred feet,
“泰欧号”总长380米 约1200英尺
it’s 41 % longer than the Titanic,
比“泰坦尼克号”长41%
but still shorter than Titanic.
但比电影《泰坦尼克号》片长短
In this business, efficiency is everything
在船运业 效率就是一切
and every dollar counts.
每一分钱都重要
A ship made with twice the steel
一艘用两倍钢铁造的船
has much more than twice the capacity,
其容量要比普通船大出一倍多
with roughly the same size crew.
需要的船员人数却大致相同
Bigger boats, therefore, cost only a little bit more
因此 对体型更大的船只来说 只多花一点点钱
and yet make a lot more money.
却能赚更多的钱
So, here we are,
所以 就这样
with supertankers that can hold three million barrels of oil,
因为超级油轮可以装载目前市值达1.74亿美元的
which, at today’s going price,
300万桶石油
makes the TI Europe a $ 174 million target for pirates.
这使“泰欧号”成为海盗劫掠的目标
Last year, an attack was reported every other day,
去年 每隔几天就有新闻报道
in some of the busiest, most well-patrolled routes,
在诸如亚丁湾 新加坡海峡 马来西亚海湾等
like the Gulf of Aden, the Singapore Strait,
一些最繁忙 戒备最森严的航线
and the coast of Malaysia.
发生海盗袭击事件
But these are not parrot-wearing, sword-carrying outlaws.
但这些海盗可没有身着羽毛 手持佩剑
Today’s pirates operate a carefully-planned, well-executed business
如今的海盗也做起了生意 他们计划周详 执行高效
with investors, a stock market, chain of command, and experienced negotiators.
他们有投资人 股票 行政管理制度和经验丰富的谈判人员
All without the help of LinkedIn.
都不需要用到领英的
And with profit margins of over 30%, even Apple should be jealous.
利润率超过30% 就算是苹果公司也会眼红吧
Somalia is, by almost every metric,
从各个层面看
one of the hardest places to live on Earth.
索马里都是地球上最难以居住的地方之一
Its now three-decade long civil war has not only led to drought and famine,
长达三十年的内战不仅导致了干旱和饥荒
but also left the country without a unified, central government.
也让这个国家失去了统一的中央政府
To the north are the independent but unrecognized states of Somaliland and Puntland.
北部是单方面独立但未被承认的索马里兰和邦特兰
In the south, control is split between the federal government
而在南部 由索马里首都摩加迪沙的联邦政府
based in the capital, Mogadishu, and large, terrorist factions.
和一些大型恐怖组织分割统治
This makes building infrastructure like schools and hospitals extremely difficult.
由于以上种种原因 很难在索马里建设学校和医院等基础设施
Which, in turn, makes building a formal economy, nearly impossible.
这就使得索马里根本没法开展常规经济
The result is a 55-year life expectancy,
因此 索马里人均寿命只有55岁
one of the lowest in the world,
是世界上人均寿命最短的国家之一
and a GDP that makes Ghana and Madagascar look rich.
但国内生产总值让加纳和马达加斯加岛看起来很富有
While next-door Ethiopia makes money growing coffee, potatoes and cereals,
虽然邻国埃塞俄比亚可以通过种植咖啡豆 土豆 谷物等挣钱
Somalia is not so lucky.
但索马里可没这么幸运
Only 1.8 % of its land is arable,
相较于印度的50%或德国的34%
compared to half of India, or 34 % of Germany.
索马里仅有1.8%的土地面积适合耕种
Its two climates are hot and really hot.
索马里的天气只有两种:炎热和非常炎热
But it does have one thing going for it:
但索马里也有一个优势:
the longest coastline of any country in Africa.
它拥有非洲最长的海岸线
Fishing should be a huge source of income.
因此 渔业算得上索马里一项重大收入来源
But you guessed it, there’s a catch.
但你应该猜到了 这里有陷阱
Foreign companies noticed the country seemed
有些外国公司见索马里
a little… preoccupied at the moment
似乎因内战有点自顾不暇
and probably wouldn’t notice if they dumped toxic waste in its waters,
如果他们向其海域倾倒有毒废料 应该也不会有人注意到
killing thousands of fish in the process.
结果导致成千上万的鱼死亡
Those that survived are now caught illegally by foreign fishermen,
那些幸存的鱼现在则遭到外国渔民违法捕捞
who steal $ 300 million worth every year,
致使索马里每年损失三亿美元
leaving Somalia with only a small share of its own tuna.
索马里本地渔民却只剩下一小部分金枪鱼
So, just to recap: Somalis are given little education,
所以 总结一下就是:索马里人教育水平低下
face a constant threat of violence,
国内暴力威胁不断
have nearly zero healthcare,
几乎没有医疗保障
and a per capita GDP of… keep scrolling… $104,
人均国内生产总值只有104美元左右
or twenty-eight cents, per person, per day.
每人日均国内生产总值只有28美分
The average ransom, on the other hand, is 2.7 million,
另一方面 劫船的平均赎金却高达270万美金
so piracy is not exactly a tough sell.
所以选择成为海盗并不难理解
It all begins by identifying a target.
他们会先锁定一个目标
The ideal victim comes from a rich country,
理想的受害者通常来自富裕的国家
is traveling slowly, and near the coast.
他们或在海岸附近悠闲地旅行
Or, in the case of luxury cruise ship Star Breeze
或像2005年的三个受害者那样
which was attacked in 2005, all three.
乘坐“星风”豪华游轮惬意游览
The next step is financing.
下一步是筹集活动资金
A single attack may cost $ 30,000 up-front,
海盗们一次行动需要前期投入3万美金
which is already a lot, but especially in Somalia.
这已经相当多了 尤其是在索马里
So the risk is usually spread between 3-5 investors
所以他们会找3-5个投资人在非正式的股票市场
who buy shares in an informal stock market.
购买股票来平摊风险
Now comes the attack.
接下来就是劫船了
With one, large mother ship,
通常是4-20人的海盗团伙
anywhere between 4 and 20 pirates
开着大型母舰
follow their target up to 800 miles off the coast.
跟踪他们的目标到离海岸八百海里远的地方
Once they get close,
一但他们靠近目标
they switch to one or two small chaser boats,
便会派遣一两队小型追击舰
and use rope and ladders to board the ship.
借助绳索和梯子登船
Of course, the crew is trying to speed up,
当然 被劫的船员会努力加速
or change directions, and fight back,
改向 甚至反击
but they also know they’re no match for the AK-47s,
但他们也知道自己不是AK-47
rocket launchers, and desperation of the pirates.
火箭筒和丧心病狂的海盗的对手
The crew is gathered together,
船上的人被集中到一起
and their communications destroyed,
他们的通讯工具被毁
making the ship go dark.
整条船都被海盗控制
The next step depends on their business model.
下一步就取决于海盗的交易模式了
In areas like South East Asia,
像在东南亚地区
the goal is often stealing oil,
海盗们的目标通常是窃取石油
selling it to anyone smart enough not to ask why it’s so cheap.
卖给那些不会多问为什么这么便宜 的聪明人
But here, in Somalia, pirates rarely touch the cargo.
但在索马里 海盗几乎碰不到货船
The crew is, by far, the most valuable thing on board.
所以目前为止 船员才是船上最值钱的
They steer the ship to a nearby port,
他们把船开到附近的一个港口
where the most tense part of the operation begins.
在那里开始最紧张的谈判环节
With only one buyer and one seller,
买卖双方一对一交涉
almost none of the rules of a normal negotiation apply.
正常的谈判规则根本派不上用场
Neither party has all the information and both have great incentive to lie.
因为双方彼此都不了解 只能拼演技了
The owner of the ship wants to appear poor, driving down the ransom.
船主会卖惨装穷 来降低赎金
The pirates, meanwhile, need to seem rash enough to deliver on their threats
与此同时呢 海盗们会动作粗暴作势威胁
and yet patient enough to wait for a deal.
可是又足够耐心等着达成交易
Because the clock is ticking.
因为时间紧迫
As time goes on,
时间一久
the value of the ship and its cargo goes down,
船和货物的价值就会下降
and the average ransom generally goes up.
但是人均赎金普遍都会上涨
Talks, therefore, can last three, four, five hundred days,
因此 一场谈判可能持续三百天 四百天 甚至五百天
all spoken through a translator,
整场谈判通常有多方谈判代表参与
often with several different negotiators.
通过翻译进行交流
If the owner has Kidnapping & Ransom Insurance,
要是船主买了绑架勒索保险
negotiations are made by a professional,
就会有专人出面谈判
who reduces the chance of death from 9% to just two.
能把死亡风险从9%降至2%
But companies aren’t allowed to say they have insurance.
但受保公司不允许透露保险的事
In fact, many corporate travelers don’t know they have K&R insurance.
事实上 很多商务旅客不知道自己有绑架勒索保险
If they did, it would be invalidated.
如果公司透漏了 那就无效了
Because of the incentives, an agreement is almost always reached.
因为这些措施 谈判几乎总能达成
Pirates bring the crew up to the top deck, confirming their safety.
海盗会把人质带到甲板上 确认他们的安全
And then, a helicopter flies overhead
然后 会有直升机过来
and drops a waterproof container full of cash.
扔下一只装满现金的防水容器
Finally, comes a pirate’s favorite job: accounting.
最后是海盗们最喜欢的分赃环节
First, investors get their guaranteed cut of at least 30%,
首先 投资人会拿走赎金至少30%的保证收益
The port to look the other way while they parked the ship,
停船期间 港口负责放风的人
gets 5-10%.
拿到赎金的5%-10%
And the rest is split between the attackers,
剩下的则由海盗们瓜分
with a bonus of around $ 10,000 for being first to board the ship.
第一个登船的海盗能拿到一万美元的奖金
This scenario plays out hundreds of times a year,
这种情景一年要上演数百次
and costs shipping companies a total of 4.9 to $ 8.3 billion a year –
因此 包括保镖和保险在内
including security and insurance.
航运公司每年总共要花费49-83亿美元不等
Even just speeding up from 13 to 18 knots
就算时速从13海里升至18海里
costs an extra $ 88,000 in fuel, per ship, per day.
每艘船每天仍要额外花费8.8万美元燃料费
And those costs are passed on to you and me.
而这些钱就会转嫁到我们身上
We all pay a hidden “piracy tax”.
我们都要间接支付“海盗税”
So, what can be done?
那么 我们能做些什么呢
The obvious answer is fighting back.
答案显而易见 那就是反击
NATO’s Operation Ocean Shield greatly reduced attacks
从2009到2016年 北约“海洋之盾”行动
from 2009 to 16 by patrolling dangerous waters.
通过在危险海域进行巡逻 使海盗活动大大减少
And any shippers now hire private security companies to fill that role.
而且现在货商们都会雇佣私人保镖充当保护者
But this creates a free rider problem,
但这又衍生出“搭便车”的问题
other companies and countries benefit from that security
那些没有出钱的公司和国家
without paying for it themselves.
却能从中得益
Likewise, everyone would be better off if no one paid ransoms,
同样地 如果没有人付赎金 大家都能赚更多钱
but it’s always in each company’s best interest to pay them.
但船公司为了收益最大化 通常会选择支付赎金
All of these solutions reduce piracy,
这些解决方案无非都是想要减少海盗行径
but none of them solve it.
但没有一个真正有效
For 30 – $ 75,000 per attack,
由于每次劫掠能获利30-75000美元不等
there will always be someone willing to take that risk,
不论风险多高
no matter how high it becomes.
总有人铤而走险
The only real solution is economic,
唯一可行的解决方法是经济上的
giving pirates alternative ways to make money.
提供海盗们其他赚钱的途径
Rebuilding a country like Somalia is a major undertaking,
重建索马里这样的国家是一项重要任务
but giving locals new skills and new opportunities
但是给当地人新的技能和机会
really is the long-term solution.
才是长久之计
And that reminds me of a certain sponsor of today’s video,
这让我想到了今天视频的赞助商
you guessed it, Skillshare! What a coincidence!
没错 就是Skillshare! 多么巧啊!
My new favorite Skillshare class is YouTuber Thomas Frank’s
我目前最喜欢的课程是油管主托马斯·弗兰克的
tips on how to be more productive.
《提高工作效率的小技巧》
He does a really good job of going into detail
他的细节讲得很好
and really focusing on how you can apply different apps and techniques
真正教大家如何利用各种应用程序和技术
to the specific way that you work or study.
来规划自己的工作或学习
If, like me, you’re interested in business and economics,
如果你和我一样 对商业和经济感兴趣
you should take a class like “How the Stock Market Works”, by YouTuber Business Casual.
可以试试油管主“商务休闲”里 类似《股票市场的运作方式》这种课程
It’s no secret that YouTube comments kinda get lost in the void.
众所周知 油管的评论简直令人头大
But with Skillshare,
但在Skillshare中
you can directly ask questions and get help from the instructor.
你可以直接提问 会有指导老师帮助你
So whatever you’re interested in –
所以 任何你感兴趣的方面
art, photography, app development, animation,
艺术 摄影 程序开发 动画
hey, that’s my class.
我们都有相应的课程哦
Go try Skillshare for free for two whole months
试试点击详情中的链接
by using the link in the description.
可以免费试用Skillshare两个月哦
Thanks to you and thanks to Skillshare.
感谢各位的支持 感谢Skillshare的赞助

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视频概述

本视频讲述了索马里的一些国情,以及索马里海盗的作案过程。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

HiyaTay

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZh0B8AYxac

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