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污染是如何改变海洋的化学成分的 – 译学馆
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污染是如何改变海洋的化学成分的

How pollution is changing the ocean's chemistry | Triona McGrath

你可曾想过
Do you ever think about
海洋在我们的日常生活中有多重要?
how important the oceans are in our daily lives?
海洋覆盖了地球表面的2/3
The oceans cover two thirds of our planet.
我们呼吸的一半氧气都是海洋提供的
They provide half the oxygen we breathe.
海洋可以调节气候
They moderate our climate.
它们为我们提供工作 药品及食物
And they provide jobs and medicine and food
其中包括全人类食用蛋白质的20%
including 20 percent of protein to feed the entire world population.
人们过去常常认为 海洋如此浩瀚
People used to think that the oceans were so vast
它们不会被人类的活动所影响
that they wouldn’t be affected by human activities.
那么今天我想告诉大家一个严峻的现实
Well today I’m going to tell you about a serious reality
“海洋酸化”正在改变我们的海洋
that is changing our oceans called ocean acidification,
或称之为气候变化的恶魔双子星
or the evil twin of climate change.
你知道
Did you know that
海洋已经吸收了人类排放到大气中
the oceans have absorbed 25 percent of all of the carbon dioxide
25%的二氧化碳吗
that we have emitted to the atmosphere?
这是海洋对人类的另一大贡献
Now this is just another great serviceprovided by the oceans
因为二氧化碳是一种会导致气候变化
since carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases
的温室气体
that’s causing climate change.
可我们却不停的产生越来越多的二氧化碳
But as we keep pumping more and more and more
并且把二氧化碳排放到大气中
carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
更多的被海洋吸收了
more is dissolving into the oceans.
这正是海洋化学正在改变的因素
And this is what’s changing our ocean chemistry.
二氧化碳溶解在海里的时候
When carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater,
会产生一系列的化学反应
it undergoes a number of chemical reactions.
今天大家很幸运
Now lucky for you,
我没有时间在此详述化学的细节
I don’t have time to get into the details of the chemistry for today,
但要告诉大家更多关于二氧化碳溶入海洋的事
but I’ll tell you as more carbon dioxide enters the ocean,
它会造成海水酸碱值下降
the seawater pH goes down.
基本上来说 就是海水会越来越酸
And this basically means that there is an increase in ocean acidity.
这整个过程叫作“海洋酸化”
And this whole process is called ocean acidification.
同时导致气候变化
And it’s happening alongside climate change.
科学家们已经监测海洋酸化超过20年了
Scientists have been monitoringocean acidification for over two decades.
这是关于夏威夷的很重要的序列图
This figure is an important time series in Hawaii,
最上边那条线表示二氧化碳浓度
and the top line shows steadily increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide,
或是大气中二氧化碳含量 呈现出稳定上升的趋势
or CO2 gas, in the atmosphere.
这是人类活动导致的直接后果
And this is directly as a result of human activities.
下面那条线表示溶解在洋面的二氧化碳浓度
The line underneath shows the increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide
也在增加
that is dissolved in the surface of the ocean
你能看到 自测量伊始 大气中的二氧化碳浓度
which you can see is increasing at the same rate
就与之同比率增加
as carbon dioxide in the atmospheresince measurements began.
最下面那条线表示 化学反应的变化
The line on the bottom then shows the change in chemistry.
随着海洋中溶入更多的二氧化碳
As more carbon dioxide has entered the ocean,
海水酸碱值下降
the seawater pH has gone down,
基本可以说明 海洋酸性正在增强
which basically means there has been an increasein ocean acidity.
目前在爱尔兰 高威大学海洋学院的研究员
Now in Ireland, scientists are also monitoring ocean acidification —
正在监测海洋酸性
scientists at the Marine Institute and NUI Galway.
我们同样 正看着世界范围内 主要大洋的时间序列分布
And we, too, are seeing acidification at the same rate
以相同比率在酸化
as these main ocean time-series sites around the world.
所以现在问题迫在眉睫
So it’s happening right at our doorstep.
现在我想给大家举个 我们如何收集数据
Now I’d like to give you an example of just how we collect our data
来监管海洋变化的例子
to monitor a changing ocean.
首先 我们会在隆冬季节取样
Firstly we collect a lot of our samples in the middle of winter.
正如你想象的那样 北大西洋
So as you can imagine, in the North Atlantic
常常遭受暴雨侵袭
we get hit with some seriously stormy conditions —
所以在坐各位有晕船的话 这工作不适合
so not for any of you who get a little motion sickness,
但仅管如此 我们还是收集了一些有价值的数据
but we are collecting some very valuable data.
我们把设备放在船身一侧的下方
So we lower this instrument over the side of the ship,
船底也安装有传感器
and there are sensors that are mounted on the bottom
它们可以告诉我们周围水域的信息
that can tell us information about the surrounding water,
比如温度 溶氧量
such as temperature or dissolved oxygen.
然后我们用这些巨大的瓶子收集海水样本
And then we can collect our seawater samples in these large bottles.
我们首先从4千米深的海底开始
So we start at the bottom, which can be over four kilometers deep
作业地点在大陆架外面一点
just off our continental shelf,
每隔一段深度收集一个样本 一直往上直到海面
and we take samples at regular intervals right up to the surface.
我们把收集的海水带回甲板
We take the seawater back on the deck,
之后 我们要么在船上分析
and then we can either analyze them on the ship
要么直接在实验室分析不同的化学参数
or back in the laboratory for the different chemicals parameters.
但我们为什么要在意这些?
But why should we care?
海洋酸化对我们有什么影响?
How is ocean acidification going to affect all of us?
以下是令人担心的现状
Well, here are the worrying facts.
从工业革命开始前
There has already been an increase in ocean acidity of 26 percent
海洋酸化已经增加26% 这是人类活动直接导致的
since pre-industrial times, which is directly due to human activities.
除非我们能减缓二氧化碳的排放
Unless we can start slowing down our carbon dioxide emissions,
否则到本世纪末
we’re expecting an increase in ocean acidity of 170 percent
海洋酸度将提高170%
by the end of this century.
我是说 这会发生在我们的下一代
I mean this is within our children’s lifetime.
相比5500万年前
This rate of acidification is 10 times faster
这种酸化速度要快10倍
than any acidification in our oceans for over 55 million years.
海洋生物此前
So our marine life have never, ever experienced
从来没经历过如此之快的变化速度
such a fast rate of change before.
事实上 我们简直不知道它们如何应对
So we literally could not know how they’re going to cope.
数百万年前 曾经发生过一件天然酸化事件
Now there was a natural acidification event millions of years ago,
但速度要比今日看到的慢得多
which was much slower than what we’re seeing today.
与此同时 海洋生物大量灭绝也随之发生
And this coincided with a mass extinction of many marine species.
那么 我们正朝那个方向发展吗
So is that what we’re headed for?
也许吧
Well, maybe.
研究表明 实际上 一些海洋生物适应得很好
Studies are showing some species are actually doing quite well
但有些则出现不良反应
but many are showing a negative response.
其中一个令人担心的较大的问题就是 海洋酸度增强
One of the big concerns is as ocean acidity increases,
海洋中的碳酸钙离子减少
the concentration of carbonate ions in seawater decrease.
对很多海洋生物制作外壳来说
Now these ions are basically the building blocks
这些离子基本上是它们的材料
for many marine species to make their shells,
比如螃蟹 贻贝 牡蛎
for example crabs or mussels, oysters.
另一个例子就是珊瑚
Another example are corals.
在海洋里 它们也需要这些碳酸钙离子
They also need these carbonate ions in seawater
来搭建珊瑚结构以构成珊瑚礁
to make their coral structure in order to build coral reefs.
随着海洋酸度的增加
As ocean acidity increases
碳酸钙离子的浓度也随之降低
and the concentration of carbonate ions decrease,
这些物种最先感知到它们更难生成外壳了
these species first find it more difficultto make their shells.
甚至当酸性降至更低时 它们居然开始溶解了
And at even even lower levels, they can actually begin to dissolve .
“海蝶”一种翼族类软体动物
This here is a theropod, it’s called a sea butterfly.
它是众多海洋生物的食物来源
And it’s an important food source in the ocean for many species,
从小的鳞虾 鲑鱼 大到鲸鱼 都靠它生存
from krill to salmon right up to whales.
我们把海蝶的外壳放置于
The shell of the theropod was placed into seawater
预估的本世纪末的海水样本中
at a pH that we’re expecting by the end of this century.
在这种酸性样本中 只需45天
After only 45 days at this very realistic pH,
你就能看见 这种贝壳几乎完全溶解了
you can see the shell has almost completely dissolved.
这样 海洋酸性可以直接通过食物链
So ocean acidification could affectright up through the food chain —
影响你我的餐盘
and right onto our dinner plates.
在座的各位有谁想像贝类 鲑鱼一样?
I mean who here likes shellfish? Or salmon?
或很多其他鱼类
Or many other fish species
像它们海洋中的食物一样遭受到影响?
whose food source in the ocean could be affected?
这些是冷水珊瑚
These are cold-water corals.
你知道爱尔兰水域也有冷水珊瑚吗
And did you know we actually have cold-water corals in Irish waters,
就在大陆架外面一点的地方?
just off our continental shelf?
这些珊瑚支撑了生物多样性的发展 其中就包括一些重要的鱼类品种
And they support rich biodiversity, including some very important fisheries.
本世纪末 我们估计
It’s projected that by the end of this century,
整个海洋里70%已知的冷水珊瑚
70 percent of all known cold-water corals in the entire ocean
将会通通被海水溶解掉
will be surrounded by seawater that is dissolving their coral structure.
我最近做过的例子是这些健康的热带珊瑚
The last example I have are these healthy tropical corals.
它们被置于
They were placed in seawater at a pH
预估的2100年酸性海水样本中
we’re expecting by the year 2100.
6个月之后 珊瑚完全溶解
After six months, the coral has almost completely dissolved.
现在 全球珊瑚支撑了
Now coral reefs support
整个海洋25%的海洋生命
25 percent of all marine life in the entire ocean.
所有的海洋生物
All marine life.
所以你们知道了吧:
So you can see:
海洋酸化会对全球造成威胁
ocean acidification is a global threat.
我有一个八个月大的孩子
I have an 8 month old baby boy.
如果我们现在不开始延缓海洋酸化
Unless we start now to slow this down,
我不敢想象等他长大之后
I dread to think what our oceans will look like
海洋会变成什么样
when he’s a grown man.
我们将继续目睹海洋的酸化
We will see acidification.
我们向大气中排放了太多的二氧化碳
We have already put too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
但是我们能放缓酸化速度
But we can slow this down.
我们可以预防此种最坏的结局
We can prevent the worst-case scenario.
能够实现这点的唯一方式
The only way of doing that
就是减少我们二氧化碳的排放
is by reducing our carbon dioxide emissions.
这对于你 我
This is important for both you and I,
工业 政府来说都很重要
for industry, for governments.
我们必须齐心协力
We need to work together,
减缓全球变暖的进程
slow down global warming
减缓海洋酸化
slow down ocean acidification
为了这一代和未来世代
and help to maintain a healthy oceanand a healthy planet
一起努力维持海洋和地球生态
for our generation and for generations to come.

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视频概述

为了我们的子孙后代,我们应该控制二氧化碳排放,降低海洋酸度。

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收集自网络

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJPpJhQxaLw

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