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为何键盘都按QWERTY排列

How QWERTY conquered keyboards

Why does every keyboard look like this?
为什么每个键盘都是这个样子的
The QUERTY keyboard is overrated.
我们对QWERTY键盘 其实过誉了
OK, so this top strip here, there is a 99% chance
有99%的概率 你键盘最顶排的
that on your keyboard it’s:
字母是这样排列的:
Q-w-e-r-t-y QWERTY
Q-w-e-r-t-y QWERTY
We all have these QWERTY keyboards.
我们都是这种QWERTY键盘
There’s probably even one in your pocket, on a screen.
可能你口袋里手机的屏幕上也有
But why?
可为什么呢?
Why is this pattern of letters so familiar?
为什么这列字母组合如此常见?
“This of course, is the keyboard.”
“这 当然就是键盘”
But why, “of course?”
可为啥“当然”是这样呢?
QWERTY was just one person’s invention
QWERTY就是一项私人发明
from 1870s
从1870年代算起
It’s almost 140 years old,
已经有近140年的历史了
yet, it’s still the standard.
至今仍被视作标准样式
“All of these machines are alike in many respects.”
“这些机器在许多方面都是相似的”
We all use it, but don’t know why.
我们都这样用 但不知道为什么
That’s the definition of overrated!
这就是它被高估所在!
And it turns out that this little keyboard is the subject of intense debate,
事实上这个小小的键盘引发了激烈的争论
some lies you’ve probably been told before,
有些谎言你可能以前听过
and a few real explanations
还有一些真实的解释
that might surprise you,
可能会让你吃惊不已
including an old fashioned cartel.
这涉及到某个老式的卡特尔组织
Lots of people have tried to
很多人试图
arrange these jumbled letters.
排布这些乱七八糟的字母
There was a half century period of
半个世纪以来
indecision, debate.
人们各执己见 争论不一
In the 1840’s,
18世纪40年代
Hughes Printing Telegraph arranged the keys
休斯印字电报机公司仿照
like a piano keyboard.
钢琴排布键盘
Or, look at the Hansen’s Writing Ball from 1865.
或者 来看看1865年的“汉森书写球”
People’s fingers pecked
人们的手指要敲打的正是
at this thing.
这个东西
The letters varied per version,
每种产品的键盘排列都不一样
but they showed up in this pattern.
但它们都以这种版面出现
This 1868 typewriter looks weird too,
这台1868年的打字机看起来也很奇怪
but it was the start of something.
但它却成了某种开端
The inventor, was Christopher Latham Sholes.
发明者是克里斯托弗·莱瑟姆·肖尔斯
He looked like typewriter Santa Claus,
他看起来像个打字机圣诞老人
and he kept going.
并且他一直在持续地改进
In 1870, he developed a pattern like this.
1870年 他布局出了一套这样的组合
As of 1873,
1873年
he’d come up with a keyboard that looked
他发明了与QWERTY
a lot like QWERTY.
很像的一组键盘
But there were quirks.
但同样有奇怪的点
Notice that period
注意句号那儿
where the R should be.
其实应该是“R”
And the A and Z are flipped.
另外“A”和“Z”的位置反了
The M also sits next to the L.
“M”则放在了“L”的旁边
Remington, a company
雷明顿购买了这个设计
that made machines for shooting and sewing,
这原本是一家制造枪械
bought the design.
和缝纫器械的公司
Suddenly, they were in the typewriter business.
却突然做起了打字机生意
The design Sholes patented
1878年肖尔斯申请专利的时候
in 1878 was
设计基本上已经是
basically QWERTY.
QWERTY键盘的样子了
Along with the numbers,
除了数字的问题
the only weirdness is that M next to the L,
和现在的键盘比 奇怪的地方就剩下
and the C and X are flipped
“M”放在了“L”旁边
compared to a contemporary keyboard.
C”和“X”的位置是反过来的
The company that made Remington Typewriters was soon
很快 制造出雷明顿打字机的公司就用
sending out the sales packets
我们熟悉和喜爱的QWERTY键盘
with the QWERTY we know and love.
发布了销售包装
But that doesn’t quite
但这并不能解释
explain how QWERTY got big.
QWERTY是如何被广泛应用的
There are urban legends.
有很多坊间传闻
One’s that QWERTY was designed that way
有种说法是 QWERTY的设计原理
to keep typewriter keys from jamming.
在于防止打字机卡住
But lots of designs could do that,
但很多设计也能做到这一点
and there’s not a lot of good evidence that
同时缺乏大量有效证据可以表明
that’s why QWERTY was designed.
这是QWERTY键盘的设计真谛
Other options were even still around in 1890,
1890年还出现了一些新的键盘品类
like the Merritt Typewriter.
比如梅里特打字机
You moved this handle to the right spot for your letter
你要把这个手柄移到正确的字母上
and pressed down.
然后按下
The letters weren’t in QWERTY,
字母不是按QUERTY模式排的
they were in a big long strip that looked like this.
而是排列在一根这样的长条带上
So it was a KWBHGP keyboard.
所以是这一个KWBHGP打头的键盘
Many typists believed
许多打字员认为
it worked as well as QWERTY.
它和QWERTY一样好用
But the best evidence of all that QWERTY wasn’t “the perfect design,”
但是 证明QWERTY键盘非“完美设计”的最佳证据
might be this invention from 1889.
可能是1889年的这项发明
The keyboard?
键盘吗?
Not QWERTY, but XPMCHR.
不是QWERTY设计 而是XPMCHR设计
The inventor?
谁发明的?
Christopher Latham Sholes,
克里斯托夫•拉森•肖尔斯
the guy who invented QWERTY.
就是发明QWERTY键盘的那个人
He created it just before he died.
他在临终前创造了这套键盘
Even the creator of QWERTY
即便是QWERTY键盘的发明者
wasn’t settled on QWERTY!
也并没有最终选定它
And that’s where the cartel comes in.
这时卡特尔垄断组织出现了
Look at this king.
来看这个国王
He has something to do with QWERTY.
他和QWERTY键盘有某种关联
See the label on his crown?
看到他王冠上的标签了吗?
“Trusts.”
“托拉斯”
In the 1890s,
在19世纪90年代
many companies merged into trusts
许多公司合并为托拉斯
that allowed them to fix prices and control markets.
从而操纵价格 控制市场
In 1893,
1893年
that happened with typewriters,
同样的事情发生在打字机产业
when some of the biggest manufacturers came together
一些最大的制造商合并组成了
to form Union Typewriter Company.
“联合打字机公司”
Manufacturers cared most about price
制造商最关心的就是价格
and technical improvements,
以及技术的改进
like how the typewriter worked.
比如打字机的运作方式这样的
But there was another effect of the trust.
但是托拉斯也带来了一些其他的影响
The biggest company made Remington Typewriters,
最大的公司制造了雷明顿打字机
and they used Sholes’ QWERTY keyboard design.
并使用了肖尔斯的QWERTY键盘设计
The trust did the same.
托拉斯也干了一样的事
Most experts think the trust didn’t work to fix prices.
大多数专家认为托拉斯无法定价
It had trouble beating
它在击败创新
innovative competitors.
竞争对手上是有困难的
But their market power did fix
然而它们的市场力量促使
a pattern on the keyboard.
键盘生产形成了一个模式
And there’s one more reason
还有一个原因可以解释
why that pattern stuck.
为什么这种模式会持续下去
Look at these old typewriter ads.
看这些旧打字机广告
Or these early typists.
和早期的打字员
Now you might notice that most of these students are women.
你可能会发现多数学员都是女性
That is worth noting!
这一点很关键!
But for the story of QWERTY,
但是关于QWERTY的历史
it’s more important to notice that
更重要的是注意
they’re in a class, together.
她们同属一个班级
Typing wasn’t like it is today,
和那时不同
where you get one of these at the office,
现在你可以在办公室找到键盘
or one of these when you’re born.
或者一出生就有手机
Typists trained.
当时的打字员要经过培训
They took classes.
他们需要上课
If you took a class,
如果你上过课
you took it for the most common keyboard.
你学的就是最常见的键盘
That was QWERTY.
QWERTY
People still debate
人们依旧在争辩
whether QWERTY’s the best.
QWERTY键盘是不是最好的
Some say the 1930s
有的人说1930年代的
DVORAK keyboard is better,
DVORAK键盘更好
others say it too is overrated.
有的人说这种键盘同样评价过高
Whether it’s the best system or not,
无论是不是最好的打字系统
QWERTY isn’t going anywhere anytime soon.
QWERTY键盘短期内不会消失
“How you type is more important than what you type.”
“你如何打字比你用什么打字更重要”
“This is the mark of a good typist.”
“这是一个优秀打字员的标志”
There are so many other
关于QWERTY键盘
unprovable theories when it comes to QWERTY.
还有很多未经验证的理论
One of my favorites is that
键盘这样排布
the keyboard was arranged that way
让我最喜欢的方面包括
so that sales people could peck out
销售人员刚好可以在键盘
TYPEWRITER all on the top of the keyboard.
顶排组合出“TYPEWRITER”这个词

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视频概述

电脑键盘为什么非得这样排列?QWERTY有何玄机?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8f6us-Sjlo

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