未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

两百万宝宝存活的原因

How Physics Saved Two Million Premature Babies

嗨 我是来自《一分钟世界》节目的艾米莉
Hi,this is Emily from MinuteEarth,
我和比尔·盖茨与盖茨夫人梅琳达有特别合作
and special collaboration with Bill and Melinda.
直到几十年前
Until a few decades ago,
几乎一半的早产六个星期多的早产儿
almost half the babys born more than six weeks
在几小时内或几天内死亡
premature died within few hours or days .
由于一种神秘的现在被称为呼吸窘迫综合症的小病
due to a mysterious ailment now known as Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
仅仅在美国
in the United States alone,
每年有数以万计的婴儿死于该病
Tens of thousands of babies died each year,
后来发现该病其实是一个基础物理问题
from what turned out to be a basic physics problem.
这个问题在肺部深处产生
That problem happens deep in the lungs,
在叫做肺泡的小囊里(产生)
in tiny air sacs called alveoli,
(肺泡)把二氧化碳转换成氧气
which exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen.
在健康婴儿体内
In healthy babies,
这些肺泡就像完美膨胀的小气球
the alveoli are like perfectly inflated mini-balloons.
但在患有RDS(呼吸窘迫综合征)的早产婴儿肺部
But in the lungs of preemies with RDS
医生发现 许多小气球有着长期萎陷或不张的情况
doctors found that many of the mini-balloons had either permanently collapsed or stretched way out,
(上述情况)会影响气体交换并且会导致婴儿窒息
interrupting the gas exchange and causing the babies to suffocate.
这就是悲剧物理学来到的地方:
This is where the tragic physics comes in:
如果你曾经吹过气球
If you’ve ever blown up a balloon before,
你可能已经注意到 (吹气球)最难的部分是开始吹它的时候
you’ve probably noticed that the hardest part is getting it started.
这在一定程度上是因为某种被称为“拉普拉斯定律”的东西
That’s partly because of something called the Law of Laplace,
(这个定律)从基本上说是 一个易伸张的表面弯曲得越多
which basically says that the more curved a stretchy surface is,
它对内部的流体挤压就越强
the harder it squeezes the fluid inside.
你可以在工作中察觉这条定律
You can see this law at work
如果你把两个气球中的一个吹大 另一个吹小
if you take two balloons and blow one up big and the other small,
然后用吸管把它们连接起来
then connect them with a straw.
那个小气球会更用力地挤压
The little one will squeeze so much harder
把它里面的空气挤出去 并挤入大气球里面
that it will push some of its air out and into the bigger one.
本质上 人类的肺部也是相同的构造
Human lungs have essentially the same set up,
但是在健康的人体内
but in healthy people,
肺泡保持适当的膨胀是因为它们充满了化学物质
alveoli stay properly inflated because they’re full of chemicals
(这些化学物质)被称作肺部表面活性剂 能使小肺泡更易伸张 更难被挤压
called pulmonary surfactants that make thesmall alveoli more stretchy and less squeezy,
来平衡气囊之间的压力
balancing the pressure between air sacs.
早产儿的肺还没有形成足够的这些表面活性剂
Preemies’ lungs haven’t yet developed enough of these surfactants,
所以小肺泡挤压程度过大以致萎陷
so the small alveoli squeeze too much and collapse,
同时较大的气泡继续膨胀并且扩张
while the larger ones keep blowing up and get distended.
最初 医生没有办法改变他们病人的气囊的伸张能力或不张的状态
Initially, doctors had no way to alter the stretchability or squeez iness of their patients’ air sacs,
但他们发现 通过把空气不断鼓入早产儿的肺中
but they discovered that by pumping air continuously into the preemies’ lungs,
他们可以使气管内的压力保持足够高 来保护最小的气囊不萎陷
they could keep the pressure in their airways just high enough to keep the tiniest air sacs from collapsing
同时也不会使大气囊过分膨胀
without overinflating the big ones,
直到婴儿的肺部发育成熟 能自主产生足够的表面活性剂
until the babies’ lungs developed
有人发明了一种叫做CPAP(持续正压通气)的可完成上述工作的装置
Someone invented a device called a CPAP that did just that,
并且在美国
and in the United States,
患有呼吸窘迫综合征早产儿的存活率
the survival rate of preemies with RDS
从四分之一飞升到四分之三
soared from just one infour to three in four.
多亏了额外的介入
And thanks to additional interventions,
比如在早产儿出生前帮他们制造表面活性剂
like helping preemies produce surfactant before they’re born,
用人造物质补充他们的天然化学物质
and supplementing their natural chemicals with artificial ones,
我们距离“在美国没有婴儿死于RDS(呼吸窘迫综合征)”这一天越来越近
we continue to inch closer to the day when no babies in the United States die from RDS.
此外 像稻米360全球卫生研究所这样的组织
What’s more, organizations like the Rice 360 Institute for Global Health
正在把更便宜和更容易保养的CPAP(持续正压通气)呼吸机版本
are introducing cheaper and easier-to-maintain versions of CPAP machines
引入低收入国家的诊所和医院中
into clinics and hospitals inlower-income countries,
在全球提高早产儿的存活率
increasing preemies’ survival rates globally
事实上 自CPAP(持续正压通气)这项发明出现以来
In fact, since the invention of the CPAP,
世界上有超过200万的患有RDS(呼吸窘迫综合征)的婴儿获救
more than 2 million babies with RDS have been saved worldwide.
现在 婴儿们可以呼吸到新鲜空气了
Now that’s a breath of fresh air.
在比尔·梅琳达·盖茨的每年简讯中 了解更多关于世界上最小的探索者(婴儿)的生活是怎样被改善和未来会怎样改善的信息
read more about

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

这是一个关于“如何解决婴儿呼吸窘迫综合征”的简短介绍

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

梅花一魂

审核员

审核团C

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJQlgrlB29M

相关推荐