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原子究竟有多小?剧透:极小

How Small Is An Atom? Spoiler: Very Small.

原子的个头小到让你怀疑人生.
Atoms are ridiculous and unbelievably small.
一根成年男子的头发大概厚的和
A single human hair is about as thick as
50万个碳原子互相堆积起来一样.
500,000 carbon atoms stacked over each other.
看着你的拳头,你包含了你这辈子也数不清楚的原子数量.
Look at your fist, it contains trillions and trillions of atoms.
如果里头的一个原子和一块大理石一样大,那你的拳头该有多大?
If one atom in it were about as big as a marble, how big would your fist be?
好吧…大概是一个地球那么大.嗯..很难想象吧(╯▽╰)?
Well… about the size of Earth. Hm… still hard to imagine?
让我们试一些不一样的.
Let’s try something different
看着你的小指头.
Look at your little finger.
想象指尖和房间一样大,你吓的立马坐到了地上.
Imagine that its tip is as big as the room you’re sitting in right now.
现在这个“房间”将充斥着米粒”.
Now fill the room with grains of rice.
一个米粒代表着一个你指尖的细胞.
One rice corn represents one cell of your fingertip.
现在让我们把镜头移向”米粒”.
Now let’s zoom in on the rice corn.
还是现在,一个细胞和一个房间一样大,你又吓的立马坐到了地上.
And now, one cell is as big as the room you’re in right now.
这里再一次充满了“米粒”.这是一个氨基酸(单肽)的大小.
Let’s fill it with rice again. This is about the size of a protein.
还是现在,让我们填满“米粒”之间的空隙
And now, let us fill all the empty spaces between the rice corns
用细小的“沙粒”.
with fine grains of sand.
“沙粒”差不多就可以说明原子大概有多小了.
This is roughly how small atoms are.
那原子是由什么构成的?
What is an atom made of?
让我们用一个近似物
Let us just pretend that atoms look like this for a minute
以便于大家容易理解.
to make it easier to understand.
一个原子由三个基本微粒构成:
An atom consists of three elementary particles:
中子,质子和核外电子.
neutrons, protons and electrons.
中子和质子缠绕构成原子的中心,
Protons and neutrons bind together and form the atom core,
它们通过强大的相互作用力固定在一起,
held together by the strong interaction,
这是宇宙四种基本力的一种.
one of the four fundamental forces in the universe.
它们由夸克构成,并通过胶子连接在一起.
They are made from quarks and held together by gluons.
没有人知道夸克具体有多小.
Nobody knows exactly how small quarks are.
在几何学里,我们认为它就是一个没什么特别的点.
We think they might literally be points, like in geometry.
想象它们生存的空间有多小.
Try to imagine them as being zero-dimensional.
我们怀疑夸克和电子是
We suspect that quarks and electrons are
宇宙中最基本的构成物.
the most fundamental components of matter in the universe.
电子以原子中心为球心环绕.它们的移动速度差不多2200km/s.
Electrons orbit the atom core. They travel at a speed of about 2,200 km/s,
快到是香飘飘的(365*24*60*60)/(3*18)倍.
fast enough to get around the Earth in just over 18 seconds.
我们认为电子是和夸克一样的基本微粒.
Like quarks, we think electrons are fundamental particles.
99.999999999999%
99.999999999999%
的一个原子的体积内是没有东西的,除了电子和夸克以外.
of an atom’s volume is just empty space… Except that it isn’t.
我们感知的虚空实际上是一个被量子波动所充满的空间,
What we perceive as emptiness is actually a space filled by quantum fluctuations,
那些区域有潜在的能量,并且自发的建立和分解
fields that have potential energy and build and dissolve spontaneously.
这些波动拥有的基本影响说明了带电微粒之间的相互影响.
These fluctuations have a fundamental impact on how charged particles interact.
但这是另一部录像要说的主题了.
But that’s a topic for another video.
原子中心有多少空间?电子实际占据了多少?
How much space do the core and electrons actually fill?
如果你减掉所有的原子中心内的空间
If you were to subtract all the spaces between the atom cores
构成帝国大厦的原子,将变成米粒一样大小.
from the Empire State Building, it would be about as big as a rice corn.
人类的所有原子刚好有一茶匙的量.
All the atoms of humanity would fit in a teaspoon.
有一个极端的例子是实际存在的
There are extreme objects where states like this actually exist.
在中子星内部,原子核压缩的很密集
In a neutron star, atom cores are compacted so densely
三个太阳的质量,放进只有几公里宽的物体。
that the mass of three Suns fits into an object only a few kilometers wide.
顺便说下,原子看起来像什么?
By the way, what do atoms look like?
嗯,有点像这样。
Well, kind of like this.
电子在同一时间即像一个波也像一个粒子
Electrons are like a wave function and a particle at the same time.
我们可以计算出某个电子在某个时间的位置的概率
We can calculate where an electron might be at any given moment in time.
这些概率构成的云,称为轨道,
These clouds of probability, called orbitals,
这是电子会以95%几率停留的位置
are where electrons might be with a certainty of 95%.
离原子核越远,看到电子的几率
The probability of finding an electron approaches 0
就会逐渐趋近于0
the further we get away from the atom core,
但事实上永远也不可能是0,嗯,我说的是理论上说
but it actually never is zero, which means that, in theory,
原子的电子会在宇宙的另一边。
the electron of an atom could be on the other side of the universe.
好的,等一下。
Okay, wait a second.
这些奇怪的东西组成了宇宙中所有物质。
These strange thingies make up all the matter in the universe.
对于许多许多已知的元素而言,
For many dozens of known elements,
你不需要许多许多基本粒子,三个就够了。
you don’t need many dozens of elementary particles, just three.
拿一个质子,一个电子,你就得到一个氢原子。
Take one proton and one electron, and you have hydrogen.
添加一个质子和一个中子,氦原子就诞生咯。
Add a proton and a neutron, you have helium.
添加更多,得到碳原子,再加几个,氟原子诞生,
Add a few more, you get carbon, a few more, fluorine,
再加多些,金原子等等都会被构造出来。
even more, gold, and so on.
和每一个元素的原子是相同的:
And every atom of an element is the same:
例如,宇宙中所有氢原子是相同的;
all hydrogen atoms in the universe, for example, are the same;
体内的氢原子和阳光下沐浴的氢原子是一模一样的。
the hydrogen in your body is exactly the same as the hydrogen in the Sun.
你现在感到困惑吗? 那是一定的!
Do you feel confused right now? We certainly do!
我们的世界里,在这个尺寸下的东西是非常奇怪的
Nothing on this scale of the universe makes any sense in our world,
我们还没有开始谈论量子力学或者粒子公园呢
and we’ve not even begun talking about quantum mechanics or the particle zoo,
那些玩意更加奇怪!
which are even stranger!
从我们第一次构思出原子模型到现在,这一模型改变了很多次
Our model of atoms has changed a number of times since we first conceived it,
即便是现在的,也一定不是最终的模型
and the current one will certainly not be the last.
所以让我们支持科学家和研究
So let us support scientists and research
,等待下一波反对者的新信息
and wait for the next wave of mindboggling new information
对这个奇怪的世界,这是我们生存的基础。
about this strange world that is the basis for our existence.
字幕由Amara.org社区提供
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_lNF3_30lUE

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