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洛克菲勒如何成为美国历史上最富有的人 – 译学馆
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洛克菲勒如何成为美国历史上最富有的人

How Rockefeller Became the Richest American Ever

本视频由The Great Courses Plus赞助
This video has been sponsored by The Great Courses Plus.
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If you don’t know what they are,
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it’s a service where you have instant access to
知名教授教育讲座的网站
educational lectures by top professors.
如果你想知道本期视频的灵感来源
If you want to find out what inspired this topic,
请完整地收看我们的视频
stay tuned till the end of the video to find out more.
按照现在的通货率换算
Adjusted for modern inflation,
洛克菲勒坐拥约3千到4千亿美元资产
John D. Rockefeller was worth around 300 to 400 billion dollars.
有些人会估高点 有些人会估低点
Some estimates put this price higher, some lower.
但大家的共识是他真的非常非常富有
But universally, everyone agrees he was very very wealthy.
他的财富并非完全来自运气
This kind of wealth doesn’t come from sheer luck.
一般 历史上最富有的人是征服者和帝王
Generally, the wealthiest figures in history were conquerors and kings.
所以一个企业家可以积累如此多的财富
So a captain of industry amassing this much money,
这背后一定有着有趣的故事
must have come with an interesting story.
洛克菲勒和其他几位镀金时代的企业家
John D. Rockefeller, along with several others during the Gilded Age,
通过运用知识 毅力和强硬的商业策略
used knowledge, willpower, and brutal business tactics
成为了近600年来最富有的人
to become the richest man in the last 600 years,
仅次于马里帝国国王曼萨·穆萨
only being surpassed by Mali King Mansa Musa
和罗马的奥古斯都·恺撒大帝
and Augustus Caesar of Rome.
他是如何取得这项了不起的成就的
So how did he manage this impressive feat?
这正是我们今天要探讨的
That’s what I want to take a look at today.
洛克菲勒1839年出生
Born in 1839,
他和商业伙伴莫里斯·克拉克一起
John’s business aspirations began in Cleveland,
在克利夫兰开始了他们的商业抱负
starting out with business partner Maurice Clark.
两人发现了石油市场的潜力
The two found potential in the oil market,
这在当时是独树一帜的
which was not uncommon at the time.
宾夕法尼亚的石油热潮还在继续
The oil boom in Pennsylvania was going on,
所有人都想从中分一杯羹
and everyone wanted something from it.
石油开采计划缺乏经验 计划不周
Unexperienced and ill-conceived plans to drill for oil
使市场呈现饱和状态
made the market saturated.
但这两合伙人有了更好的规划
But the two partners had a better plan.
他们没有专注于石油开采本身
Rather than focusing on the drilling itself,
而是将精力放在石油提炼上
they would put their efforts in oil refining.
原油从地下开采出来
This would turn the crude oil pumped out of the ground
通过精炼制成为各种石油制品
into a number of oil based products.
最主要是制成煤油
Most importantly, kerosene.
回看19世纪60年代
You see, back in the 1860s,
当时的石油市场与现在大相径庭
the oil market was very different than it is today.
开采技术之前 人们通过捕鲸获得燃油
Prior to drilling, oil was gained by killing whales
将鲸鱼皮熬制成照明的燃料
and boiling their skin to fuel lamps.
对多数人来说 燃油主要用于照明
The primary use of oil for the public was lamps,
燃油能让人们在黑夜更清楚地看见东西
which had allowed people to see after dark with relative ease.
19世纪50年代末 宾夕法尼亚发现油田
By the late 1850s, oil was discovered in Pennsylvania.
同时 油灯的生产和需求量也在大幅增加
With this, the production and demand for oil for lamps increased substantially.
但人们找到了解决方法
But we’re getting ahead of ourselves.
两位合伙人继续他们精炼事业的同时
As the two partners continued the refining business,
洛克菲勒节俭的品质开始给他们带来利益
Rockefeller’s thrifty mindset began to show its benefits.
竞争者会将很大一部份的炼油产物
Competitors would throw out a good chunk of the oil refined,
当作没有用的汽油和润滑油扔掉
as it was the useless gasoline and lubricants.
洛克菲勒用这些提炼过程的副产品
Rockefeller used these byproducts of the refining process
给石油精炼提供能量
to power the refining process
而且还在其他副产品上获取利润
along with making a profit on other byproducts.
洛克菲勒还开始试图控制
Rockefeller also began his attempt to control
石油精炼过程的方方面面
every aspect of the refining process.
石油运输过程中要用到木筒
Transportation of oil required wooden barrels.
他没有购买预制木桶 而是自己做
And instead of buying pre-made barrels, he made his own.
他没有去购买木材来制作木桶
And instead of buying the wood to make the barrels,
而是去买下一片森林
he bought a forest.
此时 合伙人不止洛克菲勒和克拉克两个了
By this point far more partners were involved than just Rockefeller and Clark,
还有克拉克的兄弟们
including Clark’s brothers
和一位叫萨缪尔·安德鲁的化学家
and a chemist named Samuel Andrews.
洛克菲勒决定买下克拉苏兄弟的股份
Rockefeller decided to buy out the Clark brothers shares,
从此以后就只剩洛克菲勒和安德鲁了
and from here it was just Rockefeller and Andrews.
不久 洛克菲勒的弟弟威廉开了自己的精炼厂
Soon after, Rockefeller’s brother William started his own refinery.
两兄弟和安德鲁还有亨利·璞莱格尔
The two along with Andrews and Henry Pfleger,
好吧 好多名字
I know, a lot of names,
他们成立了一家大的合伙企业
were all in a major partnership that
还建成了当时最大的炼油厂
now included the biggest oil refinery of the time.
当然 故事还远没有结束
Of course, this was not even close to where the story ends.
1870年 美孚石油公司成立
By 1870, Standard Oil was formed
并取代了之前的合伙企业
to replace the prior partnership.
此时 洛克菲勒家族的财富
And it was here that Rockefellers wealth
才真正开始迅速累积
began to truly soar.
作为最大的炼油厂
Being the largest oil refinery,
美孚石油公司在铁路运输货物时
certain privileges were held to Standard Oil
享受着某些特权
when transporting products on the trains.
毕竟 他们货物多
After all, they had a lot of product
铁路公司也可以赚一笔
and that can only be good for the railroad companies.
这意味着美孚比竞争者享受着更低的价格
This meant cheaper prices for Standard Oil than the competition,
也就意味着美孚石油的价格低却还能盈利
meaning that prices could be lower while still maintaining profits.
问题是 再无炼油厂能与之竞争
The problem: no other refinery could possibly compete.
这种初期的垄断会愈演愈烈
These early monopolistic practices would only grow.
洛克菲勒还决心收购光当地的竞争者
Rockefeller made sure to buy out every competitor in the area.
拒绝收购的公司会成为
Those who refused would become the subject of
美孚公司价格战的目标
Standard Oil’s infamous price wars.
美孚石油的价格将会非常低
The prices Standard Oil would offer would become so cheap
他们自己也会损失一些利润
that they themselves would lose money.
但消费者会开始只购买美孚石油
Consumers would begin to buy Standard Oil exclusively
竞争者将会落后
and the competition couldn’t keep up.
美孚公司资产雄厚 能承受一时的利润下跌
Standard Oil had so much money that they could afford to lose profits for a while,
只要能排挤掉竞争者就行
just to keep competition out.
不太道德? 对吧
Immoral? Yes.
犯法吗? 不
Illegal? No.
好吧 起码现在不犯法
Well, not yet at least.
上述的正反馈循环持续到了
The aforementioned positive feedback loop would only grow
美孚石油产量达到全国石油产量的90%
until Standard Oil accounted for 90% of the nation’s oil.
当然 这是一种垄断
This was, of course, a monopoly.
公众对美孚石油公司的敌意开始增加
Public animosity toward Standard Oil began to grow.
一家能操控多数行业的公司不会受公众待见
One company controlling so much didn’t sit well with the general public.
但此时 美孚公司有足够多的钱
But at the same time Standard Oil had enough money
能轻易地贿赂官员 让他们睁一只眼闭一只眼
to easily bribe politicians into looking the other way.
1890年 谢尔曼反托拉斯法出台
Luck seemed to have ran out in 1890
美孚的运气似乎也用光了
with the Sherman Antitrust Act though.
信托本质上是一种垄断
A trust is basically just a monopoly.
一家拥有巨大市场份额的公司
A company with a massive percentage of market share
能有效地扼杀其他所有的竞争者
that effectively kills all competition.
和垄断企业是竞争不过的
A monopoly cannot be competed against,
因为一个强大的垄断企业可以买断竞争
since an effective monopoly can buy competition
而且几乎每次都能在价格上压制竞争者
or outpace them in price nearly every time.
垄断 特别是随着工业的发展
Monopolies, especially as Monopolies, especially as industry advanced,
会让像洛克菲勒这样的人
would allow men like Rockefeller to gain
获得令人难以想象的巨大财富和权力
inconceivable levels of wealth and power.
谢尔曼反托拉斯法
The Sherman Antitrust Act,
为废除信托打下来基础
laid a groundwork to abolish trust.
但与这样资产雄厚的公司竞争
But competing with a company with such levels of wealth,
会是一个漫长且复杂的过程
can be a long and complicated process.
但反托拉斯法至少说明人们
While initially the Sherman Act seemed like
已经朝着正确方向迈进了一步
a great step in the right direction,
此时美孚石油公司和其他垄断大企业
politicians were still being constantly bribed by Standard Oil,
依旧在贿赂官员
along with other major monopolies of the day,
关于这 我改天再讲
which I would love to cover some other time.
这也意味着美国需要一名廉洁的政客
This would mean that it would take a politician who couldn’t be bought.
这个人就是泰迪·罗斯福
That man was Teddy Roosevelt.
罗斯福总统并不是单纯地凭借用力一击
President Roosevelt wasn’t solely going out and killing monopolies
就一棒杀死了垄断
with a single whack of his big stick,
他和联邦政府展开了一场持久的对话
but instead started a long needed conversation on the federal level.
垄断企业的权力非常庞大
Monopolies had gained so much power.
他们能有效地操控政府
They could effectively control the government.
民众怒气冲冲地要求瓦解这些垄断企业
And public anger demanded that these monopolies be dissolved.
最终在1909年
So finally in 1909,
美司法局根据美孚与铁路公司的利益往来
the Justice Department accused Standard Oil of monopolistic actions,
对其垄断行为提出指控
largely based around the benefits they had with the railroad companies.
指控证据清晰 记录详细
The evidence was rather clear and well documented,
只要时机一到 政府将对其采取严厉措施
and it was only a matter of time before the government would take severe action.
1911年5月
In May of 1911,
美最高法院裁定美孚石油公司
the Supreme Court ruled that Standard Oil had been
违反了谢尔曼反托拉斯法
in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act
此时距反托拉斯法通过已经20年了
over twenty years after it had been passed.
该裁决让美孚石油公司分解成了
The ruling broke up Standard Oil,
90家独立的小公司
and now would be 90 separate companies.
这些公司成长为了像
These companies would become entities
埃克森美孚和雪佛龙这样的实体企业
like Exxon Mobil and Chevron
但在洛克菲勒一生中
But during Rockefeller’s life,
这样的公司解体只会增加他的财富
this breakup would only further his wealth.
因为洛克菲勒仍旧在这些公司中持股
As Rockefeller still had stock within these companies,
这些公司的股价还都翻了一番
all these separate entities saw their stock prices double.
最终他的财富累积到了三千到四千亿美元
This finally would lead Rockefeller to his three to four hundred billion dollar mark,
他成为了美国历史上最富有的人
and cement him as the richest American of all time.
我们会简单地评价洛克菲勒是个贪婪的人
Rockefeller can be easily seen as an evil industrialist trying to get every dime.
但事实上 他是一位十分仁慈的人
But in reality, he was quite a charitable man.
有人可能会说:“这多钱也不用完啊”
Some could say, “Well, what else would you do with all that money?”
但请记住 洛克菲勒16岁时就开始
But keep in mind, he began donating
将收入的6%捐给了慈善
6% of his earnings to charity when he was just 16.
当然是在变得如此富有之前
Well, before he acquired that much money.
他还曾是一名进步分子
He was actually a progressive for the time,
坚定的废奴主义者 还给非裔美国人团体捐款
being a staunch abolitionists and donating to African American groups.
他一生都在坚持做慈善事业
He continued philanthropy throughout his entire life,
这与他在公众心中贪婪邪恶的形象形成对比
contrasting with the public image of him as a greedy evil man.
他的商业动作让很多人丢了工作
His business actions cost many their jobs,
失了生计 还泯灭了人们成功路上的希望
livelihood and potential for greatness.
这让他在人们心目中轻易就树立了不道德
That, in itself, can easily see him written off as immoral,
甚至是无情的形象
if not heartless.
但请记住
But just remember,
归根到底 那是充满硝烟的商场
in the end, that’s all it was business.
本视频的灵感来自一场
This video was inspired by a lecture,
发表在The Great Courses Plus
which was featured in an online video service
一个线上视频网站上的讲座
called The Great Courses Plus.
由帕特里克·艾伦教授主讲
John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil
《洛克菲勒和美孚石油公司》
taught by Professor Patrick N. Alan.
在讲座中 艾伦教授更加详细地介绍了洛克菲勒
In this course he goes through the exploration of the man himself
比视频中涉及的内容更加详细
in much more detail than I did today.
登陆 The Great Courses Plus 即可收看
You can access this and many other interesting courses through The Great Courses Plus,
可以订阅学习视频
a subscription on-demand video learning service
网站拥有七千多个视频知名教授讲座 涉及各个领域
with over 7,000 video lectures, top professors, in pretty much every field.
真的有涉及各个领域
in pretty much every field.
科学 历史甚至还涉及专业的话题 比如摄影
Science, history, and even really specific topics, like photography.
这些课题和课程由国家地理
These topics and courses are hosted by National Geographic
和其他一些机构 比如史密森学会主办
and many other institutions like the Smithsonian.
没有作业 没有考试 只需聆听和观看
No homework, no grades, just watch and listen.
所以如果你想进一步了解这位石油大亨
So if you want to learn more about the oil tycoon itself,
点击链接即可获得一个月免费的
click on this link to get one month of unlimited access to courses and videos
课程学习和视频观看
absolutely free.
网址TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/knowledge
Just visit TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/knowledge
链接请点击屏幕下方
The link is provided in the description below
我是知识中心栏目的科迪
This is Kody of knowledge hub.

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视频概述

美国巨富洛克菲勒如何建立他的石油帝国?千亿财产又从何而来?

听录译者

妍小译

翻译译者

Claudia

审核员

审核员_BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzLGb06EEXc

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