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前列腺癌是怎么回事 – 译学馆
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前列腺癌是怎么回事

How Prostate Cancer Works

父亲节的到来,提醒了我们有多关心自己的父亲,我们想看一看一个与男人有关的问题吧。
With Father’s day here to remind us just how much we care about our dads, we thought we’d take a look at an issue related to men.
前列腺癌,在美国和英国可是是造成男性死亡的第二大癌症。
Prostrate cancer is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in men, in both in America and the UK.
前列腺是男性生殖系统的一部分,负责使精液
The prostrate is part of male reproductive system and responsible for making seminal fluid
完成部分操作什么的……你猜对了。创造你和其他人
which turns out to be partly responsible for… you guessed it. Creating you and everyone else
但是随着时间和年龄的增长,在前列腺中的细胞,和其他细胞一样,也会逐渐显露缺陷,渐渐不行,这会导致癌症
but with time and age the cells in the prostrate like any other cells can pick up defects, which lead to Cancer.
现在,你的身体和一切,包括前列腺,都是由细胞构成的
Now, your body and everything in it including the prostrate is made up of cells
正常细胞按细胞周期成长,重复这个周期活动我们称为细胞的有丝分裂
normal behaving cells go through the cell cycle in which they grow and divide into duplicate cells through a process known as Mitosis
但是,这并不是没有控制的复制过程,在过程中有数不胜数的方法
but instead of just duplicating uncontrollably there are numerous measures along the way
来确保这些细胞的健康,细胞功能运转正常以及细胞按照一定的可控的速率进行分裂.
to make sure these cells are healthy, functioning normally and replicating at a controlled rate.
例如,细胞不仅获得生长信号,实际上也接收抑制信号,使它们完全停止增长
For example, cells not only receive growth signals, they actually receive anti-growth signals to tell them stop growing altogether
除此之外,细胞复制的能力有限,这意味着它们复制次数越多
on top of this cells actually have a limited replicative capacity, meaning the more they replicate
它们再次分裂复制的机会就越少。
the less chance they have to do it again.
事实上,细胞会在身体里落地生根,需要血管再生
Finally cells are generally localised to an area in the body and require Angiogenesis or blood vessel creation
来维持细胞生活,供给它们营养。细胞远离它也不能生存
To sustain their life and bring them nutrients, move this cell away from this and they can’t survive
任何细胞若不遵循这些规则,或者是衰老和磨损,这个现象通常被称为凋亡过程
Any cells that aren’t following these rules or that are old and worn out are often removed by a process known as Apoptosis
细胞凋亡控制破坏或分解身体的细胞
Apoptotis is the controlled destruction or break down of the cells by the body
但时不时的,这个过程可能会发生突变或错误,从而改变细胞的特性
But every now and then, a mutation or error may occur which changes the cell’s properties
例如,它可能会激发一代忽略抑制信号的能力
For example, it may pick up the ability to ignore anti-growth signals in one generation
后来的细胞可能发生变异,从而能够避免细胞凋亡。
and later down the line, one of these cells may mutate to be able to avoid Apoptosis.
这些突变是随机的和偶然的
These mutations are random and happen by chance
但其中会有几组细胞快速增长,不住地重复复制,大量的细胞会永久地复制。
but it’s the combination of a few of them that, in the end, leads to fast-growing, uncontrollably duplicating, immortalised masses of cells.
这个现象也被称为癌症。
Also known as Cancer.
男性的年龄越大,越有可能患前列腺癌
Which explains why the older you are, the more likely you are to get Prostate Cancer
因为你的细胞有更多机会去接触多个突变
because your cells have had many more chances to pick up multiple mutations
这个过程就可以通过许多代的癌细胞实现。
through many generations of cells.
这就是为什么80岁左右的男性里,按前列腺癌的几率达80%。
This is one of the reasons that about 80% of men will get Prostate Cancer by the time they’re 80.
所以有什么我们可以做的呢?
So is there anything we can do about it?
在某种程度上,是的。
In some ways, yes.
如果我们看看亚洲,我们会看到一些排全球最低的关于前列腺癌发病率的数字。
If we look at Asia, we see some of the lowest Prostate Cancer numbers across the globe.
我们可能认为这是基因层面的问题,许多研究都支持这一点
So we might think it’s genetic and many studies support this
但是,有趣的是,移居美国的亚洲人,其前列腺癌的发病率高于那些在亚洲定居的本土人
but, interestingly, Asian men who have moved to America show a higher incidence of Prostate Cancer than those in Asia
比例与他们在美国居住的时间长度有关。
in proportion to how long they’ve been in America.
除此之外,美国出生的亚裔婴儿,他们的前列腺癌发病率与同样在美国出生的白种婴儿相同。
On top of this, American born babies of Asian decent have nearly the same incidence of Prostate Cancer as Caucasian babies born in America.
这清楚地说明了一些因素必须基于饮食和生活方式。
This clearly illustrates that some of the contributing factors must be diet and lifestyle based.
事实证明,一些研究显示大豆、西红柿、鱼等食物可能是导致下降现象的部分原因
As it turns out, some studies have shown foods like soy, tomatoes and fish may be partly responsible for this decrease
虽然仍有许多争论。
though there is still much debate.
这些食物,以及一些化学物质和药物
These foods, as well as a few chemicals and medications
都会对正常,常规的细胞活动有作用
all have properties which may aid in normal cell regulation
或防止细胞损伤和突变。
or prevent cell damage and mutation.
另一方面,高脂肪的食物已经被指出是许多潜在癌症的罪魁祸首。
On the other hand, fatty foods have been noted as potential culprits towards many cancers.
在生命的最后日子,关于前列腺癌,即使还有很多不确定和未解之谜
At the end of the day, even though there still remains uncertainty surrounding Prostate Cancer
如何防疫和治疗也不知道,教育和理解就显得尤为重要
and how to prevent or treat it, education and understanding are or great value.
所以啊父亲节别再送你老爸贺卡啦
So instead of giving your Dad a card this Fathers Day
一手拿着西红柿,一手拿着大豆,知识才是生命中最宝贵的礼物呀
grab a tomato in one hand, some soy in the other and give him the greatest gift in life: Knowledge
因为我们对彼此的鼓励越多,我们就越能更健康,有活力的学习和生活
because the more we encourage each other to learn and live a healthy and active life
会变得更好
the better off we’ll be
我们对于有意识的决定对于现在和未来的影响,想的越明白
and the more we think about how our concious choices affect our lives now and later
我们的生活质量就会越好。
the greater our quality of life can become.
父亲节快乐!
Happy Fathers Day!

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