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如何一本正经地吹爆4个月研发新冠疫苗 – 译学馆
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如何一本正经地吹爆4个月研发新冠疫苗

How Scientists Are Trying to Develop a Coronavirus Vaccine | WSJ

(pleasant synth music)
[愉快的音乐]
– Scientists at the National Institutes of Health
国立卫生研究院的科学家
are working to create a vaccine for the new coronavirus
正在努力研制一种最先在中国
that discovered in China,
发现的新型冠状病毒的疫苗
but they’re not starting from scratch.
但是他们不是从零开始
They’re employing an approach called
他们采用了一种方法叫做
Vaccine Rapid Response Platforms.
疫苗快速响应平台
It involves high-tech methods that have the potential
这涉及到高科技手段
to shave years off of development time.
有可能将疫苗研制时间缩短几年
Ideally, they’d offer protection
理想的情况是 在疫情蔓延的过程中
while an epidemic is still spreading
而不是在疫情之后的数年
instead of years later.
科学家们就能够研制出疫苗
Within weeks of the world learning about the Wuhan outbreak,
在世界得知武汉爆发疫情的数周内
Chinese scientists uploaded the novel coronavirus’ genetic sequence
中国科学家将新冠病毒的基因序列
to a public database.
上传到一个公共数据库
That allowed teams around the world
这样全世界的疫苗研发小组
to start designing a vaccine.
得以着手研制疫苗
Traditional methods require an actual sample of the virus.
传统的方法需要一个实际的病毒样本
Typically, scientists inactivate a virus using special chemicals
科学家通常用特殊的化学制剂灭活病毒
before it’s put into a vaccine.
然后再用于疫苗
When the inactivated or weakened virus is injected into the body,
灭活或减毒的病毒注射到身体后
the immune system recognizes it
免疫系统将其视为
as a foreign invader or an antigen.
外来入侵者或抗原
Vaccines use antigens to prime the body
疫苗利用抗原使身体
to protect against a particular virus,
为抵御特定病毒侵害而做好准备
but vaccines developed
但是快速响应平台研制的疫苗
with Rapid Response Platforms work differently.
在作用方式上却有不同
Rather than directly injecting antigens into the body,
不是直接把抗原注射到体内
these types of vaccines typically send instructions to cells in the body.
这类疫苗通常向体内的细胞发送指令
It gets the cells to produce antigen proteins
体内细胞因此能产生出
that are specific to the virus it’s designed to defeat.
目标病毒特有的抗原蛋白
These instructions are in the form of RNA or DNA,
这些指令以RNA或DNA的形式存在
the molecules that contain the code for building proteins.
RNA和DNA分子中有构建蛋白质的编码
Scientists say this process cuts down on development time
科学家称该过程缩短疫苗研制的时间
because they don’t have to grow the whole virus.
这是因为他们不必培养整个病毒
Plus, once scientists identify and create the instructions for one virus
另外 一旦科学家确定并研制出其中一种病毒的指令
they can tweak those instructions
他们能调整这些指令
to make a vaccine for a similar virus.
来制造类似病毒的疫苗
– So think of the backbone as a cassette player
因此把序列的主干看作是磁带录放机
and the new virus sequence of our target, like from the new coronavirus,
新冠病毒等新型病毒的基因序列
that sequence that we design,
也就是我们要研制的基因序列
and think of it as a new cassette tape,
我们把它看作一盒新磁带
so we can just slot it in.
我们只是把磁带放到录放机里
– You can slot in new virus antigens.
我们可以放入新型病毒的抗原
– [Jason] Melanie Saville is the Director of Vaccine Research and Development
Melanie Saville是流行病防范和创新联盟(CEPI)
at the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness.
疫苗研制中心的负责人
CEPI is a global partnership
CEPI是2017年在达沃斯
that was launched at Davos in 2017.
发起的一个全球合作
– We were actually formed specifically
我们实际上为研究这种形势
to look at this type of situation.
而专门成立的
– [Jason] In this situation, the emergence of a new coronavirus,
在当前新冠状病毒出现的形势下
CEPI’s funding several teams from around the world
流行病防范和创新联盟资助全世界多个小组
that Saville says are each independently working
Saville称这些小组根据平台模型来工作
from the platform model.
各自独立研制疫苗
The sort of technologies that we are looking at,
我们正在研究的这类科学技术
some of which are really quite pioneering,
其中一些真的非常领先
can really move very quickly.
能够让疫苗研发工作进展得非常快
(pleasant orchestral music)
[愉快的弦乐]
[Jason] Three of the candidates are in a category called
这三个候选小组属于
nucleic acid vaccines.
核酸疫苗这一类别
One of those candidates is Moderna,
其中一个候选小组是Moderna
which is working with the NIH.
Moderna正与国立卫生研究院合作(NIH)
They’re developing a vaccine on a platform
他们正在平台上研制一种疫苗
that uses a part of the virus’ genetic code
使用名为信使RNA或名为mRNA
called messenger RNA or mRNA,
的病毒基因编码片段
so again, unlike the conventional approach,
同样 与传统的手段不同
with mRNA vaccine platforms,
使用信使RNA疫苗平台
it’s our own body’s cells rather than lab techs
正是我们身体细胞而非利用实验技术
that produce the antigen proteins
产生抗原蛋白
that are like the ones made by the coronavirus.
这和遇到冠状病毒时产生的抗原蛋白一样
Your immune system then will be stimulated
然后 身体免疫系统就会被激活
and develop antibodies to the virus
产生针对特定病毒的抗体
so that when you see it again,
这样你再遇到同种病毒
it can immediately recognize the virus
免疫系统体能立即识别出来
and prevent you from becoming sick.
防止你得病
– [Jason] More and more people are becoming sick from the novel coronavirus.
越来越多的人因感染新型冠状病毒而生病
As the race for a viable vaccine continues,
随着研制可用疫苗的竞赛持续进行
public health officials don’t know
公共卫生官员不知道
how bad the situation will be by the time they hope
在疫苗就位大范围分发之前
to have a vaccine ready for widespread distribution.
形势变得会多糟糕
– Normally, vaccines would take years to get into the clinic,
正常情况下 疫苗需要数年才能投入临床
so the sort of technologies
而我们在研究的这种技术
that we are looking at can really move very quickly.
真的可以让疫苗研发工作迅速开展
So an example of that is getting
其中一个例子是
from identifying the sequence of the virus to developing a vaccine,
从确定病毒序列 研制疫苗
doing all of the pre-clinical testing, manufacturing,
到临床前各项试验 生产
and getting into the clinic in 16 weeks.
最后投入临床 共需要16周
– [Jason] So, around four months.
因此 疫苗研制需要四个月左右
During the 2003 SARS outbreak, that process took 20 months.
在2003年非典爆发时 该过程耗时20个月
Experts say if one of the four teams CEPI is funding is successful,
专家说 如果CEPI资助的四个小组中有一个成功
it would be a watershed moment for human health.
对人类健康来说 这将是个转折时刻
– These are very promising candidates,
这些小组都非常有希望取得成功
but they’re still quite early days.
但是它们仍处于疫苗研制的初期

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看看美国在新冠病毒爆发之前,吹爆用4个月研制新冠疫苗。新冠肺炎已经蔓延到全球,疫苗的研制尤为关键,疫苗研制的方法和周期有哪些变化,快来点击视频吧

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