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新加坡是如何解决住房问题的 – 译学馆
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新加坡是如何解决住房问题的

How Singapore Fixed Its Housing Problem

Public housing is often considered low in quality and high in crime.
我们通常认为公共住房质量差 会导致犯罪率的升高
But it’s a totally different story in Singapore.
但在新加坡就完全不是这样
Government-built apartments in Singapore are clean, safe, and well-maintained.
新加坡的政府承建房干净 安全以及良好维护
And about 80% of Singaporean households live in them.
大约百分之八十的新加坡住户都住在那里面
Singapore is also one of the few countries in the world
新加坡也是世界上为数不多的
to achieve almost full homeownership status.
实现几乎全民住宅私有化的国家之一
Over 90% of the city’s households own their own homes.
即这个城市超过百分之九十的家庭拥有自己的房子
But it wasn’t always this way.
但是情况并非一直如此
Here’s how Singapore fixed its housing problem.
下面我们就来说说新加坡是怎么解决他们的住房问题的
In 1959, when Singapore obtained self-governance from the British,
1959年 当新加坡脱离英国殖民实现自治的时候
the city was having a severe housing crisis,
为了努力适应增长的人口
struggling to accommodate its growing population.
这个城市经历了严重的住房危机
In 1960, Singapore’s first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew
1960年 新加坡首任总理李光耀
and his government set up the Housing and Development Board,
和他的政党建立了建屋发展局
or HDB,
或称“HDB”
a public housing agency with a mission to build rental units for the poor.
一个旨在为穷人建设出租房屋群的公共住房机构
At the time, many immigrants including those
在这时候 许多来自马来西亚的移民
from Malaysia were living in unhygienic slums.
都住在不卫生的贫民区
Amid increasing racial tension between Chinese and Malays,
其中中国人和马来人之间日益增长的种族矛盾
the HDB had a hard time convincing them
HDB花了很长时间才说服他们
to leave their informal settlements for new high-rises.
离开非正式的居住地 搬到新的高楼大厦
Then came the still unexplained fire
接着 在河水山的棚户区
which broke out in the squatter settlement of Bukit Ho Swee
发生了一场无法解释的火灾
on May 25, 1961.
时间是1961年5月25日
An area of 400,000 square meters was razed.
方圆40万平方米被夷为平地
Four people were killed and around 16,000 left homeless.
4人死亡 大约16000人无家可归
The government successfully rehoused all
在一年的时间里
of the fire victims within a year
政府成功地安顿了所有的火灾受害者
and built new housing on the site of the disaster
并在接下来的五年内
in the next five years.
在那片废墟上修建了新的房屋
Its speedy reaction won over the people and paved the way
政府的迅速应对措施赢得了人民的支持
for future public housing projects.
为未来的公共住房项目铺平了道路
Singapore must be one of the few places in the world
新加坡一定是世界上少数几个
where a statutory board satisfactorily completed
法定委员会圆满完成
everything it set out to do in its first five-year plan.
第一个五年计划所有预期的国家之一
By 1965, the HDB managed to build over 51,000 apartments,
到1965年 HDB设法建造了51000所公寓
rehousing 400,000 people, a quarter of the then population,
安置了40万民众 占当时人口的四分之一
solving the housing shortage.
解决了住房紧张的问题
Apart from renting out apartments, HDB also started to sell them in 1964.
除了租赁这些公寓 HDB从1964年开始也开始卖这些房
Singaporeans are required to save part of their salaries
新加坡人须按照国家管理计划中的一项名叫中央公积金的政策
in a state-managed plan called Central Provident Fund.
将部分工资存起来
At first the fund only provided for retirement. Then,
起初这份基金只供退休后使用
in 1968,
然后在1968年
the government allowed the use of the fund for housing expenses,
政府允许将这笔资金用于住房开支
helping more people become homeowners.
帮助更多的人拥有房子
Unlike many other countries,
与许多其他国家不同的是
Singapore’s public housing is not only for the poor, instead,
新加坡的公共住房不仅面向穷人
it caters to the masses.
而是面向所有大众
Citizens within certain income ceilings can buy various types of property,
在一定收入上限的公民可以购买各种类型的房产
from basic two-room apartments to up-market units in condominiums
从基本的两居公寓到
with a swimming pool and a gym.
配备游泳池和体育馆的高档公寓
Their prices are usually 20 to 30 percent cheaper
它们的价格通常比私人市场
than those in the private market.
便宜20%到30%
But you’ve got to apply and order the apartment first,
但你得先申请并预定公寓
then wait several years for it to be built. Also,
然后等上几年才能建成
you can’t sell it
你也不能变卖它
until you finish the five-year minimum occupation period.
直到你完成了五年的最低工作年限
Today HDB has planned,
现在HDB已经规划 设计并建造了
designed and built over 1 million apartments spreading over the city-state.
100多万套公寓 遍布整个城市
The percentage of people living in public housing
公共住房的人口比例
has grown from 9% in 1960 to 82% in 2016,
从1960年的9%上升到2016年的82%
and the homeownership rate has also increased rapidly
随着新加坡经济水平的提高
with the rise of Singapore’s economy.
房产拥有率也迅速上升
Singapore’s public housing is considered as one of the world’s best,
新加坡的公共住房被认为是世界上最好的措施之一
but some see it as a way of social control.
但有些人认为这是一种社会控制方式
For instant, quotas ensure a mix of Chinese,
目前 中国人 印度人和马来人
Indians and Malays in each HDB block,
在每一个HDB的区域都有配额制度
aiming to carefully integrate ethnic groups and prevent the formation
目的是精心整合各民族群体 防止形成
of a volatile racial enclave.
一个不稳定的种族飞地
But still, a mighty agency
但尽管如此 一个强有力的机构
with effective policies and strong political will
凭借有效的政策和强有力的政治意愿
has fixed Singapore’s housing crisis and improved the living conditions of millions.
已经解决了新加坡的住房危机 改善了数百万人的居住条件

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视频概述

作为一个外籍人口很多的国家,新加坡曾经经历过住房危机。想知道它是怎么解决的吗?这篇文章将告诉你答案。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2cjPgNBNeLU

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