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牡蛎是如何阻止洪水的?

How oysters can stop a flood

When you picture New York City,
当你想到纽约市时
there are so many iconic things that come to mind.
脑海里会浮现出很多标志性的事物
But, before the yellow cabs and hot dog stands,
但在黄色出租车和热狗摊之前
New York was known for something else:
纽约以另一样东西而出名
Oysters.
那就是牡蛎
From the 1600s through the 1800s,
从17世纪到19世纪
New York was booming with them.
纽约的牡蛎产业非常繁盛
And it was oysters, not hotdogs, sold streetside by the millions.
街边随处可见的商贩卖的可不是热狗 而是牡蛎
Oyster reefs covered over 220,000 acres along the coastline.
牡蛎礁绵延海岸线22万余英亩
The reefs were so large that ships needed to navigate around them.
牡蛎礁体积很大 以至于船只都需要绕行
But, of course, this isn’t the case today.
当然 如今船只航行就畅通多了
Oysters were overharvested nearly out of existence,
过度捕捞导致牡蛎几乎绝迹
and not just in New York.
这种情况不只发生在纽约
Experts estimate we’ve lost 85% of the world’s oyster reefs in the last 200 years.
据专家估计 过去200年间 全世界牡蛎礁的数量减少了85%
Today, we’re trying to put them back.
现在 人们正设法修复牡蛎礁
Because this animal that you often find on a dinner plate
因为作为餐桌上的常客
might actually be an effective defense against the rising ocean.
牡蛎可能是抵御海平面上升的有效屏障
We’re losing our coasts to climate change.
海岸正因气候变化而消失
As oceans levels rise,
随着海平面上升
the water erodes the shoreline.
海水侵蚀海岸线
This pushes the entire coast back,
将海岸线向后推移
encroaching on homes and destabilizing land.
蚕食我们的家园 破坏地质结构
So, enter the oyster. This uncharismatic rock of an animal.
而牡蛎这种毫无魅力的石块状动物可以在这方面发挥作用
Oh come on! You don’t think they’re charismatic?
得了吧 你不觉得它们挺有魅力的吗?
KIM: I feel like… It’s not something I would call “cute.”
Kim: 我觉得 它并不怎么”可爱”
WESTBY: No, I can’t argue with you there.
Westby: 不 这点我不同意
I’ve tried, but yeah, no, they’re not.
我了解它们 它们并不是毫无魅力
Stephanie Westby has been helping to restore oyster reefs
十多年来 Stephanie Westby一直在
in the US’s Chesapeake Bay for over 10 years.
进行美国切萨皮克湾的牡蛎礁修复工作
Their charisma really lies in their functionality, rather than their form.
牡蛎的魅力在于它所发挥的功能 外表并不重要
Oysters obviously don’t move around.
牡蛎明显不会四处移动
And that’s exactly part of the appeal.
这正是它们的魅力所在
Oysters stick together. Literally.
牡蛎属于固着生物
Baby oysters called “spat” attach to older and even dead oysters in order to grow.
小牡蛎 也叫”稚贝” 会附在老牡蛎甚至是死牡蛎上生长
WESTBY: And over generations, all of these oysters reproducing,
Westby: 经过一代又一代的繁殖
it builds up the oyster reef.
就形成了牡蛎礁
In some places, that sturdy reef can help defend the coast
在有些地方 坚硬的牡蛎礁能缓冲海浪的冲击
by dampening the force of incoming waves.
进而保护海岸
If you have an oyster reef that’s “intertidal”
对于“潮间带”的牡蛎礁来说
— that sticks up at low tide —
就是在退潮时会露尖的那种
then it can perform some of that wave energy protection function.
它们可以发挥分散海浪能量 保护海岸的功能
Oyster reefs can break up waves
通过分担海浪的冲击力
by catching the brunt of the force.
牡蛎礁能阻断海浪流动
Part of the wave is deflected back to the ocean,
一部分海浪遇阻回流
and the rest can more gently reach the shoreline,
剩下的以平缓的速度到达海岸
which slows long-term erosion.
缓解了海岸被长期侵蚀的速度
On its own, an oyster reef won’t stop a hurricane-level storm surge,
仅凭牡蛎礁本身 并不能阻止飓风级别的浪潮
but it could definitely limit the damage.
但它肯定能减小其破坏力
And the larger they grow, the more protection they can offer:
牡蛎礁越大 保护作用就越大
As time goes on, sea levels will rise.
随着时间的推移 海平面就会上升
Unlike man-made breakwaters,
与人造防波堤不同
that will need to be rebuilt over time,
时间一长 防波堤需要重建
oyster reefs just keep growing upward.
而牡蛎礁能一直生长
Various organizations around the world
世界各地的各种组织
are working to restore oyster reefs.
都在努力修复牡蛎礁
But reef restoration isn’t as simple as just dumping oysters into a bay.
但牡蛎礁的修复工作并不像把牡蛎倒进海湾那么简单
They need something to stick to in order to grow.
它们需要附着物才能生长
In New York, one organization puts recycled shells in cages
纽约有一个组织把回收的贝壳放进笼子里
for oyster spat to grow on,
供牡蛎卵生长
and groups in Bangladesh, and around the US,
而孟加拉国的一些团体和美国各地的做法
have placed large concrete barriers offshore for oyster spat to grow on.
是在近海区域设置大型混凝土障碍物来供牡蛎生长
Now, on their own, concrete structures like this
而这样的混凝土结构本身
are actually effective breakwaters.
其实就是有效的防波堤
So… why add oysters?
那为什么还要增加牡蛎呢?
To understand, it helps to look at a more familiar type of reef:
为了弄清楚这一点 先来看看我们比较熟悉的珊瑚礁
Oyster reefs provide much the same function as coral reefs.
牡蛎礁的功能和珊瑚礁差不多
They provide the same kind of habitat.
它们提供了相同类型的栖息地
They are the underpinning of the ecological systems
它们是所在海洋生态系统的基础
where they exist, just like coral reefs.
与珊瑚礁一样
Oysters are filtration systems.
牡蛎也是过滤系统
They eat by pulling in large quantities of water.
它们的进食方式是吸食大量的水
Algae, nitrogen, and other contaminants are eaten,
藻类 氮和其他污染物或被牡蛎吸收
or harmlessly dumped to the bottom of the bay,
或被无害地扔到海湾底部
and clean water is expelled.
这样 海水就完成了净化
A single oyster can filter up to 50 gallons of water every day.
一只牡蛎每天能过滤多达50加仑的水
As the water clarity improves,
随着海水变得清澈
sea grasses start to grow, fish return,
海草开始生长 鱼类回归
and other sea creatures make the crevices in the reef their home.
其他海洋生物在礁石的缝隙里安家
They are this aggregating, reef-building, hard structure.
它们属于聚集型 造礁型坚硬结构
And so, if you look at the way we try to deal
现在 再来看看我们目前使用的
with reducing erosion right now as a society.
减缓海岸侵蚀的方法
For the most part, we put rocks, big pieces of concrete,
大多数情况下 我们会用到石块 大块的混凝土
we set up, more or less, walls, to try to slow the rate of waves,
基本上搭建成墙壁 试图减缓海浪速度
you know, reduce the wind-driven erosion, that type of thing.
减少风力侵蚀等类似情况
Oysters can serve in that capacity in many ways,
牡蛎能在很多方面发挥作用
but bring added advantages.
还能带来附加好处
Places like New York City or even the Chesapeake Bay
像纽约 甚至切萨皮克湾这样的地方
are way too industrialized
工业化程度太高
to bring back the reefs of the 1600s.
很难将牡蛎礁恢复到17世纪时的样子
But that’s not really the point.
但这不并是重点
I don’t think we can put it back just the way it was.
我认为我们没办法把它恢复成原来的样子
I don’t think that’s necessarily a realistic goal.
我认为这是一个不现实的目标
But I think we’ve got a great opportunity
但我觉得 当我们开始考虑牡蛎礁的诸多好处
when we start thinking about multiple benefits,
以及不同类型的社会需求时
and the different kinds of needs of society,
我们就有很大的机会
whether it’s to reduce wave impacts,
不论这种需求是减少海浪冲击
or offset nutrient inputs,
还是抵消营养投入
or generally increasing the health and resilience of the bay.
或只是一般性地提升海湾的健康和恢复力
Resiliency against the rising oceans isn’t
应对海平面上升的韧性
as simple as undoing the mistakes we made in the past.
并不像弥补我们过去犯下的错误那么简单
We don’t live the way we did 200 years ago,
我们的生活和200年前不同
and the world looks very different.
世界也发生了很大变化
But what we can learn from oysters,
但我们能从牡蛎身上学到的是
is that restoring one species from the past
修复过去的一种物种
can create a chain reaction to a more sustainable future.
会对更可持续的未来产生连锁反应
It feels hopeful.
感觉很有希望
And it feels like something that we can achieve.
感觉是我们可以实现的目标

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视频概述

视频介绍了牡蛎在减缓海岸侵蚀方面的重要作用。以及它在海洋生态系统中的重要地位,牡蛎不仅是海洋生物的栖息地,还是海水过滤系统。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UcN6RXT7qpw

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