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皮克斯动画的进化史

How Pixar's Animation Has Evolved Over 24 Years, From ‘Toy Story’ To ‘Toy Story 4’ | Movies Insider

Woody: There’s no place like home!
胡迪:金窝银窝不如自己的狗窝!
This is a dog in 1995’s Toy Story.
这是1995年《玩具总动员》中的一只狗
It was a staggering achievement at the time,
这只狗虽然在当时是一个惊人之作
but the detail in the fur just isn’t there.
但现在看来 其毛皮细节处理还没到位
Compare that to this cat in Toy Story 4,
跟《玩具总动员4》中的这只猫相比
the difference is clear.
区别一目了然
But getting from that dog to this cat required a lot of innovation in between.
但从那只狗过渡到这只猫需要大量的创新
How Pixar’s animation has evolved over time
皮克斯的动画制作如何进化
Pixar forever changed animation in 1995 with Toy Story,
皮克斯自1995年《玩具总动员》始变换了动画制作技术
the first full-length computer-animated movie.
这是第一部全程用计算机制作动画的电影
With Toy Story 4, it’s proving that it’s far from done changing the game.
《玩具总动员4》表明 皮克斯远不止于改变了制作技术
Between 1995 and 2019,
1995年至2019年之间
Pixar has made 21 feature-length films,
皮克斯已经制作了21部长篇电影
four of those being Toy Story movies.
其中四部是《玩具总动员》系列电影
When Toy Story was first released in 1995,
1995年 《玩具总动员》首次上映时
nobody had ever seen anything like it before.
没有人之前看过这样的电影
And in order to bring it to life,
为了让电影生动有趣
the animators have to do some unbelievable things.
动画师们必须做一些不可思议的事情
And one of the most important factors in how Pixar makes its magic happen involves rendering.
让皮克斯得以施展魔法的一个最重要的因素就是着色
Rendering saves the computer image to the perfect finished image or video frame,
着色使电脑图像变为已完美完工的图像或视频的一帧
with lighting and motion effects.
同时带有灯光和动态效果
In order to render Toy Story,
为了给《玩具总动员》着色
the animators had 117 computers running 24 hours a day.
动画师们要让117台电脑一天24小时运行
Each individual frame can take from 45 minutes to 30 hours to render,
给每一帧着色需要45分钟到30小时不等
depending on how complex.
这取决于着色的复杂程度
There were a total of 114,240 frames to render.
而《玩具总动员》共有114240帧要着色
Throughout the movie,
整部《玩具总动员》中
there are over 77 minutes of animation spread across 1,561 shots.
共有1561个镜头 需要超过77分钟的制作时间
They had to invent a new software, called Renderman,
动画师们不得不开发了新软件Renderman
to handle all this footage.
来处理所有的连续镜头
Woody: These guys are professionals.
胡迪:这些家伙都是专业人士
They’re the best!
他们是最棒的!
Narrator: According to Producer Jonas Rivera, if they had to today,
制片人乔纳斯·里维拉说现如今
they could render Toy Story faster than you could watch the entire movie.
如果有必要 动画师们的着色速度可以比大家看完整部电影还快
However, the complexity of Toy Story 4 means it can take 60 to 160 hours to render one frame.
然而 《玩具总动员4》的复杂性意味着一帧需要着色60到160个小时
And there were a lot of limitations.
而且 还有着许多的限制
For instance, at this time, Pixar hadn’t quite figured out how to fully animate human characters.
比如说 皮克斯这时还不懂怎样完成人类动画角色的制作
Animating clothes was time-consuming,
制作动画人物的服装很耗时
so you’ll notice a lot of shots of hands and feet in the movie from a toy’s perspective.
所以 你会注意到电影里有大量从玩具视角看的手脚镜头
Additionally, they would sometimes choose not to fully light characters,
此外 有时也会选择只给角色们制作部分的灯光
so you wouldn’t see any missing details, more on lighting characters,
所以你看不见任何没做好的细节 而是更多地注意到有灯光的角色
and fully clothing them later.
然后 在后面再给这些角色做好衣服
When Toy Story 2 came around in 1999,
1999年 《玩具总动员2》上映时
they’d had some time to work out some of the kinks,
他们花时间解决了一些问题
especially with 1998’s A Bug’s Life in between the two movies.
尤其是两部电影之间——1998年的《虫子的生活》存在的问题
In this sequel,
在这一续集中
you’ll be able to see more visible, fully formed human characters.
你能看到更加清晰的 完全成型的人类角色
One key thing the animators were starting to figure out here to help them tackle humans: smoothness,
此时 动画师们开始想到帮助处理人类角色的一个关键点:光滑性
which they got practice on in A Bug’s Life.
并且在《虫子的生活》中进行了实践
Here you can see the improvement in just a few years.
可以看到 他们短短几年就有了进步
They wouldn’t be ready to have a fully human cast until 2004’s The Incredibles.
直到2004年的《超人特工队》 皮克斯才有了一个完整的演员阵容
But before mastering humans,
但是 皮克斯掌握制作人类角色的技术之前
they stepped into fantasy with 2001’s Monsters, Inc.
曾因为2001年的 《怪物公司》而陷入幻想
Worker: Ooh, they’re so awesome!
工人:哦 他们太棒了!
Narrator: In Monsters Inc. , they tackled fur head-on.
在《怪物公司》中 他们迎难而上处理了动物毛皮问题
Fur is hard to animate,
毛皮的动画制作很难
whether computer-generated or stop-motion.
无论采取计算机生成动画技术 还是定格动画技术
This is because it involves animating thousands,
这是因为其涉及对动画角色身上的成千上万
or even millions of individual parts of a character’s body.
甚至上百万个独立部分进行动画制作
In the VFX world, characters are designed, then rigged by adding points of movement,
在视觉特效的世界里 先设计角色 再给其添加动作轨迹
which can then be manually manipulated.
这些可以手动操作
While limbs are typically manual based on the scene,
虽然 肢体动画通常是随场景而手动制作
something like fur needed to be automated,
但像毛皮之类的动画制作则需要自动化
since it would take a lot more time to move each individual strand of hair.
因为让每一丝头发移动就需要大把时间
A Bug’s Life, which centers on insects, didn’t have a need for fur.
以昆虫为中心的《虫子的生活》无需制作皮毛动画
In there is a dog in Toy Story,
那儿是《玩具总动员》里的一只狗
but as you’ll notice, it’s pretty smooth, as is the dog in Toy Story 2.
但是你会注意到它跟《玩具总动员2》里的狗一样 非常平滑
Sully, who’s tall and covered head to toe in fur,
而萨利很高 而且从头到脚满是皮毛
has over 1 million hairs on his body.
全身有一百万多根毛
But it’s not just how it looks.
但不只是看起来的这样
The animators had to get all of those hairs to move.
动画师必须让那些毛发都动起来
To do this, they created a program called Simulation,
为此 动画师们开发了一个程序——“模拟”
in which certain elements that are too difficult to handy-animate are motion-simulated.
某些难以手工制作的元素就采用运动模拟技术
See, instead of looking at Sully’s hair as a whole,
动画师们不是将萨利的毛发看作一个整体
they looked at each strand as a distinct particle.
而是把每根毛发都看作不同的微粒
They had to look at every kind of force that would act on those particles,
他们必须研究每一种会作用于那些微粒的力量
and thus how each one would move in reaction to them.
以及每种力量如何与微粒发生反应
So, if you want to work at Pixar,
所以你如果想在皮克斯工作
you might need to know physics.
可能还需要了解物理知识
They also found real-world fur on different animals, like llamas, for reference.
他们还找现实世界中不同动物的皮毛作为参考 比如美洲驼
By doing this, they found the best way
如此 他们找到了最好的方法
to make hair look and move realistically is to clump it together.
可以让毛发的外观和运动更真实——让其扎堆成团
Monsters, Inc. laid down the technical foundation,
《怪物公司》奠定了皮克斯的技术基础
which allowed Pixar to have over 250 furry monsters in the sequel Monsters University.
于是 在续集《怪兽大学》中有250多只毛茸茸的怪兽
The tools at their disposal also helped them create fur on animals seen in Ratatouille and Up,
手边的工具也帮助制作了 《料理鼠王》和《飞屋环游记》的动物皮毛
the moss on the submarine from this scene in Finding Nemo,
还有《海底总动员》这一幕中潜艇上的苔藓
and the grass on the ground in Cars.
以及《汽车总动员》中地上的草
Pixar’s next movie, 2003’s Finding Nemo, also required the animators to create things
皮克斯2003年的又一部电影《海底总动员》也要求动画师们去创造
they’d never put on screen before.
以前从未搬上过荧幕的东西
This time, they had to figure out
这一次 动画师们必须搞清楚
how to make a movie set largely underwater.
怎样制作以水下为主要背景的电影
Once again, science and real-world references would help them out.
科学知识和现实参考会再一次帮助他们
Just as they did with hair,
同处理毛发一样
they broke down the water as much as they could to get it right.
他们尽量对水分解 至刚好的程度
According to director of photography Danielle Feinberg,
据摄影导演丹尼尔·范伯格所说
they started with a real-life underwater clip,
他们从一个真实的水下片段开始
re-created it in the computer,
在电脑中重新创建这个片段
and broke it down to find the most essential elements,
然后分解该片段 找到最重要的某些元素
the biggest one: light, and how it travels through water.
最大的因素是光线 以及光线在水中传播的方式
The light they created affected both the visibility
他们制作的光线既影响电影中光怪陆离的水下世界的可见度
and the color of the film’s elaborate underwater world.
又影响水下世界的色彩
And while they need science to animate certain elements of a movie,
他们虽然需要用科学知识来制作某些电影元素
there are times where they can use artistic license.
但有时也可以加入艺术创新
For instance, they made the water in Sydney Harbour look fairly green to fit the mood of the scene.
比如说 他们让悉尼港的水呈淡绿色以契合该场景的气氛
In reality, it would not be that color.
现实中 悉尼港的水可不是那种颜色
Once the environment was created, they had to populate the world.
只要创造了环境 动画师们就得使之活跃起来
Perhaps the most challenging sea creature they had to create was Hank,
最具挑战性的海洋生物角色可能就是汉克了
the octopus from the 2016 sequel, Finding Dory.
2016年续集《多莉去哪了》的一只章鱼
It was literally impossible for them to put Hank in Nemo,
确实是不可能把汉克加入《海底总动员》
and you can see why.
你知道其中的原因
Creating just one scene with him supposedly took about two years.
据说创造一个有汉克的场景大概需要两年
Character supervisor Jeremy Talbot explained
角色监制杰里米·塔尔博特解释说
that they had to break down an octopus
动画师们必须先分解章鱼
and piece it back together again,
再一点一点拼凑起来
which sounds a lot like how Pixar mastered fur and water.
这听起来很像皮克斯制作皮毛和水的过程
One thing they discovered was that octopus tentacles don’t bend but almost unfurl.
他们发现章鱼的触手不是弯曲 而是几乎张开的
An engineer spent six months just getting the curve of one of his tentacles right,
一位工程师用六个月 只把汉克一个触手的曲线处理好
and this was even before they mastered his camouflage.
这还是制作汉克的颜色之前的步骤
And as Pixar got better at developing the natural world,
因为皮克斯的自然世界能做得更好了
it also improved on the man-made world.
其人造世界也得到了完善
By the time 2006’s Cars came around,
2006年《汽车总动员》上映时
Pixar had about 1,000 times the computing power it did on Toy Story.
皮克斯的算力是制作 《玩具总动员》时的1000倍
Cars gave the animators a chance to hone their skills creating metal surfaces.
《汽车总动员》给机会打磨动画师们制作金属表面的技术
As they did with the water in Finding Nemo,
跟处理《海底总动员》的水一样
they took time to make the light reflect off Lightning McQueen.
动画师们让闪电麦昆反光
Those metal surfaces would then be rusted up and seen in 2008’s Wall-E,
然后金属表面会生锈 又出现在2008年的《机器人总动员》中
often considered one of Pixar’s most visually stunning works.
该作品通常被列入皮克斯最具视觉冲击的作品名单
Then when Ratatouille rolled around in 2007,
2007年《料理鼠王》上映时
Pixar combined its ability to work with fur from Monsters, Inc. and with water in Finding Nemo
皮克斯结合《怪兽公司》的毛皮制作与《海底总动员》的水制作
to display wet fur.
来呈现湿的毛发
Lighting is one of the most important factors in making CG animation look real.
灯光是使CG动画逼真的最重要因素之一
It takes a lot of rendering time to get it right.
处理好灯光则需要大量时间去着色
And it’s not just one or two lights we’re talking about.
而且不只是我们说的一两束光
This one shot alone in Ratatouille contained 230 lights.
《料理鼠王》中的这一个镜头就有230束光
But that’s nothing.
但是 那不算什么
Jump ahead to 2017’s Coco.
看看2017年的《寻梦环游记》吧
When Miguel enters the Land of the Dead,
当米格尔进入死亡之国时
he’s laying his eyes on about 8 million lights.
他眼睛所到之处约有800万束光
And even with a movie as visually ambitious as this one,
而即使是像《寻梦环游记》这样视觉震撼的电影
something as simple as clothes can be the biggest challenge.
简单的衣服制作也可能是最大的挑战
A lot of the characters that wore clothes in “Coco” were actually skeletons.
《寻梦环游记》里很多穿衣服的角色实际上是骷髅
The animators found that while simulating clothing,
动画师们发现模拟服装时
the cloth would often get caught between individual bones, creating a wedgie of sorts.
布料经常会卡在一根一根骨头之间而呈各种楔形
For this, it implemented a technique called continuous collision detection,
为此 皮克斯采用了连续碰撞检测技术
which allowed the animators to spot the clothes getting caught,
使动画师们能发现衣服卡住了
even at moments where it was difficult to notice.
甚至难以察觉的时候也能发现
A year later, when the long-awaited Incredibles 2 came out,
一年后 期待已久的《超人特工队2》问世
they were back to working with humans: skin, bones, and all.
动画师们此时回归人类角色皮肤 骨骼等的处理
There was a 14-year gap between the two Incredibles movies.
两部《超人特工队》隔了有14年
And the benefits of improved technology actually allowed them
实际上 技术改进让动画师们得以
to make Jack-Jack look even cuter than he did in the first movie.
让小杰克看起来比第一部可爱多了
All of these movies would eventually lead to Toy Story 4.
这些电影最终都引向《玩具总动员4》
Twenty-four years after the original was released,
《玩具总动员》 头版电影上映24年后
it seems like this sequel is trying to do a lot of things the original just couldn’t.
这次 续集似乎尽力去做很多原版无法实现的改进
The differences couldn’t be more stark.
有许多差异再明显不过了
While Toy Story used a 1.85:1 aspect ratio,
《玩具总动员》使用1.85比1的长宽比
Toy Story 4 expanded to 2.39:1.
而《玩具总动员4》的长宽比扩大到2.93比1
So what you saw went from this to this.
所以你看到的从这个变为了这个
Now that Pixar had figured out how to put fur on one character and then hundreds more,
因为皮克斯已掌握了怎样为越来越多的角色制作皮毛
it could make the animals in this movie eye-popping.
所以《玩具总动员4》里的动物令人眼前一亮
Fans pointed out that a cat in a clip for the movie looked 100% real.
粉丝们说有个电影片段里的猫看起来百分之百真实
Compare that with Sid’s dog in the original,
如果你真想了解皮克斯的发展情况
if you really want to know how far Pixar has come.
把那只猫和原版电影里希德的狗比较一下吧
Even just compare how much different it looks from the cat in Coco.
甚至比较它和《寻梦环游记》里猫的差别也可以
In the same vein, creating stuffed animals covered in fur was not the challenge it once was.
同样 制作填充的毛绒动物不再像以前充满挑战
And it allowed Pixar to give Ducky and Bunny starring roles.
而且 皮克斯可以让小鸭子和小兔子出演主角了
In addition, rain scenes are not easy to animate.
此外 雨景的动画制作也不简单
Just like with the water in Finding Nemo,
就像《海底总动员》里水的动画制作
the animators did a physics-centered, frame-by-frame analysis of raindrops.
动画师们逐帧对雨滴做物理分析
Luckily, they’d done enough creating rivers in The Good Dinosaur
很庆幸动画师们在《好恐龙》中已经制作了许多河流
that bringing a torrential downpour to life was a little less challenging.
所以让倾盆大雨的场景活灵活现挑战性小一点儿
Like with Jack-Jack in Incredibles 2,
正如《超人总动员2》的小杰克
the animators use sequels as an excuse to improve upon their classics.
动画师借续集改进他们的经典作品
They didn’t just give Bo Peep a new outfit.
他们不仅给了波比一套新衣服
They were also able to make her look like a much more convincing doll.
还让波比更像一个真的洋娃娃
Years of perfecting shiny surfaces allowed them to really bring out Bo’s porcelain skin.
不断完善的发光表面制作技术使他们能做出波比的瓷器皮肤
To effectively light this material,
为了有效照亮这种材料
the director of photography referenced lighting of female characters in movies made from the 1930s through the 1960s.
摄影导演参考了20世纪30-60年代的电影女性角色的灯光制作
The team also realized they couldn’t use square lights on Bo.
制作团队还认识到不能给波比配方形光束
Only circular lights without sharp edges would reflect well on porcelain.
只有无尖锐边缘的圆形光束才能很好地照亮瓷器皮肤
Toy Story 4 also gave Pixar a chance to do something surprising: go back to basics.
《玩具总动员4》也给了皮克斯一个“回归基础”的机会
Look no further than Forky.
看看福克斯吧
Forky:I don’t belong here!
福克斯:我不属于这儿!
Narrator: There are no tentacles, no fur,
福克斯没有触手 没有毛皮
no shiny surfaces here, just a plastic fork.
没有发光的表面 他只是一个塑料叉
But he couldn’t be more real.
但是他太真实了!
And Pixar isn’t slowing down anytime soon.
而且 皮克斯目前也没有放慢脚步
In fact, they’re moving Onward, literally.
实际上 他们正在迈步向《1/2的魔法》

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皮克斯的动画制作技术如何进化的呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTPKGVrFtQU

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