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在社交媒体的使用上,我们该如何趋利避害 – 译学馆
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在社交媒体的使用上,我们该如何趋利避害

how social media drastically affects us

本视频由Brilliant网站赞助
This video is made possible by Brilliant.
这是一个解决数学和科学问题的网站
A math and science problem-solving website
可以帮助你更高效地学习
that can help you study more effectively.
怀着爱与关切 普罗米修斯用泥土塑造了人类
With love and care, Prometheus molded humanity out of clay.
但人类孱弱 承受着巨大的痛苦
But humanity was weak, and they suffered greatly.
为了使我们拥有与自然对抗的能力
To empower us in our struggle against nature,
普罗米修斯从神那里盗取并赠予我们一项神圣的科技
Prometheus stole a divine technology from the gods and gifted it to us,

fire!
为了造福人类 普罗米修斯公然违背众神
Prometheus had defied the gods in service of humanity;
为了服务弱者 他反对强权
he defied the strong to serve the weak.
但反抗和变革需要付出代价
But defiance and change come at a price,
而强者也绝不会不战而屈
and the powerful do not always submit without a fight.
就这样 普罗米修斯被永远地束缚在岩石上
Prometheus was bound to a rock for eternity,
岩石上空每天都会有一只秃鹰袭击他 啄食他的肝脏
where an eagle would descend upon him each day and eat his liver.
一代延续着一代
In generation after generation,
普罗米修斯精神回归并带给了我们火
the spirit of Prometheus returns to us and brings us fire.
火 可以让人们取暖做饭
Fire has the capacity to keep us warm and cook our food,
但也可以用于创造武器 毁灭人类
but it also has capacity to create weapons and destroy us.
我们必须要不断地学习如何谨慎地驾驭 利用它
We continually have to learn how to master it and use it carefully,
否则我们将有自取灭亡的风险
or we risk self-destruction.
我们在今天的文章中探索火的故事的全新版本
In today’s essay, we explore the latest reincarnation of this story,
社交媒体
social media.
爱德华·利顿曾说 笔尖胜过干戈
Edward Lytton said that the pen is mightier than the sword.
相比武力 思想改变世界的能力更胜一筹
Ideas have a greater potental at changing the world than force.
而只有为了捍卫自身的思维及信仰
It’s only in defence of our ideas, or our beliefs,
我们才会选择最先举起刀剑
that we choose to raise swords in the first place.
几个世代以来 思维曾受限于书籍的传播
For generations, ideas were limited to transmission by books.
书籍被时间和空间所限制
Books are limited in time and space.
因此 书籍传播人类思想的速度就有了限度
There’s a limit to how fast they can spread ideas.
但互联网 在以光速广为传输着
But the internet travels at the speed of light.
如今 思想的传播速度是史无前例的
The rate at which ideas can now spread is unprecedented.
如果 笔尖胜于干戈
If the pen is mightier than the sword,
那互联网的威力是否胜于炸弹?
is the internet mightier than the bomb?
如果思想真的比武力更强大
And if ideas truly are more powerful than force,
那我们应该建设性地利用它 而不是破坏性地
we should use them constructively and not destructively,
但目前来看这也是有可能的
in so far as that’s possible.
虽然整个的互联网都值得讨论
While the entirety of the internet is worth discussing,
但我们今天要了解的 是它更基础却普遍的一面
today we’re going to be looking at a more basic, yet universal aspect of it,
社交媒体
social media.
英国皇家协会为公共卫生做了一项报道 声明
A report done by the Royal Society for Public Health states
社交媒体的使用导致了一系列问题的增加
that social media usage is associated with
例如 焦虑 抑郁 睡眠质量差
increased rates of anxiety, depression, poor sleep quality,
身体形象问题和网上霸凌
body image issues, and cyber bullying.
实际上 年轻人焦虑和抑郁的比率
In fact, rates of anxiety and depression in young people
在近25年内 已增加了70%
have increased by 70 % in the last 25 years.
身体形象问题在两性中都存在
Body image issues are a problem for both genders,
但90%的青少年女孩苦于身材问题的困扰
but 9 in 10 teenage girls say that they are unhappy with their body.
70%的青少年经历过网络欺凌
7 out of 10 teens have experienced cyberbullying
而这其中的37%表示他们频繁遭遇网络霸凌
and 37 % say they experience it very frequently.
这项报道还发现 脸书 推特 Ins和Snapchat
The report found that Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat
对年轻一代的幸福感有着整体的负面影响
have an overall negative effect on the well-being of the younger generation.
正因如此
For this reason,
人们越来越倾向于暂时远离社交媒体甚至抽身而退
people are increasingly deciding to take a break from social media or walk away completely.
这就有些得不偿失
The benefits are often not worth the costs.
社交媒体有助于我们表达自己 与他人建立联系
But social media also helps us express ourselves, connect with others
并获得高质量信息
and get access to high-quality information.
比如YouTube 会有效地增加人们的幸福感
YouTube, for example,was found to have a net positive effect on well-being
甚至帮助缓解焦虑 抑郁和孤独感
and even help those who feel anxious, depressed, orlonely.
尽管它仍有着消极的一面
Although, it still has its fair share of downsides.
社交媒体对激进主义也有着重要的影响
Social media also plays an important role in activism,
比如2011年的埃及大革命
such as in the 2011 Egyptian Revolution.
专制政权总是试图阻止并控制信息的流动
Oppressive regimes often try to prevent and control the flow of information,
以便他们控制民众
so they can control the people.
而社交媒体就能避开这种极权主义控制
Social media can be leveraged to bypass this sort of totalitarian control.
无论你认为社交媒体是好是坏 都是对的
Whether you think social media is good or bad, you’re right.
就像火 我们依然在学习如何控制和掌握它
It’s a flame and we’re still learning to contain and master it.
但是 关于社交媒体的近期言论 立场不明
But the current dialogue about social media is very low resolution.
人们没有必要把这些革命性科技抛诸脑后
People shouldn’t have to leave these revolutionary technologies behind,
但也不应该承担因使用社交媒体
But they also shouldn’t suffer negative impacts
而对幸福感产生的消极影响
to their well-being by using them.
社交媒体总是被当做一种工具 它的确是
Social media is often referred to as a tool, and it is.
工具是用来辅助我们达成目标的
Tools are things that help us accomplish goals.
但是 这个模糊的比较非常容易误导人们
But this low-resolution comparison is actually pretty misleading.
社交媒体是件工具
Social media is a tool,
但却不同于锤子那样的工具
but it’s not a tool in the same way a hammer is.
它更像是一座城市
It’s much more like a city.
想想 地球上有多少土地
Think about how much land there is on the Earth.
但我们却选择居住在这片土地上相对小的城市里
But we choose to live in relatively small areas of land called cities.
一座城市好比一个用来社交的高密度容器
A city is a high density container for social interactions.
它让我们更便捷地得到一切所需所想
It allows us to get anything we need or want easier than we would
这要比全靠自己做容易得多
if we have to do it alone.
城市就像活的工具 或者生物体
Cities are like living tools or organisms,
他们会成长 进化 甚至消亡
they grow, evolve, and even die.
现在 试想全球的网络上有多少网页
Now think about how many webpages there are on the worldwide web.
我们只选择占据网络中相对小的这一片领域
We all choose to occupy a relatively small set of them
就是社交媒体
called social media.
社交媒体网站也好似一个用于社交的高密度容器
Social media sites are also high-density containers for social interactions.
所以 如果我们想理解社交媒体
So, if we wanna understand social media,
那就先从理解城市开始
we should start by understanding cities.
第二部分:数字城市
一座城市由两个领域组成
A city is made up of two worlds,
思想领域和科技领域
a world of ideas and a world of technology.
思想领域就是文化世界
The world of ideas is the world of culture.
而文化则囊括了故事 神话或记述文
Culture contains stories, myths, or narratives
它们可以团结民众 阐述价值 和规范行为
that unite the people, describe what they value, and prescribe how to act.
以罗马的创世神话为例
Take the founding myth of Rome for example.
这个神话的很多改编版都说
Most variations of the myth say that
罗慕路斯杀死了他的亲兄弟 雷姆斯
Romulus killed his own brother, Remus,
是为了建立罗马帝国
in order to found Rome.
有关这个神话的一种解读是
One interpretation of this myth is that
它为了告知并警醒罗马人
it’s a reminder to the Romans
罗马的荣誉远比手足亲情更重要
that the glory of Roman is more important than even the love for your own brother.
城市科技彰显了这个世界的思想和价值观
The world of ideas and values manifests itself in the technology of the city.
科技将故事具体化并有效地传承它
The technology embodies the story and helpsperpetuate it.
也使故事更容易地被演绎出来
Technology makes the story easier to liveout.
在斯巴达长大就非常不同于在雅典成长
Growing up in Sparta would have been way different from growing up in Athens.
在斯巴达 战士是人们最崇高的理想
In one, the highest ideal was the soldier.
而整个城市都是为了达成这一理想而存在
The entire city was designed to facilitate the achievement of this ideal.
在雅典 最高理想则是成为教养良好的公民
In the other, the highest ideal is something like the well-educated citizen.
那么 这座城市则服务于这一理想的达成
And the city was designed to faciliate the achievementof this ideal.
斯巴达拥有更多的兵营和训练场
Sparta might have had more barracks and training grounds,
而雅典可能拥有更多学校
while Athens might have had more schools.
当然 很有可能每个城市中真正的文化与科技
Of course, it’s likely that the true culture and technology of each city
比我说的要微妙得多
is way more nuanced that I’m making it out to be.
但这正是为了论证一点——
But this is just to demonstrate a point:
每座城市都建立在一个故事之上
every city is built upon a story.
出生或定居在那个城市的公民都会
Citizens that are born or live in that city
或明确或含蓄地学习这个故事
learn the story explicitly or implicitly,
这样他们才会成长 奋斗
so that they can grow and thrive.
一个好故事是有益于我们的
A good story is useful to us;
它帮助我们采取明智之举
it helps us act in a way that is beneficial.
科技让人们更容易付诸某些行动
Technology makes certain actions easier.
而当某些行为更容易达成时
When certain actions become easier,
包含这些行为的故事就变得更让人信服
the story they are a part of becomes more believable.
掌控故事的人控制着民众
The person who controls the story controls the people,
再加上恰当的技术 某些故事就会更有说服力
and with the right technology, certain stories are easier to believe.
如果社交媒体是一座城市
If social media is a city,
那它是建立在什么故事之上的?
what story is it built on?
如果斯巴达是为了培养战士 雅典为了高学历公民而存在
If Sparta is designed to produce soldiers, and Athens to produce well-educated citizens,
那社交媒体存在的目的是什么?
what is social media designed to produce?
我认为答案是 消费者
I think the answer is the consumer.
社交媒体在竭力培养一种受众
Social media tries to produce individuals
他们观看所有视频 阅读所有内容 点击所有网页
who watches everything, read everything, and click on everything,
这就是那群人的最高理想
that is their highest ideal.
你熟悉的一项科技可能最好地诠释这个故事
This story is probably best embodied in a technology you’re familiar with:
新闻推送
the newsfeed.
新闻推送的目的是为了观察你的互动
Newsfeeds are designed to watch your interactions
并将你花费在互动上的时间最大化
and maximize the amount of time you spend on them.
他们借迎合你的趣味来达到这个目的
They do this by adapting to you.
为了发展 他们不断地向我们提供新鲜刺激
To evolve, they continually have to give us novel stimuli
并观察我们将为此作何反应
and see how we react to it.
换句话说 他们总在向我们展现未见之事
In other words, they are always presenting us with the unknown.
而我们人类对未知领域有着强烈的好奇心
Humans have an interesting relationship withthe unknown.
我们会被吸引
We are drawn to it.
需要将那些未知分门别类
We need to categorize it.
未知事物要么提供成长和奖励的机会
The unknown always presents an opportunity for reward and growth,
要么会提供惩罚和死亡的机会
but it also presents an opportunity for punishment and death.
你看 人类有种与生俱来的消极偏见
You see, humans have an innate negativity bias.
比起积极事物 消极事物更抓人眼球
Negative things capture our attention more than positive things.
这是因为消极事物可以终结我们
This is because negative things can end us,
而积极事物只是会让我们的生活更好一些
while positive things can just make our lives better.
在我们的意识里 威胁性事物比不具威胁性的更重要
Threatening things weigh heavier on our mind than the non-threatening.
因为新闻推送的完善是为了吸引注意力
Because newsfeeds are optimized for attention,
从长期来看 他们的默认体验往往是负面的
their default experience, over the long run is often a negative one.
当新消息不断地涌现在你眼前
When you’re continually presented with new information,
更能吸引你注意的
The negative and threatening stuff
往往是消极的威胁性事物 而不是那些积极内容
will always capture your attention more than the positive stuff.
对威胁性内容的定义对每个人来说都不尽相同
People find threatening varies from person to person.
你关注的可能是 他人的外形条件是否更好
You might focus on whether people are better looking than you,
身体更强壮 头脑更聪明 工作更努力或更有才华
stronger than you, smarter than you, worker harder, or more talented,
又或者你可能会被虚假资讯所吸引
or you may be drawn to fake news.
既然我们花费更多时间去分析评估威胁
Since we often spend more time analyzing and assessing threat,
那自然我们就更关注它
we pay more attention to it.
这样 新闻推送会为我们推荐越来越多的同类信息
And we get recommended similar things more and more on our newsfeeds.
结果就是
As a result,
新闻推送经常会变成消极性和比较的恶性循环
our newsfeeds often become vicious cycles of
而且是穿插着临时奖励的比较
negativity and comparison interspersed with the occasional reward.
所以 我们该怎么解决这个问题?
So, how do we solve this problem?
因为 据显示YouTube是唯一一个
Because it was the only social medium
对青少年有网络积极影响的社交媒体
shown to have a net-positive effect on the youth,
所以 我认为应该从它身上寻找解决办法
I think we should look to YouTube for some answers.
我认为 YouTube与其它所有平台的最大区别是
The one thing that I think makes YouTube vastly different from every other plat form
它自身的搜索能力
is the search capability.
在YouTube成为一个大型的社交媒体之前
Before YouTube became the big social medium it is,
它首要的是一个搜索引擎
it was first and foremost a search engine.
为了创造一个成功的搜索引擎
In order to create a successful search engine,
你必须将大量的无条理信息进行整理
you have to take massive amounts of unorganized information and organize it.
通过这些整理工作
By doing this,
YouTube为其用户提供了更加有序的体验
YouTube made a much more ordered experience for us, the users.
输入有价值的信息或我们感兴趣的话题
We could type in the thing we valued or the topic that we were interested in.
就可以找到那些以兴趣和价值为基础的社区
You can find a community based on that.
我相信正是YouTube放权于我们对自身体验的控制
I believe it’s the amount of control that YouTube gives us over our experience
才使它更有积极意义
that makes it more positive.
我们可以搜索自己感兴趣的话题
We can search for a topic that we’re interested in
并找到自己喜欢的视频
and find a video that we like.
我们看到制作出该视频的频道
We see that the channel that made it
会创作更多的相关内容
produces more content on that topic.
所以我们订阅那个频道
So we subscribe to that channel.
我们只需根据自身的兴趣及价值观
We start to build a subscription feed
开始建立自己的订阅号推送
that is purely based on our interests and values.
我们的新闻推送监控搜索引擎 订阅号和视频记录
Our newsfeeds monitor our searches, subscriptions, and video history
并根据监控提供给我们更多内容介绍
and offer us more recommendations based on that.
YouTube体验主要围绕着我们的兴趣及价值观
The YouTube experience largely revolves around our interests and values.
从一开始 它就给予我们更多的自由去掌控自己的注意力
It gives us a lot more control in directing our attention from the start.
你可以一直搜索新事物 订阅 取消订阅
You can always search new things, subscribe, unsubscribe,
也可以围绕新的兴趣和价值观重置体验
and restructure the whole experience around your new interests and values.
YouTube文化一直以来都在创建社区
The YouTube culture has always been about creating community.
这点则区别于其它所有社交媒体
This is way different from every other social medium
因为在其它平台 你的大部分联系都是以
because most of your connections on those platforms
你的位置 学校 工作或其它随意的变量为基础
are based on location, school, work or other random variables.
大多数其它平台上的默认体验都被告知要看什么
The default experience on most other platforms is being told what to look at
而它们的文化也通常由你的身份和形象来支配
and the culture is often dominated by status and image.
所以我们如何将这一经验应用到其它社媒平台上呢?
So how can we apply this lesson to other social media platforms?
社交媒体网站就像是数据城市
Social media sites are digital cities.
而社媒的工作者就像管理机构
Their workers are like the governing bodies.
作为公民
And, as the citizens,
我认为我们应该拥有用于创造数据家园的工具
I think we should have the tools to make digital homes.
一座数据家园就是一次定制体验
A digital home is an ordered experience
这种体验是你根据自身的兴趣和价值观为自己获取的
that you’ve made for yourself based on your interests and values.
这才应该是默认体验
It should be the default experience.
当各种混乱新奇的新闻推送成为默认体验
When the chaotic novelty of newsfeeds are the default experience,
却没有维护其秩序的工具时
without any tools to bring order to them,
我认为 长远来讲 我们将不断收获消极体验
I argue that we’ll always have a negative experience in the long run.
新闻推送的目的是创造消费者
Newsfeeds are designed to create consumers.
另一方面 一座数据家园需要以人的进一步发展为目的
A digital home on the other hand would be designed to furtheryour development.
让我举个创建数据家园的例子
Let me give you an example of creating a digital home.
在推特上 我屏蔽了所有人
On Twitter, I have everyone muted.
我的新闻推送是空白闲置的
My newsfeed is blank and useless.
相反 根据关注原因 我将所有人都组成列表
Instead, I have everyone organized into lists based on why I follow them.
因为艺术或哲学 我关注有些人
Some people I follow for art, some for philosophy,
而有些 仅仅因为他们是朋友
and some because they’re friends.
当我登陆推特时
The default experience, when I log into Twitter
默认体验不会根据推特所认为的我的喜好
isn’t to have a bunch of things recommended to me
为我提供一堆推荐内容
based on what Twitter thinks will capture my attention.
相反 我自己可以选择想要阅读哪个列表
Instead, it’s my choice to pick which list I want to read.
屏蔽和列表功能可以强有力地避开默认的新闻推送
The mute and list functions are incredibly powerful is bypassing the default newsfeed
也可以在推特上创建数据家园
and constructing something like a digital home on Twitter.
我认为尽可能多地避开新闻推送
I think it’s important to bypass the newsfeed
和每个社交媒体中的默认体验很重要
as the default experience on every social media, as much as it’s possible.
根据你的兴趣和价值观 专注于创建数据家园
And focus on creating a digital home based on your interests and value.
我认为另一点也很重要
And I think it’s important
就是 社交媒体公司要赋予我们实现这一可能的工具
that social media companies give us the tools to make this possible.
因为没有这些工具 我们就失去控制权
Because, without these tools, we lose control,
没有了掌控 那我们的注意力便不再属于自己
and without control, our attention no longer belongs to us.
如果你想更有效地学习STEM学科
If you wanna learn STEM subjects more effectively,
我强烈推荐访问brilliant.org
I highly recommend visiting brilliant.org.
它是一个解决数学及科学问题的网站
Brilliant.org is a math and science problem-solving website
这里良好有序的环境可以激励你专注学习
with a well-structured environment that encourages focusing on learning.
网站内容涵盖诸多主题
They cover a wide array of topics,
例如数学 物理 天文学 甚至还有电脑网站
such as mathematics, physics, astronomy and even computer sites.
通过挑战能使你兴趣高涨的问题
Brilliant’s active approach to learning keeps you engage
通过提高问题的难度
by throwing you into challenging problems that keeps your interests high
来循序渐进地增加你的理解层次
and progressively adding layers to your understanding
Brilliant的积极学习方法会一直吸引着你
by increasing the difficulty of problems.
为了发展和应用你当前的技能
To develop and apply your current skill site,
请登陆www.brilliant.org/freedominthought
just go to www.brilliant.org/freedominthought
或点击下方的订阅 你可以免费参与
or click the link of subscription below and you can sign them for free.
作为对那些准备好迎接更大挑战的人的奖励
As a bonus for those who are ready to push themselves further,
前200位参与的人
the first 200 people would be hooked up with
订阅年费即享八折优惠
20 percent of the annual subscription.
一如既往 感谢收看 下次再见
As always, thanks for watching. And I’ll see you next time.

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视频概述

本文结合故事及神话向我们展示了社交媒体的存在目的 和它的积极及消极影响,以及我们如何摆脱社交媒体的控制从而更加有效地利用它

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

红宝石

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4Atnti70cM

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