ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

指纹分析有多可靠? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

指纹分析有多可靠?

How reliable is fingerprint analysis?

一场滔天大罪发生在沃克斯
A heinous crime has been committed at Vox.
有人一直偷喝我的水
Somebody keeps drinking the single source
我为自己买了
Ethiopian yirgacheffe coffee I bring to the
埃塞俄比亚的耶加雪啡
office for myself.
我在办公室周围逮捕了五名嫌疑犯
I rounded up five suspects from
采集他们的指纹
around the office and fingerprinted them
看看能不能找到
to see if I could find a match
与杯子上发现的指纹相吻合的
from a print I found on my mug.
指纹分析是不是足够可靠
Is fingerprint analysis reliable enough to
能破获这起不可告人的罪行
pin somebody to this unspeakable crime,
更重要的是 额 你实际上是怎样操作的?
and more importantly… uhhhh… how do you actually do this?
为解答上述疑问
To help me figure out what the hell,
我邀请了一位专家加入
I’m supposed to do I brought in an expert.
我是彼得·瓦伦汀
My name is Peter Valentin.
我是犯罪现场再现和刑侦专家
I’m an expert in crime scene reconstructionand forensic science.
当我们还不知道 罪犯与被害人间的联系时
A fingerprint is probably the most important piece of information
指纹可能是最重要的信息
when we don’t have a known connection between the victim and the offender.
我们需要发现一些人们比较容易遗留在现场
We have to find something that people leave at scenes relatively easily
足够独特的东西
and something that is unique enough
找到并识别它 以此来找到罪犯
that finding it and identifying what it is will lead us back to the person.
为了找到指纹
In order to find a fingerprint,
研究者要么使用物理性成分
investigators will either use a physical component
例如一种粉末 不是可可粉吗
like a powder. So not cocoa powder?
好吧 好吧
Cool cool cool.
或者是一些化学物质 使得印记显现在物质表面
Or a series of chemicals that make a print visible on a surface.
我们的指纹带有单向纹和沟纹 形成独特可辨别的形态
Our fingerprints have ridges and furrows that align to create unique, recognizable patterns.
这里是我们称为环状的形态
There is a what’s called a loop right here,
然后可以看到有单向皱纹的形态
you have ridges that are coming into the pattern
然后又切回来了
and then coming back out.
这是另一个环状的形态
Here’s another loop right here.
这个是拱状形态
There’s arches,
然后是螺旋纹 这三个单独的类别构成了
and there’s whorls and those those three categories alone comprise
数据库里至少95% 的指纹
at least 95 percent of the fingerprints that are in the database.
每个人的指纹都独一无二 与其他人的不同
Everyone’s fingerprints have unique featuresthat differentiate them from everyone else’s.
例如这个脊纹在这里分裂成两个
For instance this ridge splits into two here
而这个脊纹在这里断裂了
and this ridge has a break in it.
人的一生中 指纹都不会改变
These patterns remain the same throughout a person’s lifetime,
这让它们成为强有力的鉴定技术
which makes them a powerful identification tool.
我的指纹非常容易被识别
My fingerprint is pretty easy to spot.
这个图案看起来像一个1998年的赛百灵
The pattern looks like a 1998 Chrysler Sebring.
调查者依靠指纹的特征
Investigators rely on the characteristics of a print
通过ACE-V 寻找相匹配的结果
to find a match using a method called ACE-V.
首先他们要分析指纹和其所在表面
First they analyze the print and the surface it’s on
看他们是否可以进行检验
to see if it’s viable for examination.
这个指纹痕迹完美
This one’s great.
这个 就不是那么完整
This one, not so much.
然后 他们提取合适的指纹并且和已知的指纹对比
Then, they take the suitable print and compare it against known fingerprints
去寻找相同点和不同点
looking for points of similarities and differences.
比如说这两个图案都是螺旋状而且都在这里分叉
For example both these patterns are whorlsand bifurcate right here.
调查人员基于这些特质试着估计
Investigators look at these traits and try to gauge
是否有足够的比较点
if there’s enough points of comparison
来证明它是匹配的
to declare it a match.
最后 一个资深的同行者检验他们的结论来验证对比结果
Finally, a qualified peer reviews their conclusion to verify the match.
在使用高科技软件分析了我杯子上的指纹后
After using high tech software to analyze the prints from my mug
――我开个玩笑 这只是我下载的一些视频素材片段
– I’m kidding this is just some stock footage I downloaded.
我认为最终得到了一个匹配结果
I think I finally found a match.
但是 好吧 尽管它是由权威得出
But, ok, even when it’s done by professionals…
指纹分析有多可靠?
how reliable is fingerprint analysis?
这是一个显然有价值的有用的工具
It’s a useful tool that obviously has value,
但是我认为夸大它的价值是有问题的
but I think it’s problematic to overstate
尤其是在刑事司法背景下
its value especially in a criminal justicecontext.
一项精确的研究发现 在1%的情况下 检查员会做出肯定性误检
One accuracy study found that examiners made false positive identifications in 1% of cases.
就是当指纹不匹配时会被识别为匹配
Which means identifying a print as a match when it’s not.
这听起来不是很糟糕
That doesn’t sound too bad…
除非你亲身卷入误检事故
unless you happen to be one of those false positives.
布兰登·梅菲尔德 一个俄勒冈州的律师 就是极其不幸的一个
Brandon Mayfield, a lawyer from Oregon, was one of those unlucky few.
他被误控为2004马德里火车站爆炸案罪犯
He was falsely accused of the 2004 Madrid train bombing
因为FBI在犯罪现场找到的一个不完整的指纹
because the FBI made a false
做出了错误的匹配
positive match with a partial print foundat the scene.
对调查人员来说 梅菲尔德似乎是一个合情合理的嫌疑人
Mayfield seemed like a good suspect to investigators
因为他最近成为了伊斯兰教的教徒
because he had recently converted to Islam
并且他是一个为意图加入塔利班的人辩护的律师
and was the lawyer for a man who attempted to join the Taliban,
在911事件后 这种行为
which in the wake of 911
被联邦调查局认为是危险信号
were all red flags for the FBI.
这里的确存在偏见
There was a bias that existed because
因为一旦他们初步确定了这个未知指纹属于这个人
once they tentatively identified the unknown fingerprint belonging to this individual
他的身份 以及他的背景都使得这个识别
who he was and what his background was made the identification
比事实更易令人信服
seem stronger than it actually was.
他没有合法的护照
He didn’t have a valid passport.
因此它表面上有点令人难以置信
So it’s a little implausible on the face of it
他在西班牙带着一包炸药
that he was handling a bag of detonators in Spain.
指纹对比如此强大以至于它胜过了其它方式
Fingerprinting was so powerful that it just sort of it trumped everything else.
梅菲尔德甚至拿出了分析员去检查的结果
Mayfield was even given his own analyst who examined the prints,
不过即便如此 他们依然认为
and even they agreed
他的指纹与现场匹配
that it was a match.
偏见是一件有趣的事 因为你知道 每个人的假设都是
That’s an interesting thing about biasbecause, you know, everybody’s assumption
专家们偏袒他们所为之工作的一方
is that the experts are biased toward the side that they’re working for.
有一个在为梅菲尔德工作的男人
Here was a guy who was working for Mayfield
他已经有充分证据表明
and yet he corroborated the evidence against
那个指纹对比是错误的
him which turned out to be incorrect.
联邦调查局发表了一份关于他们分析错误的330页的报告
The FBI released a 330-page report about where their analysts went wrong,
这在很大程度上证明 指纹对比存在很多潜在的失误
and it’s pretty much a case study in a lot of the potential downfalls of fingerprinting.
他们列举了一些失误 例如 忽视了指纹间的不同
They cited things such as, ignoring differences between the prints,
缺乏独立的审核
lack of independent verification, the pressure
高度重视恐怖主义调查的压力
of working on a high profile terrorism investigation,
以及对嫌疑人的偏见都影响了 他们的分析
and letting bias about the suspect affect their analysis.
他们的报告概括为
Their report summed it up by saying
“人非圣贤 孰能无过”
” in any human endeavor, there is a potential for error.”
你知道我会建议吸取历史教训
You know I would suggest learning from history
并且意识到 没有一件事是永远正确的
and realizing that none of these things are going to be error free.
所以会出现错误甚至搞砸事情
So there’s going to be mistakes and errors andscrew ups.
而且证据本身就具有概率性
But also evidence is inherently probabilistic.
因此尽管这不是一个完美的工具,
So even though it’s not a perfect tool,
但在更可靠的技术出现之前
until a more reliable technology emerges,
执法部门将继续使用指纹分析
law enforcement will continue to utilize fingerprintanalysis.
我永远无法完全确定是谁偷了我的咖啡
And I won’t ever be fully certain of who stole my coffee.
直到我在我安装的监控摄像里抓住他
Until I catch him on this new surveillance camera that I installed.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

指纹分析是执法人员一个重要调查工具,但指纹分析是万无一失无可挑剔的吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小妍纸

审核员

审核员SY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fd8reN4uoBM

相关推荐