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几种安眠药的工作原理 – 译学馆
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几种安眠药的工作原理

How Sleeping Pills Work

我是精神科医生 特蕾西·马克斯
I am Dr. Tracey Marks, a psychiatrist.
本视频中 我将和大家谈谈安眠药的工作原理
And in this video, I’m going to be talking about how sleeping pills work.
以下 是我在本次视频中所要讲到
Here are some of the things that I’m going to be talking about
或打算回答的一些内容
or the questions that I’m going to answer in this video.
服用安眠药后多久奏效
How long does it take for sleeping pills to kick in?
什么是药物的半衰期
What is the half-life?
及半衰期对你的用药有什么影响
And How does it affect your medication?
什么是药物的达峰时间
What is the T max?
为何它有重大影响
And why does it matter?
以及什么是γ-氨基丁酸
And what is GABA?
先来说说γ-氨基丁酸
So first, GABA.
γ-氨基丁酸是一种能够
GABA is an inhibitory brain chemical
减缓大脑活动速度的化学物质
that slows down the brain.
γ-氨基丁酸就像是往熊熊烈火上所喷洒的水
Think of GABA is like spraying water on a raging fire.
苯二氮卓类药物是抗焦虑药物
Benzodiazepines are anti-anxiety drugs
通过脑内的γ-氨基丁酸神经递质系统起效
that work through the GABA neurotransmitter system in your brain
从而放慢大脑的活动速度 使你感到放松
to slow down your brain and relax you.
几种常见的苯丙类药物
Examples of benzos
有安定 阿普挫仑 氯硝西泮等等
are valium xanax and klonopin just to name a few.
大多数FDA批准的治疗失眠的药物
Most of the medications that are FDA approved for treating insomnia
都属于一类名为苯二氮卓类的受体激动剂
fall into a class called benzodiazepine receptor agonist.
这名字有点拗口
It’s a mouthful.
受体激动剂是指
Receptor agonist means
药物或激动剂本身
that the drug or the agonist
激活了大脑或受体中的部分神经细胞
activates the portion of the nerve cell in the brain or the receptor,
从而引起细胞内的变化 对你的睡眠产生影响
which triggers changes in the cell that affects your sleep.
到目前为止 已有八种受体激动剂药物
As of now, there are eight receptor agonist medications
被批准用于治疗失眠
approved for the treatment of insomnia.
其中五个是真正的苯丙类药物
Five of them are actual benzo
而三个不是
and three aren’t.
这三个分别是安必恩 舒耐特和舒乐安定
The three outliers are Ambien, Sonata and Lunesta.
他们不是苯二氮卓类药物
They’re not benzodiazepines
但他们在大脑内的作用是相似的
but they act similarly in the brain.
药物的半衰期是药物代谢到
Half-life is the amount of time
原体内一半含量 所需要的时间
it takes for the drug to metabolize down to half the original amount.
它实际上只是用于测量
It’s really just a measure
药物从你体内代谢掉所需的时间
of how long it takes for the medication to get out of your system.
半衰期长的药物
Medications with long half-lives
会在你体内停留时间长
hang around for a long time
而半衰期短的药物
and medications with short half-lives
失效速度快
kind of wear off quickly.
使用安眠药时
With sleeping medications
你想选择半衰期相对短或中等的
you want ones that have a relatively short to medium half-life
这样你早上就不会还有昏昏欲睡的感觉
so you don’t have that hangover effect in the morning.
而一些治疗其他疾病的药物
If it was a drug that you were taking for something else
比如高血压和抑郁症
like blood pressure or depression,
你便需要选择其半衰期长的
you’d want a drug that had a long half-life
这样它可以一整天都有效
so that it’ll work all day long.
最后要谈的 则是达峰时间
The last concept is T max
和血浆浓度峰值
and with that comes peak plasma concentration.
如果你查询一种药物的信息
If you look up information on a drug
他会告诉你药物达到
it’ll tell you the time that it takes for the drug
血浆浓度峰值所需的时间
to reach peak plasma concentration.
这是在你服药后 体内血液的药物含量
And that’s the maximum amount of drug that’s in your bloodstream
所能达到的最高浓度
after you take the pill.
达到最高浓度值所花费的时间 称为达峰时间
The time it takes for you to reach this maximum is called the T max.
当你达到达峰时间时
When you are at that T max
你会同时体验到药物的峰值效应及其副作用
you experience the peak effect of the drugs including side effects.
到达峰浓度或达峰时间
The time it takes for you
所需要的时间
to reach that peak or the T max,
与药物的起效速度有关
relates to how fast the medication works.
所以 理想地说
So ideally,
安眠药应该有一个短的达峰时间
sleeping pills should have a short T max.
关于安眠药的讲解
And in the sleeping pill world
大概需要一到两个小时
that falls somewhere between one and two hours
在未来 我打算做更多评估药物的视频
In the future, I plan to do more videos on reviewing medication.
这些 是将会出现在那些视频中的一些术语
And these are some of the terms that will come up in those videos.
因此 我想先简单向你们介绍一下
So first, I just wanted to give you an introduction
其中一些术语的含义
to what some of these terms mean.
感谢收看 记得订阅一下
Thanks for watching and subscribe
这样你就不会错过我的其他视频了
so you don’t miss the other videos.

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视频概述

本视频从安眠药的成分、半衰期以及达峰时间等科学角度分析了安眠药的工作原理,可以让你对安眠药有一个简单的初步认识。

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pclNhFugYas

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