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购物网站为什么知道你想买什么? – 译学馆
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购物网站为什么知道你想买什么?

How Retailers Stalk You Online

你有过自己被人监视着的感觉吗?
Do you ever get the feeling like you’re being watched?
前几天 我想在网上买这条毯子
The other day, I was thinking about buyingthis blanket online.
我把它加入了购物车
I put it in my cart,
但是太贵了 我有点犹豫
but then kinda waffled cause it was expensive,
然后我就分心去做其他事了
and then I got distracted and did something else.
就在刚才 我收到了一条脸书私信
I just received a personal Facebook message from the company
提醒我那条毯子在我的购物车里
reminding me that it is in my cart.
他们是怎么做到的?
How did they do that?
我甚至都没有在这些账户上使用相同一个邮箱地址
I don’t even use the same email addresses for these accounts!
是脸书在监听我吗?
Is Facebook listeningto me?
请不要这么快得出结论
Don’t go getting fit for your tinfoil hatjust yet.
并没有确凿的证据可以证明
There isn’t any hard evidence
脸书在暗中访问你手机的麦克风
that Facebook is surreptitiously accessing your phone’s mic,
即便能够做到
and even if they could,
光是窃听他们的美国用户
the volumes of data they’d have to analyze
他们每天就要分析
to eavesdrop on just their American users
大约20PB的数据量
would be about 20 petabytes per day,
比他们的日常分析数据总量多出33倍
33 times more than their total daily data consumption.
而且 在线上跟踪技术已经十分发达的今天
Besides, online tracking technology is so advanced these days,
他们并不需要那样做
they don’t really need to.
你的浏览痕迹无处不在
You’re dropping bread crumbs everywhere you go.
想象一下你在商场购物的时候
Imagine if you went to a shopping mall
有个推销员一直跟在你后面
and had an employee follow you around
做推销
upselling the entire time:
难道您不喜欢这件衬衫吗?
Don’t you just love that shirt?
留下您的邮箱即可享受五美元优惠哦!
Give me your email and I’ll give you $5 off right now!
嘿 您还记得上个星期看的那款瑜伽垫吗?
Hey, remember that yoga mat you lookedat last week?
您猜怎么着 有五个人买了之后
Well guess what, 5 other people just bought it
都说是用过最好的瑜伽垫
and say it’s the best ever!
现在购买打九折哦!
10% off if you buy it right now!
嘿!别忘了下周就是你妈妈的生日咯
Hey! Don’t forget it’s your mom’s birthday next week.
她会超爱这款滑稽的咖啡杯的!
She’d love this hilarious coffee mug!
哦 或者这款造型别致的蜡烛怎么样?
Oh, maybe this fancy candle?
使用这个折扣码购买三支只要一支的价钱哦!
Three for the price of one if you just use this code!
没人想被过于热情的推销员纠缠
No one likes being badgered by an overly excitedemployee.
但那正是你网购时会发生的事情
But that’s basically what’s happening when you shop online.
它会给我们的银行账户带来极大的经济负担
And it can take a serious toll on our bank accounts.
所以我们要搞清楚
So, let’s get clear on
这些公司究竟在做什么 而我们又如何应对
what companies are really doing and what we can do about it.
网络零售商使用的主要策略
The main tactic that e-tailers use
被称为“在线行为广告”
is called Online Behavioral Advertising.
它非常的复杂
It’s pretty darn sophisticated
而且一天比一天复杂
and getting more so everyday.
来看看它是如何运作的
Here’s how it works.
首先 网站会给你的电脑植入一小段
First, a website will implant a small piece of data
被称为“甜饼”的数据
on your computer known as a cookie.
听起来很可爱 但这块小甜饼是有“加料”的
Sounds cute, but this cookie comes with strings attached.
它会跟踪你在网站上的操作
It tracks how you maneuver around a website,
你点击了什么页面 停留了多久
what pages you click on, how long you hang out there,
搜索了什么东西 以及添加到购物车的商品
what you search for, what you add to your cart.
然后利用收集到的数据建立一个档案
It then harvests this data and uses it to build a profile.
它会试图猜测
It tries to guess things like your age,
你的年龄 收入等级和喜恶
your income bracket, your likes and dislikes
以此来为你推荐
all in hopes of serving you ads
最可能吸引你注意力的广告
that are the most likely to capture your attention.
刚刚当上父母的我们经常网购
As new parents, we do most of our shopping online,
这让我们成了它的首要目标
which makes us prime targets.
朱莉娅最近被推荐了一款防滑婴儿靴
Julia was recently served up an ad for baby-booties that don’t slip off.
如果不清楚让宝宝一直乖乖穿着鞋袜
If you didn’t know keeping socks or shoes on babies’feet
几乎是不可能的话
is basically impossible,
这个推荐当然会吸引我的注意
so of course my attention was captured.
所以我点击了链接
I clicked the link and wouldn’t ya know it…
五分钟后我退出了链接
5 minutes later I was checking out.
而现在那些宝宝靴出现在所有我浏览的网页上!
And now, those dang shoes pop up on EVERY SITE I’M ON!
我有种无法逃脱的感觉!谢了 小甜饼
I feel like I can’t escape! Thanks,cookies.
这是“回头客定向”的一个典型范例
This is a textbook example of “re-targeting”,
仅有2%的用户会在第一次浏览时消费
Only 2 % of users will become a customer on their first visit,
所以甜饼的工作就是在网络空间悄悄跟踪你
so a cookie’s job is to quietly follow you around cyberspace,
等待时机把你重新请进商家的店铺
waiting for the right time to invite you back to their store.
如果零售商已经获得了你的联系方式
If a retailer has gotten access to your contact information
例如你的电子邮箱
like your email,
你还会被海量个性化的广告和推荐轰炸
you will also be barraged with personalized ads and offers.
亚马逊绝对是使用这种营销方式的巨头
Amazon is the absolute king of this tactic.
比方说你买了一个瑜伽垫
Say you buy a yoga mat,
它们会认为你可能需要这款超棒的瑜伽服
they will assume you probably need this awesome yoga shirt,
哦 如果你已经有了瑜伽砖的话 再买双瑜伽袜如何?!
oh, and you gotta have yoga blocks and what about yoga socks?!
这些方法非常有效
These approaches are super effective.
一个针对回头客定向的广告
A re-targeted ad is 70 % more likely
比随机推荐多70%的几率赢得顾客付款
to become a paying customer than a randomly served one.
亚马逊还因利用被称为“社会认同”的方法而出名
Amazon is also famous for leveraging something called “social proof”,
即我们 因为认为别人知道的比我们多
our tendency to copy the actions of others
而模仿他们行为的趋向
because we assume they know more than we do.
这就是为什么87%的用户
This is why 87% of users
反映他们根据顾客评价来决定是否购买
report that they use customer reviews to decide on a purchase.
当然 因为互联网的特殊性
Of course, because this is the internet,
这就导致了一些商家雇人为他们的产品写虚假评论
this has led to an entire hidden economy of sellers paying people
形成了一整条隐形经济链
to write fake reviews for their products.
亚马逊声称虚假评论的比例“很小”
Amazon claims that the percentage of reviews that are fraudulent is “tiny”,
但其实他们并没有太多动机
but they don’t really have much of an incentive
去消除那些不实评论
to crack down on them because
毕竟好评越多 销量越好
the more good reviews, the more sales.
有些网站能分析产品页面
There are websites that will analyze a product page
告诉你有多少条可疑评论
and tell you how many of the reviews are suspect,
但没有证据证明
but, the methods these sites use
这些能达到100%的准确率
are not proven to be 100%accurate.
如果你只是偶尔上网
All this wouldn’t be so bad
那这些就都不会这么糟糕
if going online was something you did every once in a while.
但是尼尔森公司最近的一项研究表明
But according to a recent Nielsen study,
美国人每天注视屏幕时间接近11小时
Americans spend approximately 11 hours PER DAY staring at screens.
这就相当于你人生的一半时间都花在商场里
That’s like spending half your life in a shopping mall.
难怪每三美元的可支配开支中
It’s no surprise that one out of every three dollars
就有一美元是在网上花的
of discretionary spending is being spent online.
虽然完全不在网上购购可能不现实
While avoiding online shopping altogetherprobably isn’t realistic,
但是我们可以想办法尽量减少商家可怕的跟踪
there are things we can do to minimize the creepy stalking from retailers
这样我们在购物中能更加慎重
so, we can shop more deliberately.
首先 建一个专用于网购的邮箱账号
First, set up an email account foryour online shopping.
那样 所有的垃圾信息和促销优惠
That way, all the spam and promotional offers
就不会再占满你的主邮箱了
won’t be clogging your primary inbox.
接着 你可以定期删除cookies
Next, you can regularly delete cookies
不在浏览器中
and “un-remember”your credit card numbers
记存你的信用卡号
from your browser’s memory.
我知道这会让网购变得不那么方便
I know, I know, this will make online shopping less convenient
因为每次登录都要要重新填写信息
because you’ll have to keep re-entering your info,
但是别忘了 我们是在努力对抗盲目消费
but remember, we’re trying to fight brainlessness
尽可能有目的性地消费
and make purchasing as intentional as possible.
网络零售商想让购物变得毫不费力
E-tailers want shopping to be effortless,
因为他们知道购物的步骤越多
because they know that the more steps involved,
你发现自己并不是真正需要
the more chances you’ll have to realize
那些花哨的瑜伽袜的可能性就越大
that you don’t really need those fancy yoga socks.
如果你不确定怎么做 就谷歌一下
If you’re not sure how to do this, just google,
“如何删除……(你的浏览器名称)里的cookies”
“How to erase cookies in…” The name of your browser
最后 我们强烈建议给线上支出设置一个上限
And lastly, we strongly recommend setting a hard cap for online expenditures
单独开一个支票账户或电子钱包
by opening a separate checking account or online wallet
仅用于网购
that’s only for shopping online.
在账户里设置你每月花销限额
Top it off with how much you want to allow yourself to spend per month,
达到上限
and when it’s empty, well,
你就只能等到下个月
you’ll just have to wait till next month
再买那盘4K的《黑客帝国》蓝光光碟了
to get that 4K Blu-Ray of The Matrix.
我承认我和邻居一样都喜欢
I admit it, I love seeing those packages show up at my door
收家门口的快递
as much as the next person,
但是对大多数人来说 在线购物是一种奢侈
but for most people, shopping online is a luxury.
绝大多数生活必需品 如日用品和家庭用品
The vast majority of necessities like groceries and household supplies
仍然在实体店购买
are still purchased at brick and mortar stores.
网络零售商希望我们把网购
E-tailers want us to treat online shopping
当做日常生活的一部分
like a normal, habitual part of lives,
但是任何可自由支配的花费都应该经过深思熟虑
but any discretionary spending should still be a special,deliberate decision.
你可能没法避开所有网络广告
You probably can’t ever get away from online advertising,
但是你至少可以了解
but you can at least be aware of
它是如何影响你的消费行为的
how it’s trying to influence your behavior.
这就是我们的观点!
And that’s our two cents!
网络广告商还有其他让你感到抓狂的地方吗?
Are there any other ways online advertisers are driving you crazy?
我希望在评论里看到你们的回答
I’d love to hear about it in the comments.

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视频概述

当你网上购物时,有没有过一种被监视的感觉?甚至和闺蜜聊到一款包包,你的购物App首页就会自动为你推荐…这个视频将向你展示网络究竟是怎么做到的,这其中又暗含着怎样的商机

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

HiyaTay

审核员

审核员_QY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wEayQ_5rjQ

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