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为什么气味会触发鲜活的回忆? – 译学馆
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为什么气味会触发鲜活的回忆?

How Smells Trigger Memories

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[Music]
有一天你走进了一个五金店
You’re walking through a hardware store one day
突然间闻到了一点气味
when all of a sudden you catch a whiff,
那种气味你已经好多年没有闻到了
something you haven’t smelled in years.
不知怎么地胶水的气味迅速把你带回到那间幼儿园教室
Somehow the scent of glue immediately takes you back to your kindergarten classroom
接下来你花了几分钟思索
and you spend the next couple of minutes wondering
那个过去把浆糊全吃完的孩子后来怎么样了
what happened to that kid who used to eat all that paste.
你刚才经历了叫做气味诱发自传式记忆的过程
You just experience what’s known as odor-evoked autobiographical memory ,
简单而言
to put it simply,
就是一种气味唤醒你过去的回忆
a smell made you remember something from your past,
它能发生是因为气味和记忆
and it happened because of the way smells and memories
嵌入大脑的方式
are hardwired into your brain.
很多不同的诱因像视觉 声音
Lots of different cues like sights or sounds
甚至某人描述某样东西
or even someone describing something
或讲了一个和你不相关的故事
or telling a story unrelated to your story,
这些诱因可以触发你的回忆
they can trigger memories.
和气味有联系的记忆通常更鲜明 更生动
The memories linked to smells are often stronger and more vivid,
研究显示
and studies have shown that
这些气味常常是你早期生活里的记忆
they also tend to be memories of your early life,
通常在你10岁之前
often before you were 10 years old.
这怪怪的
Which is weird,
因为成人通常会经历一个叫做记忆高峰的阶段
because adults usually experience what’s known as a reminiscence bump
到那时他们会记不住很多青春期之前的事情
when they don’t remember much from before their adolescence.
但是气味真的有助于勾起回忆
But smells are really good at bringing those memories back.
这些记忆通常更感性而不是抽象的
These memories tend to be more perceptual rather than conceptual,
那么你记住的是一种特殊的感觉
so you remember a particular sensation
而不是已发生的一系列具体事实
rather than a bunch of facts about something that happened.
研究者提出了一些理论解释
And researchers have come up with some theories
为什么被气味触发的记忆很古怪
why memories triggered by smells are so odd.
你的身体处理视觉
There’s a big difference between the way your body handles sight,
声音 味觉和触觉的方式
sound, taste and touch,
和它处理味觉的方式之间有很大的不同
and the way it processes smells.
那些感觉都经由丘脑
Those other senses are all routed through the thalamus,
作为大脑的一部分 它把感觉们送到
the part of your brain that sends them off into
合适的处理中心
the appropriate processing centers.
但是气味绕过了这个过程
But smells bypass all that.
它们一旦被鼻子里的神经末梢检测到
Once they’re detected by receptors in your nose,
信号直接传到大脑嗅球
the signal heads straight to your olfactory bulb,
它是大脑中的气味分析区域
the smell-analyzing region in your brain,
这个区域恰好
and that area happens to
连向杏仁体和海马体
be connected to the amygdala and the hippocampus
它们是大脑中用来处理记忆和情感的部分
which are parts of the brain that help handle memory and emotion.
那么有可能当你在幼儿园闻到胶水味的时候
So it’s possible that when you smelled that glue in kindergarten,
这个信号和搭积木还有苹果汁的记忆
the signal got tangled up with
纠缠在一起
memories of building blocks and apple juice.
当你再次闻到胶水味的时候
And when you smelled it again,
之后你想起的不仅是胶水
later you remembered not just the glue,
还有一些其他相关的记忆
but also some of the associated memories,
比如像那个吃浆糊的古怪的小孩
like that weird kid who ate the paste.
2013年一组欧洲的心理学家通过
In 2013 a group of European psychologists tested this whole phenomenon
使用功能性磁共振成像测试了这整个现象
using functional magnetic resonance imaging.
首先他们向实验者展示20种有刺激气味的物品
First they presented subjects with 20 different strong specific odors,
比如大蒜 威士忌和皮革
like garlic, whiskey and leather,
然后分别找到每个人2件
then for each person they identified the two
能激起他们最遥远的美好回忆的物品
that elicited the oldest positive memories,
然后到了扫描大脑的时候了
then it was time to scan their brains.
每种物品带有它们本身的2种实验组气味
Each subject was presented with their two experimental smells
加上2种一般的对照组气味 花香和柑橘味
plus two generic control smells, flowers and citrus.
同时他们展示了语言线索
They also shown some verbal cues
即投射到大屏幕上的气味名称
which were just the names of the smells projected onto a screen.
研究者发现这2种触发物都能
The researchers found that both types of triggers
激活大脑中和记忆相关联的区域
tended to activate the regions of the brain associated with memory.
虽然语言线索刺激了
But while the verbal cues lit up parts of the brain
大脑中负责处理气味的部位
that were responsible for processing smells,
气味本身和情感处理中心之间有更强大的联系
the smells themselves were more strongly connected to emotional processing centers.
一些参加者的气味和记忆
Some of the participants associated the smells with memories
从10岁以前就关联了
from before they were 10,
然而其他人从10岁到20岁开始记东西
while others remembered things from when they were between 10 and 20.
这取决于记忆处于什么时间范围
Depending on which time frame the memories fell into,
大脑常常通过不同的区域来回忆
their brains tended to use different regions to recall them.
早期的记忆会点亮
The earlier memory is lit up the orbitofrontal cortex
连向知觉的眼窝前额皮质
which is connected to perception,
另一方面后期的记忆常常
The later ones on the other hand tended to
刺激处理抽象记忆的
activate the left inferior frontal gyrus
左侧额下回
which handles more conceptual memories.
那么你可以用鼻子的超能力
So can you use your nose’s superpowers
来记东西从而通过下次大考吗?
to help you remember things for your next big exam?
可能不行
Probably not.
气味倾向于唤醒事件的早期感性回忆
Smells tend to evoke early perceptive memories of events,
而不是理性回忆
not concepts.
所以胶水的气味可能让你记起
So the scent of glue might make you remember
在幼儿园里玩图画用纸
playing with construction paper in kindergarten,
但是气味不会助你想起麦克斯韦方程式
but your smell memory will not help you memorize Maxwell’s equations.
感谢收看本期科学秀
Thank you for watching this scishow dose
本期节目由patreon赞助
which was brought to you by our patrons on patreon.
如果你想支持我们
If you want to help support the show
登录patreon.com/scishow
you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
如果你想继续了解有趣的东西
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe,
别忘了去youtube.com/scishow并且订阅
if you just want to keep learning things that are interesting,
我知道你会的
because I know you do.
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视频概述

想要唤醒有趣的回忆吗 闻一闻吧

听录译者

祐子祐

翻译译者

Ayan

审核员

审核员H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vY-HbcPInXw

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