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如何保护教皇?

How Protected Is the Pope?

In 1981, Pope John Paul II was on his way
1981年 教皇若望·保禄二世
to a weekly appearance at St Peter’s Square in Rome,
前往罗马的圣伯多禄广场 参加每周露面活动
blissfully unaware that by the end of the day
他完全没意识到在这天结束的时候
he’d be fighting for his life in hospital.
他将在医院里 与死神展开搏斗
With crowds of adoring masses waving at him
随着崇拜他的群众向他挥手
and reaching their hands out from both sides of the road,
并从道路两侧向他伸出双手
the air was filled with love and admiration, just like always.
空气中像往常一样充满了爱与敬佩
But, in a few split seconds,
但是 数息之间
everything changed.
一切都改变了
A gunshot.
一声枪响
Screams ran out from within the crowd
人群中传出尖叫声
and multiple people fell to the floor,
许多人倒在地上
including Pope John Paul II.
包括教皇若望·保禄二世
Someone within the crowd had just fired at the Pope,
有人刚刚在人群中向教皇开了枪
not once, not twice,
不是一次两次
but four times.
而是四次
You could cut the tension with a knife
气氛紧张得让人透不气
as the hordes of people tried to rush to the defense of the old man,
成群的人试图保护教皇
detain his attacker,
阻留攻击者
and help the other people who had been taken down.
帮助其他被击倒的人
One bystander managed to knock the weapon from the shooter’s hands
一位旁观者在进一步的伤害可能产生之前
before any further damage could be done,
设法把武器从枪手手中夺下
but the Pope was already bleeding,
但是教皇已经在流血了
and everyone was afraid it was already too late to help him.
人们害怕来不及救他
What just happened?
刚刚发生了什么?
The person who shot the Pope was a 23-year-old Turkish man
射杀教皇的是一个23岁的土耳其男人
who had previously been arrested in his country
他之前在土耳其被捕
but somehow managed to escape
但不知怎么逃了出来
and make it all the way to Vatican City.
一路来到了梵蒂冈
Luckily, it seemed that the Pope was really blessed,
幸运的是 教皇似乎真的被上帝眷顾
because each shot narrowly missed him.
因为 只有两枪击中了他
The first hit his abdomen
第一枪击中了他的腹部
but just avoided the vital organs,
但是避开了重要器官
the second got his hand,
第二枪击中了他的手
and the third and fourth shots caught other unlucky passers-by instead.
而第三四枪击中了其他不幸的路人
It was a close blow,
那是一次近距离射击
and the damage left the Pope fighting for his life,
造成的伤害 使教皇与死神展开了搏斗
but he survived,
而他幸存下来了
and in true papal fashion was offering forgiveness to his assailant just four days later.
仅仅四天后 他以教皇的方式向袭击者表示宽恕
You might think that what happened that day in 1981
你可能会想 1981年那天发生的事
was just a one-off, freak incident,
只是一个一次性的反常事件
and to a certain extent it was.
在某种程度上 是的
It’s not very often that you get prisoners escaping to hunt down the Pope.
囚犯逃逸 追杀教皇的情况并不常见
But being the head of the Catholic Church
但是 天主教教会领袖
is arguably one of the most dangerous jobs in the world.
无疑是世界上最危险的职业之一
If you thought being a President or Prime Minister was bad,
如果你认为当总统或总理不好
try being a leader who has to be in close proximity with the public
尝试成为一个要和公众走得很近的领导人
and even physically touch your admirers as part of the job.
甚至作为职业的一部分 还要和仰慕者有身体的接触
I don’t remember the last time Donald Trump
我不记得上次唐纳德·特朗普
was driven in an open car with throngs of people close by,
像教皇若望·保禄二世被射击那天一样
like Pope John Paul II was on the day he was shot.
开敞篷车穿过人群是什么时候了
It’s extremely hazardous,
那么 这是非常危险的
and not just because of the commonest germs.
不仅仅因为极多的各种病菌
It’s not surprising that Pope John Paul II
不出所料 教皇若望·保禄二世
wasn’t the first Pope people have tried to kill.
并不是第一个遭遇暗杀的教皇
Some attempts have been successful, too.
也有一些暗杀尝试成功了
Three Popes have been strangled, two poisoned,
三位教皇窒息而死 两位被毒杀
three murdered through unknown means,
三位被不明手段谋杀
and one killed through ill-treatment.
一位被虐杀
One Pope was even smothered with a pillow!
一位教皇甚至是被枕头闷死的!
The eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries
因为几乎所有的谋杀
were particularly dangerous times to be the head of the Catholic Church,
都发生在第八 第九和第十世纪
with almost all the murders happening around this period.
因此这段时期对于天主教教会领袖们来说特别危险
It’s maybe not surprising that a few Popes have met grisly ends
一些教皇惨死 大概不足为奇
since they’ve been around for quite a while.
毕竟 教皇存在的时间不算短
A thousand years is a long time to go without a few hiccups,
平安无事地过了十个世纪
but you probably wouldn’t get many people today
反正如今大概不会有很多人
attempting to smother the Pope with a pillow today.
试图用枕头闷死教皇
But when it comes to the Holy One,
但是 事关圣者
it’s best to err on the side of caution.
宁愿过于谨慎也不要冒风险
So, after the assassination attempt in the 1980s,
因此 20世纪80年代的暗杀事件之后
officials have upped the ante on the security procedures.
当局对安保程序提出了更多的要求
But just how protected is the man in the white?
但是 教皇到底受到多少保护?
From a Popemobile with bulletproof glass
从装有防弹玻璃的教皇座驾
to a dedicated army,
到特别军队
the Catholics certainly aren’t taking any chances.
天主教徒们确实非常谨慎
One of the reasons the assassination attempt in the 80s was such a close call
80年代的暗杀中 枪手能近距离射击教皇的一个原因
is that the Pope was riding in an open car
是当时他正乘坐一辆敞篷汽车
whilst passing through the busy square.
通过繁忙的广场
I’m not saying he asked for it, but come on.
我不是说这是他要求的 但是拜托
So, the powers-that-be decided it would be best to introduce some more heavy-duty solutions.
因此 上头决定最好使用一些重型交通工具
Introducing the bulletproof Popemobile.
包括防弹教皇座驾
Yes, you heard that right,
是的 你没听错
not a Batmobile, but a Popemobile.
不是蝙蝠车 而是教皇座驾
That’s actually the official name for the custom vehicle
教皇座驾(Popemobile)实际上是这种定制车的官方名称
used to transport the pope around for public appearances.
主要用途是载教皇去各处参加公开露面活动
At first glance, the Popemobile doesn’t exactly look like the most secure vehicle in the world.
乍一看 教皇座驾看起来并不像世界上最安全的车
It’s kind of like a throne on wheels
有点像带有车轮的宝座
that allows everyone in the crowd to see the Pope.
让人群中的每个人都能看到教皇
But there are many designs of the ecclesial vehicle,
但是有很多不同样式的教皇座驾
and some are actually extremely protective.
其中一些极具保护性
The most heavy-duty Popemobile weights 24 tonnes
最重型的教皇座驾重24吨
and can withstand small arms fire,
可以承受轻武器射击
whilst other cars have armoring and glass cover.
同时其他车具有装甲和玻璃罩
The riskier the situation is deemed to be,
情况被认为越是危险
the more secure a vehicle is chosen.
选择的车驾就越安全
The safest of all is the Mercedes M-Class Popemobile,
最安全的是梅赛德斯M级教皇座驾
complete with armor plating that’s two inches thick,
这种车型配备有2英寸厚的装甲板
a blast-proof underbelly and bullet-proof glass.
防爆底盘和防弹玻璃
Having said that, the current Pope is a bit of a rebel
话虽如此 现任教皇有点叛逆
and often opts to use the least secure vehicles imaginable whenever he can get away with it,
常常尽可能选择最不安全的车辆
claiming the bulletproof glass distances him from people.
声称防弹玻璃拉远了他与教徒的距离
Instead, he’s been spotted driving around in a 1984 Renault 4.
同时 他曾被看见驾驶一辆1984年的雷诺4四处兜风
He must really believe that there’s a guy up there looking out for him.
他肯定深信 神在庇佑他
But if he’s ever let down,
但是 要是什么时候没被神庇佑
he has an entire armed force to look out for him.
他也拥有一整个武装部队来“庇佑”他
The Pontifical Swiss Guard
教皇卫队(现称瑞士卫队)
are a group of guards whose main responsibility is to protect the Pope and the palace.
是一群主要职责为保护教皇和宫殿的守卫
If you’ve ever visited Vatican City state,
如果你曾经参观过梵蒂冈
you’ve probably seen them in their yellow, blue, and red-striped uniforms
你就很可能见过他们穿着黄蓝红的条纹制服
and plumed helmets.
戴着羽毛装饰的头盔
Their bright get-up might make them look more like cartoon characters
色彩亮丽的服饰可能使他们看起来更像卡通人物
than a force to be reckoned with,
而不是可依赖的军队
but don’t underestimate them.
但是不要小瞧他们
Unlike the bulletproof Popemobile,
不像防弹的教皇座驾
the Swiss Guard are hardly a new creation.
这支瑞士卫队不是什么新发明
They’ve been around since the Renaissance.
他们从文艺复兴时期就存在了
You might not expect a place like the Vatican City
你可能不会想到 像梵蒂冈这样的地方
to suffer from frequent invasions,
会遭受频繁的入侵
but it was often attacked before becoming a state,
但是在成为国家之前 它经常遭到袭击
which inspired the establishment of the guard.
这促进了教皇卫队的建立
Back when they were established,
在教皇卫队最初建立的时候
the Swiss Guard were renowned for being better fighters than just about anyone else.
他们以比其他任何人都更好擅长战斗而闻名
They could compete against much larger armies and defeat them.
他们能与比自己规模大得多的军队较量 并且战胜对方
Nowadays, to join the Swiss Guard,
现在 想要加入瑞士卫队
the minimum requirements are to complete basic training with the Swiss military
最低要求是完成瑞士军队的基础训练
and achieve a certificate of good conduct.
并取得表现优异证书
Oh, and you also need to be at least 174cm tall.
对了 申请者还需要身高不低于174厘米
You’ll also need to stand out by showing your dedication,
你还需要通过展示自己的奉献精神
prowess, and military capabilities.
英勇和军事能力脱颖而出
The army is composed of just over 100 men
瑞士卫队不过一百来人
and they’re all hand-selected.
且都是经人工遴选而来
The Swiss Guard is just as modern and adept
和大多数其他主要国家的护卫部队一样
as the protection forces of most other major nations.
瑞士卫队装备现代 训练有素
The guards are trained for crowd control,
守卫们的训练内容包括群体管控
VIP protection, surveillance, and using weapons.
要员保护 监视 以及武器使用
They have traditionally used the sword and the halberd,
他们历来是使用剑和戟的
a two-handed pole weapon,
一种需要使用双手的武器
and they’re still genuinely trained to use them.
到现在他们还会对剑和戟进行训练
Along with these vintage weapons,
除了这些传统武器
they also hold more modern firepower,
瑞士卫队还拥有更多的现代武器
such as the Sig P220,
例如Sig P220手枪
a semi-automatic pistol made by Sig Sauer
它是西格&绍尔制造的半自动手枪
that has an excellent reputation for its high quality.
因其自身的高质量而享有很高的声誉
As well as having its own armed forces,
梵蒂冈不仅有自己的武装力量
the Vatican City state also has its own police force.
还有自己的警察机关
They have a similarly pretentious name,
他们有一个相似的自命不凡的名字
the Gendarmerie Corps of Vatican City State,
梵蒂冈宪兵
but you can just call them the Vatican Police if you’d prefer.
不过 你如果喜欢也可以叫他们“梵蒂冈警察”
Although their main job is to protect the Vatican City at large
虽然他们的主要工作是保护整个梵蒂冈
rather than just the Pope,
而不仅仅是教皇
you can be sure they’re planning for and monitoring his safety every step of the way.
但是有件事是确定的 教皇迈出的每一步 都在他们的规划和监控之中
Their main duties include security,
梵蒂冈警察 主要职责包括安全保障
helping the Swiss Guard during the Pope’s public appearances,
教皇公开露面时给予瑞士卫队辅助
and carrying out investigations.
以及进行侦察
They also have a counter-assault team and an anti-sabotage unit
其设有反攻击小组和负责清除爆炸物的防破坏小组
for the disposal of explosives and use their own weapons.
还会使用梵蒂冈警察的专属武器
The Corps use pistols and submachine guns,
梵蒂冈警察使用手枪和冲锋枪
plus machine pistols and shotguns.
以及全自动手枪和霰弹猎枪
They also have batons, tasers, pepper sprays, tear gas,
他们还有警棍 泰瑟枪 胡椒喷雾剂 催泪瓦斯
and pretty much anything else you could dream up.
以及几乎其他任何你能想到的东西
Basically, they’re a force to be reckoned with.
说穿了 他们是一股不可忽视的力量
To ensure the Vatican police can carry out their job effectively,
为了保证梵蒂冈警察可以高效开展工作
they have a 24-hour operations and control room,
他们有24小时行动和控制室
so whenever an emergency crops up,
以便 紧急情况任何时候突然出现
it can be dealt with swiftly.
都能够被快速处理
They’ve even been a member of Interpol since 2008
梵蒂冈警方从2008年就成为了国际刑警组织的成员之一
and share information about crimes with them,
与国际刑警分享有关犯罪活动的信息
so don’t be fooled into thinking that the Vatican City state is some weird not-a-real-country place
所以 不要被骗了 认为梵蒂冈这个地方 有些奇怪不是一个真正的国家
where you can get away with just about anything.
能够做几乎任何事情而不受到惩罚
In the past, the Pope was also protected by the Noble Guard and the Palatine Guard.
过去 教皇还被贵族卫队和御卫保护
The Noble Guard was a unit of household guards that served the Pope in his home.
贵族卫队是一队在教皇家为他服务的家庭警卫
They’d escort him around Rome and stay outside his accommodation at old times,
过去 贵族卫队护送教皇在罗马各处活动 并且守在教皇住处
kind of like vintage bodyguards.
有点像那个时代的保镖
But although the Noble Guard originally carried pistols,
虽然皇家卫队最初是配枪的
after 1870 they started to only carry sabers
1870年后 他们开始只携带军刀
and to be present at ceremonial duties only.
并只在仪式上出现
Plus, they were just volunteers.
另外 他们只是志愿者
All in all, you wouldn’t want to rely wholly on them for your security.
总而言之 你将不会原因将自己的安全问题完全托付给他们
The Palatine Guard were more like a military unit
御卫更像一个军事组织
designed to watch over Rome and the Vatican,
旨在看守罗马和罗马教廷
but they were possibly even more useless than the Noble Guard.
但是他们可能比贵族卫队更没用
They were also part-time volunteers,
御卫也是兼职志愿者
mostly just performed ceremonial duties,
大部分只在有仪式时出现
and they lacked modern weapons or any actual training.
他们没有现代武器和任何真正的训练
Unsurprisingly, both the Noble Guard and the Palatine Guard were abolished in 1970
毫不意外 贵族卫队和御卫都在1970年被废除了
to change the image of the Pope and the Vatican
目的在于改变教皇和罗马教廷的形象
and simplify the security offering.
并简化安保力量
They probably realized that having so many forces
他们可能意识到拥有如此多
carrying out just slightly different jobs
职责非常相似的军队
was a tad excessive and not very effective.
有点过分了 同时也不是很高效
These days, the old Noble Guard have been replaced by standard bodyguards.
目前 老贵族卫队已经被标准的保镖替代了
The Inspector-General of the Vatican Police works as the Pope’s principal personal bodyguard,
梵蒂冈警察的监察长担任教皇的首席个人保镖
so he really has the highest qualified person at his disposal.
因此 教皇实际上随身有一个最合格的保镖为其所用
During the Pope’s travels,
在教皇出行时
the Inspector General is usually at the front of the Popemobile,
监察长通常坐在教皇座驾的前部
so he’ll be ready to spring to action if anything goes wrong again,
以便 情况不对就立马采取行动
as long as he isn’t shot first, anyway.
不过 前提是他没有首先被击中
And don’t be fooled if you ever see the Pope walking around
如果你曾经看到教皇四处走动
with seemingly nobody to accompany him,
看起来独自一人 别被骗了
rest assured he has plenty of people by his side at all times.
放心 他随时都有很多人陪在身边
They might not be wearing the bright uniform of the Swiss Guard,
他们可能没有穿着瑞士卫队的亮丽制服
but a few of its officers are often a few steps behind the Pope in public,
但其中有些人经常在公开场合走在教皇后方
dressed in plain clothes and carrying a concealed small weapon with them.
穿着便衣 带着隐藏的小型武器
At least, that’s how the plan goes.
至少 计划是这样的
The current Pope Francis
方济各是现任教皇
can certainly be a handful to protect whilst traveling
在旅行中 他无疑有很多安保人员
and has been known to disregard official security operating procedures
并且他曾经为了私事
in favor of doing his own thing.
无视官方安保人员的工作程序
He’s known as the People’s Pope
教皇方济各被称为“人民教皇”
and tries to move about freely instead of sticking to the Popemobile.
他试图自由走动 而不是一直坐在教皇座驾中
Pope Francis sees it as part of his mission to break down formalities within the Church
教皇方济各视打破教会里的礼节程序为己任
and wants to be more welcoming and accessible to ordinary Catholics.
想让普通天主教徒 更加欢迎和容易接近自己
It sounds like a lovely idea and I want to support him,
这听起来像个好主意 我想支持他
but ditching the bulletproof glass and the guards
但是舍弃防弹玻璃和警卫
doesn’t exactly make the job of security easy.
实际上并没有让安保工作变得简单
In the past, the Pope has had to apologize to security teams
过去 教皇应该为自己散漫的风格
for his loose style.
向安保队伍道歉
How are you supposed to look after someone who is constantly wandering off
你应该如何保护不断四处走动
and talking to strangers?
并与陌生人交谈的人?
Even if the Pope doesn’t go AWOL,
即使教皇照程序行事
protecting him can be difficult.
保护他也是件很难的事
As part of their show of adoration,
许多天主教徒喜欢
crowds of Catholics like to throw items at the Pope,
向教皇扔诸如旗子 玩偶之类的东西
such as flags and dolls.
作为一种表达崇拜的方式
The Church doesn’t want to ban this important ritual,
教会不想禁止这种重要的仪式
but it keeps security on their feet.
但是他们需要保证教皇的安全
Is that a grenade or a toy?
那是手榴弹还是玩具?
As a result, authorities have often had to resort to some strange and novel measures.
结果 当局常常不得不采取一些奇怪而新颖的措施
These include banning selfie sticks and drones,
这些措施包括禁止自拍杆和无人机
postponing the postal service ready for his arrival,
推迟为他的到来而准备的邮政服务
and shutting down streets in case he needs to evacuate quickly.
以及为了他能快速撤离而封闭街道
When the Pope visited the US,
教皇访问美国时
a Presidential motorcade followed him wherever he went,
无论他走到哪里 总统车队都紧随其后
the President’s convoy ensured the leader had the highest security possible.
总统护航队确保教皇享有最高安保等级
More than just a few vehicles,
护航队不仅有几辆车
the convoy has its own contingency response force,
还拥有自己的应急响应部队
communications, office, press corps,
通讯 办公室 特派记者组
and even medical facilities.
甚至医疗设施
Think the White House but on wheels.
想象一个可以四处移动的白宫吧
He was also accompanied by Marine One helicopters,
同时有海军陆战队直升机
ensuring that if an emergency or special circumstance should arise,
确保一旦发生紧急情况或特殊情况
security would literally be there above him
安保人员能立刻到达该位置上方
and ready to swoop in.
准备突袭
They’re usually only employed for presidential airlifts or high-level state visits,
直升机通常只负责总统专机或高级国事访问活动
so the Pope really got some special treatment.
因此教皇确实得到了一些特殊待遇
When the Pope visits other countries,
当教皇访问其他国家时
it’s common practice for the government of the nation
受访国政府向教皇提供一些
to provide the Pope with some of their own security too,
本国安保力量也是常见做法
so the Vatican Police and Swiss Guard
因此 梵蒂冈经常和瑞士卫队
work with local police or military
需要与当地警方或当地军队一起
to come up with site plans.
制定总体计划
The US has provided the Pope
在之前的访问中
with the help of the Secret Service in previous visits.
美国特情局为教皇提供了帮助
Not every country has a Presidential motorcade complete with helicopters, though.
不过 并非每个国家都有配备直升机的总统车队
As a last resort, the Vatican City features a secret passageway.
万不得已 梵蒂冈建造了一条秘密通道
So sssh, don’t tell anyone
所以 嘘 别告诉别人
that spans half a mile
这条秘密通道长0.5英里
from the back of the Basilica among the aqueducts of Rome
从圣彼得大教堂渡槽一侧
to the Castel Sant’ Angelo.
延伸到圣天使城堡
Set up in the thirteenth century,
它建于13世纪
it’s one of the oldest security procedures introduced to protect the Pope,
是为保护教皇而采用的最古老的安全程序之一
and was used in 1527
1527年
for Pope Clement VII to escape during the Siege of Rome.
教皇克雷芒七世在罗马围困期间用它逃脱
It’s probably not that reliable for protection these days
自从这条秘密通道成为了一个热门旅游景点
since it’s become something of a tourist trap
几乎每个人都知道了它的位置
and pretty much everyone knows it’s there,
现在用它来保护教皇可能已经不再可靠
but maybe it could be used as a double-bluff type of thing.
但是它可能可以用作空城计
So, I’d say the Pope is pretty well protected.
因此在我看来 教皇被保护得非常好
In fact, it seems like his greatest enemy is himself.
实际上 他最大的敌人似乎是自己
Just stick to the plan, dude.
还是照计划来吧 兄弟
If you’re not all Poped out,
如果你对教皇感兴趣
check out our videos about the most evil popes in history
请观看我们有关“历史上最邪恶教皇”的视频
or how much power the pope really has.
或者“教皇到底有多大的权力”
Click one now, and keep the watch party going!
现在就点击一个 然后一直观看吧!

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译制信息
视频概述

从古至今保护教皇的各种措施

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Icyyyy🌸

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2Vz98-JAaE

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