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为什么社交媒体总是令我们愤怒 | Molly Crockett

How Social Media Makes Us Angry All the Time | Molly Crockett

如今我们生活的世界存在一种经济模式强烈刺激着
We live in a world now where there is an economic model that strongly incentivizes online platforms
网络平台
就像脸书 谷歌 推特都在尽可能地吸引我们的注意力
like Facebook, Google, Twitter to capture as much of our attention as possible.
这么做的方法就是使内容变得十分吸引人
The way to do that is to promote content that is the most engaging.
但什么是最吸引人的呢
And what is the most engaging?
道德层面的内容
Moral content.
纽约大学最近发起了一项研究
There was a recent study that came out of NYU recently that characterized the language
对推特上的语言分类
in tweets.
由威廉·布雷迪 杰伊·范·布瓦尔及其同事引导的研究表明
And this study, which was led by William Brady and Jay Van Bavel and colleagues, found that
推特上每一个道德情感类词汇被转发的可能性
each “moral emotional” word in a tweet increased the likelihood of a retweet by 20
增长了百分之二十
percent.
所以含有道德和情感品质的内容是最吸引人的
So content that has moral and emotional qualities to it, of which moral outrage is the poster
道德义愤尤为典型
child, is the most engaging content.
这意味着为我们选择新闻推送的程序
And so that means that the algorithms that select for what is shown to all of us in our
是在选那些可能最为有趣的内容
newsfeeds are selecting for the content that’s going to be the most engaging, because that
因为这最能吸引关注 这样就可以为这些公司
draws the most attention—because that creates the most revenue through ad sales for these
产生广告收益
companies.
这就创造了信息金融体系 这是一种持续进行的自然选择
And so this creates an information ecosystem where there’s a kind of natural selection
最反常的内容往往成为头条
process going on, and the most outrageous content is going to rise to the top.
这就表明我们所阅读的各种网络推送信息
So this suggests that the kinds of stories that we read in our newsfeeds online might
可能在某些引发愤怒的方面都被人为夸大了
be artificially inflated in terms of how much outrage they provoke.
事实上 我也找到了有关这方面的数据
And I’ve actually found some data that speaks to this.
多年前威尔·霍夫曼和琳达·斯科特卡及其同事在芝加哥大学的研究
So there was a study a few years ago by Will Hofmann and Linda Skitka, colleagues at the
追踪了人们日常生活中
University of Chicago where they tracked people’s daily experiences with moral and immoral events
有关道德或不道德的经历
in their everyday lives.
他们检测人们一天在手机上发几次牢骚
And they pinged people’s smartphones a few times a day and had them rate whether in the
在过去几个小时是否表达道德观的经历
past hour they had had any moral or immoral experiences.
他们让观众吐槽自己的感受如何 惊骇 快乐之类
And they had people rate how emotional they felt, out outraged they felt, how happy and
等等
so on.
这个数据是对公众开放的 所以我能够再次分析 因为
This data became publicly available and so I was able to reanalyze the data, because
研究者们曾问过参与者:“你是从哪里听说的这些不道德事件?
these researchers had asked them: “Where did you learn about these immoral events?
是在网络 私下谈话 电视上 收音机里 报纸之类的吗”
Online, in person, on TV, radio, newspaper, et cetera?”
所以我能够分析这些数据 并借此说明人们了解到的不道德事件中
And so I was able to analyze this data and show that immoral events that people learn
网络引起的惊骇多余于他们通过身边的人或者
about online trigger more outrage than immoral events that they learn about in person or
像电视 报纸 无线电这些传统媒体了解道到的
through traditional forms of media like TV, newspaper and radio.
这就支持了用程序算法选择推送代表性的新闻内容的想法
So this supports the idea that the algorithms that drive the presentation of news content
这些内容可能会引起更高程度的愤怒
online are selecting that content that provokes perhaps higher levels of outrage than we even
远远超过我们在新闻上所看到的
see on the news.
当然 我们日常生活中所见的都是正常的
And, of course what we see normally in our daily lives.
如果长期受刺激煽动性媒体报道的影响会产生什么后果
It’s an open question, “What are the long term consequences of this constant exposure
这是一个开放的问题
to outrage triggering material?”
一种最近从消息里浮现的可能性是:愤怒疲劳
One possibility that has been floated in the news recently is: outrage fatigue—and I
我想许多人都有这样的感受——如果你总是感到愤怒
think many of us can relate to the idea that—if you’re constantly feeling outraged, it’s
这是令人疲惫的
exhausting.
我们每天能够感受到的愤怒可能有限
And there may be a limit to how much outrage we’re able to experience day to day.
它对长期的社会结果有潜在的危害 因为如果
That is potentially harmful in terms of the long term social consequences, because if
我们对很小的事情感到愤怒 那么它将会大大减少
we are feeling outraged about relatively minor things and that’s depleting some kind of
同情心 这意味着我们将不能够为真正重要的事情生气
reserve, that may mean that we’re not able to feel outraged for things that really matter.
另一方面 攻击性心理研究表明如果你
On the other hand there’s also research in aggression showing that if you give people
给人机会 去向使他生气的事物发泄内心的愤怒
the opportunity to vent their aggressive feelings about something that’s made them mad, that
那将真正提高攻击行为的可能性
actually can increase the likelihood of future aggression.
所以在文学中激愤有两种可能性
So in the literature on anger and outrage there are two possibilities.
一种是长期的空虚感 “愤怒疲劳”
One being this long term depletion, “outrage fatigue”.
另一种是极度敏感
The other being a kind of sensitization.
我们需要做更多的研究来证明这种理论适用于
And we need to do more research to figure out which of those might be operating in the
网络愤怒表达的情况
context of online outrage expression.
不同的人可能有不同的情况
It may be different for different people.
社交媒体是很可能一直存在的 因为它附着在
Social media is very unlikely to go away because it taps into the things that we find most
我们认为最有收益的事情上
rewarding.
与他人联系 表达和分享道德观
Connection with others, expressing our moral values, sharing those moral values with others,
建立名声
building our reputation.
当然 使社交媒体如此吸引人的是
And, of course, what makes social media so compelling, and so addictive even, is the
利用了原始的神经冲动
fact that these platforms are really tapping into very ancient neural circuits that
这是包含在满意度里的习惯架构
we know are involved in reward processing, in habit formation.
一个有趣的可能是 这些软件的设计非常的现代化
One intriguing possibility because the way these apps are designed are so streamlined—You
刺激性的图标 用户很容易识别和熟悉
have stimuli icons that are so recognizable and familiar to all of us who use these apps.
而且很容易点赞 分享和转发
And very effortless responses to like, to share, to retweet.
于是我们收到反馈 反馈的形式有点赞和转发
And then we get feedback, and that feedback in the form of likes and shares is delivered
在任何时候
at unpredictable times.
我们从数十年的神经学研究里得知 不可预期的点赞
And unpredictable rewards, we know from decades of research in neuroscience, are the fastest
这是养成习惯的最快的办法
way to establish habit.
习惯是不需要考虑长期后果的表达性行为
Now habit is a behavior that is expressed without regard to its long term consequences.
就像有的人习惯性地去拿薯条袋
Just as someone who’s habitually reaching for the bag of potato chips when they’re
即使他不饿
not hungry.
他们吃土豆片并非满足饥饿的需要
They’re eating those potato chips, not to achieve some goal to satisfy their hunger,
只是下意识的行为
but just mindlessly.
我们只是有感而发 就像愤怒并不是
We might be mindlessly expressing moral emotions like outrage without actually necessarily
因为真实的经历或者渴望表达什么
experiencing them strongly or desiring to express those so broadly the way that we just
我们才在社交媒体上表态
do on social media.
所以我觉得真正值得思考讨论的是
And so I think it’s really worth considering and having a conversation about whether we
我们是否想要强烈的道德情感 这对于自我认知很重要
want some of our strongest moral emotions, which are so core to who we are—Do we want
我们愿意被以为增加大型技术公司收益为主要目的的程序算法
those under the control of algorithms whose main purpose is to generate advertising revenue
控制吗?
for big tech companies?

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视频概述

我们喜欢用各种各样的社交媒体来获得关注,也关注别人,但是对于道德性事件,我们总是很容易愤怒、激动,这又是为什么?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fE_QoebLUFQ

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