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次日达在美国是如何实现的

How Overnight Shipping Works

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“次日达”绝对是物流界的伟大发明
Overnight shipping is an absolute masterpiece
这些货物被连夜运输
of logistics that happens every single night.
运费可能不太便宜
It may not be cheap,
但有了次日达 周一晚从佛罗里达迈阿密发的包裹
but you can get a package shipped from Miami, Florida on a Monday
周二早8:30就能抵达阿拉斯加州的安克雷奇
night to Anchorage, Alaska, by 8:30 AM on Tuesday.
比如说 周二那天
In fact, you can even ship a package,
从苏格兰的爱丁堡发了一个包裹
for example, from Edinburgh, Scotland on a Tuesday
那这个包裹周三上午9点就能送达阿拉斯加州的安克雷奇
and have the package arrive in Anchorage, Alaska by 9am on Wednesday.
世界物流网络的速度和效率简直让人意想不到
The speed and efficiency of these worldwide delivery networks is
而这一切都发生在我们睡觉期间
mind-blowing and it all happens while we sleep.
美国三大物流公司分别是FedEx(美国联邦快递) DHL(敦豪快递)
The three major consumer courier companies are FedEx, DHL,
还有UPS(联合包裹速递服务公司)
and UPS and each of them is as
它们之间难分高下
impressive as the last.
FedEx比阿联酋航空公司 阿提哈德航空公司
FedEx has more planes than Emirates, Etihad,
和卡塔尔航空公司的飞机加起来还要多
and Qatar Airways combined;
而DHL的递送范围遍及全球各地 包括朝鲜
DHL delivers to every country in the world including North Korea;
UPS的目的地数量则比最大的客运航空公司
and UPS flies to more than double as many destinations as the
还要多上两倍
largest passenger airline.
这些公司都有覆盖全球的运输网络 能够闪电派送
Each has a global network that allows for lightning fast shipping
而且价格还相对较低
at relatively low prices.
如此快的速度背后
Behind all this speed are enormous
是庞大的 沟通全世界的
air networks that connect the entire
日常航空网络
world daily.
这三个航空公司都运行着几百架夜间航班
Each of these three operates hundreds
但FedEx更为卓越
of flights nightly, but FedEx is the best
因为他们的运营使其成为世界上最大的
example since their operations make them the largest
货运航空公司
cargo airline in the world.
FedEx的日运输情况为:650架飞机 400个目的地 600万包裹
They have 650 planes flying to 400 destinations carrying 6 million
而且这些航班中的绝大多数
packages every single day and the vast majority
总是围绕着一些枢纽机场
of these flights operate to or from one of
飞来飞去
their hub airports.
FedEx的枢纽机场遍及世界各地
FedEx’s hub airports are spread out all
并设有分拣点
across the world and serve as sorting points
这样包裹就能直接从一架飞机上转移到
where packages are transferred from one plane to
另一架上
another.
FedEx的枢纽机场分设在新加坡 广州 上海
They has hubs in Singapore, Guangzhou, Shanghai,
首尔 大阪 安克雷奇 奥克兰 达拉斯
Seoul, Osaka, Anchorage, Oakland, Dallas,
印第安纳波利斯 格林斯博罗 迈阿密 纽瓦克市
Indianapolis, Greensboro, Miami, Newark,
多伦多 巴黎 科隆 米兰 迪拜
Toronto, Paris, Cologne, Milan, and Dubai,
但头牌当属田纳西州孟菲斯市的枢纽机场
but the most important hub of all is the one in Memphis,
因为它是FedEx的超级枢纽机场
Tennessee because that’s theirSuperHub.
孟菲斯市不是个大城市
Memphis is not a huge city—only
仅有650,000个居民
about 650,000 people live there—but the reason FedEx
但FedEx把超级枢纽设在此处看中的主要是该市的地理位置
centers their worldwide operations in this city is because of it’s location.
孟菲斯市实际上并非处于
Memphis is not actually in the geographic center
美国的地理中心
of the US as might
但它确实有着中心位置的作用
make sense, but it is central.
你看 它距离密苏里州的赖特县
You see, only about 200 miles away
仅有200英里
in Wright County, Missouri is the
密苏里州是美国的平均人口中心
mean population center of the US.
密苏里州是美国市民分布的中心位置
This is the average location of every resident in the
也就是说此处当之无愧是FedEx的超级枢纽
US meaning that the FedEx SuperHub in Memphis is
能使其在最短的时间里触及最多的人口
the best location to reach the most people in the shortest amount of time.
出于相似的原因 UPS也有这样的全球枢纽
For similar reasons, UPS has their equivalent global hub, Worldport,
就是肯塔基州路易斯维尔市的“世界港”
nearby in Louisville, Kentucky.
这些城市虽然不大 但FedEx和UPS的运营范围是
The scale of FedEx and UPS’ operations in these relatively
令人震惊的
small cities is staggering.
这里是孟菲斯机场的
This is the size of the commercial terminal
商业终端的大小
at Memphis Airport while
而这里是FedEx超级枢纽机场的尺寸
this is the size of FedEx’s Superhub.
在路易斯维尔机场 两者的区别更显著了
The difference at Louisville airport is even more
这里是FedEx的商业终端
pronounced where this is the commercial terminal
而这里是UPS的世界港
and this is UPS’ worldport.
若你想
You can’t even fly
不在路易斯维尔这个枢纽停留就飞往西海岸
to the west coast non-stop on a commercial airline
基本上是不可能的
from Louisville and yet UPS flies
而UPS从这个小城市飞离 飞往五大洲
from this small city to five different continents.
同时 FedEx在孟菲斯市机场的运作
FedEx’s operations in Memphis, meanwhile, make this
使该机场成为世界第二繁忙的货运航空港
airport the second busiest cargo airport in the
孟菲斯市机场的繁忙程度虽然比不上香港
world above those of enormous cities like Tokyo, Paris,
但和东京 巴黎 迪拜 上海等大城市比起来
Dubai, Shanghai, and falling
还是绰绰有余的
short only to Hong Kong.
那么FedEx超级枢纽机场到底是怎么运作的呢
How the FedEx superhub really works is that every night,
即晚10点到凌晨1点之间
about 150 planes fly in from
来自世界各地的150架飞机都会聚集到这里
all around the world between the hours of 10pm and 1am.
飞机一抵达枢纽机场
Immediately upon arrival,
就会被卸货
the planes are unloaded and their packages are put into the
包裹会被投进自动分类系统中
hub’s automated sorting system.
不到15分钟的时间 这些包裹就被装进集装箱里
Within only 15 minutes, each package arrives at a staging
为下一次飞行整装待发
area for its next flight where it’s loadedinto containers.
因此凌晨2点可以发一次货
Planes therefore can start taking off again
凌晨4点时还能再发一次
at 2am and continue to until 4am which
这意味着早上6点前 美国的任一FedEx枢纽机场都有一架飞机抵达
means that everywhere in the US can have a FedEx plane arriving by 6am,
但有一些目的地没有足够多的包裹
but there are some destinations that don’t ship enough packages
也就不需要直达孟菲斯市的货运飞机
to need a non-stop flight to Memphis.
为了快速抵达小城镇
To get to small towns fast, FedEx runs flights in small
FedEx从他们巨大的喷气式飞机队伍里调出了
propeller aircraft from the destinations of their
小型螺旋桨飞机
larger jets.
就拿缅因州的普雷斯克岛来说
Presque Isle, Maine,
小的不能再小 仅有1万人口
for example, is far too small of a town at about 10,000 residents
其包裹量根本装不满一架大型飞机
to fill a full-size plane so, every morning,
所有每天早上都有从孟菲斯市来的大飞机
once the larger planes from Memphis arrive
抵达曼彻斯特 新罕布什尔 波特兰 缅因州
in Manchester, New Hampshire and Portland, Maine,
而普雷斯克岛的包裹则会被分进小型螺旋桨飞机
packages bound for Presque Isle are sorted into smaller
再发往北方的普雷斯克岛
prop planes that continue north.
在这个系统下 甚至普雷斯克岛这样的小城镇
With this system, even small towns like Presque Isle
也能在早上9点拿到包裹
get their packages by 9am as every spoke
这个系统的每一环本质上都是一个迷你枢纽
in the system essentially functions as a mini-hub.
包裹从大飞机上被转移到小飞机上
Packages are transferred from planes, to smaller planes,
再到卡车上 最后抵达目的地
to trucks to reach their destination
这个过程要多快有多快
as fast as possible.
现在需要注意的是
Now, it’s important to note
不是每个FedEx包裹都要途径孟菲斯市
that not every FedEx package runs through Memphis.
因为如果有一个客户需要
That would be incredibly inefficient if a customer
把包裹从亚利桑那州凤凰城运往华盛顿州的西雅图
wanted to, for example, ship a package from Phoenix,
那么途径孟菲斯市就会效率很低
Arizona to Seattle, Washington.
西雅图和凤凰城仅相聚1,100英里
While only 1,100 miles separate Seattle from Phoenix,
但要途径孟菲斯市的话 就得行经3,000英里
a routing through Memphis would total over 3,000
耗时6小时
miles and six hours in flight.
包裹仍然会连夜运送
The package would still make it overnight, but FedEx would
但FedEx为送这个包裹时将额外支付1,900英里的路费
be wasting fuel carrying that package an extra 1,900 miles,
所以FedEx需要第二枢纽
so that’s why they have secondary hubs.
在这种情况下
In this case,
FedEx的奥克兰枢纽应运而生 沟通了凤凰城和西雅图
FedEx’s Oakland hub has flights to both Phoenix and Seattle so the
这样包裹的行程就会成为相对高效的1,300英里
package would take a relatively efficient 1,300 mile routing.
孟菲斯市基本上起到后备枢纽的作用
Memphis essentially serves as the backup hub
这样才能更有效率
in case there’s not a more efficient routing.
就拿奥克兰这个第二枢纽来说
The secondary hubs, such as Oakland,
它一般经停孟菲斯市
in general have flights to destinations that are
再飞往各目的地的航班
already served by flights to Memphis,
但是奥克兰的对抵达航班有高要求
but the destinations from Oakland are high demand
即来西海岸的包裹得够多
destinations that will ship enough packages
多到足以装满抵达此处的航班
solely to the west coast to fill entire planes to Oakland.
对阿尔伯克基 新墨西哥州等目的地来说
Some destinations, such as Albuquerque,
得飞往孟菲斯市装载一些包裹
New Mexico, ship enough packages to fill
才能装满飞机
entire planes to Memphis,
但直飞奥克兰的西海岸航班往往装不满
but not enough to fill flights to Oakland with west coast bound
所以阿尔伯克基的飞机
packages so a package shipped
飞往西海岸时往往会绕个远路
from here to the west coast would likely take a rather
途径孟菲斯市
inefficient routing backtracking to Memphis.
但FedEx最具独创性的港口是阿拉斯加州的安克雷奇
But FedEx’s most ingenious hub is here in Anchorage, Alaska.
安克雷奇的居民不足30万人
Anchorage, with fewer than 300,000 residents, is home to the forth
世界上最繁忙的货运空港就位于此地
busiest cargo airport in the world.
还要强调一下安克雷奇的地理位置的重要性
This is, once again, thanks to geography.
因为如果你画一条直线
If you draw a straight line
画一条FedEx的从孟菲斯枢纽到大阪的航线
from FedEx’s Memphis hub to the one in Osaka,
将地球曲率也考虑在内
taking into account earth’s curvature,
你会发现这条线恰好经过阿拉斯加州的安克雷奇
it goes directly over Anchorage, Alaska.
安克雷奇机场对美国飞往亚洲的航班来说
This airport is just the perfect stop-over point
是完美的经停点
for flights from the US to Asia.
现在许多货运公司都在安克雷奇有代理点
Now, dozens of cargo airlines operate in Anchorage but most of
但其中大多数都把安克雷奇当成加油 交班的地点
them just use the airport as a refueling and crew swap spot.
现代飞机可以
Modern airplanes can fly non-stop
从美国直达亚洲 无需经停
from the contiguous United States to Asia, but doing
但这样就会耗能多 运货少
so requires taking more fuel which requires taking less cargo.
而在安克雷奇经停则会省去很多费用
It’s just cheaper to stop in Anchorage,
但FedEx和UPS经停安克雷奇并非为了省钱 而是为了分类
but FedEx and UPS use the stop for something else—sorting.
如果FedEx不经停安克雷奇枢纽
If FedEx wanted to maintaincurrent shipping times without the Anchorage hub,
他们往往会启用无经停航班
they would likely have to run non-stopflights
直接从亚洲分枢纽飞往美国分枢纽
from each of their Asian hubs to each
但如果这样的话
of their American hubs, but they just don’t have
他们的飞机就装不满了
the demand to fill this many planes.
因此FedEx会让他们的航班从亚洲枢纽飞往安克雷奇
Instead, they run flights from their Asian hubs to Anchorage
然后从安克雷奇枢纽飞往美国各地的枢纽站点
then flights from Anchorage many of their American hubs.
经停安克雷奇时 来自亚洲的包裹会被逐一分类
While stopped in Anchorage,packages from Asia are processed through customs
然后紧凑装机 运往目的地
and sorted to be put on the plane bound closest to their destination.
这一过程将削减运输时间和运输费用
This helps cuts down on shipping time and cost.
运输业是一项价格敏感度很高的事业
Shipping is an incredibly price-sensitive business.
速递公司和零售商签订了大笔的契约
These courier companies rely onenormous contracts with retailers and, when
当零售商每日需要运送无数的包裹时
some of these retailers are shipping millions of
每一分钱都会积聚成巨大的利润
packages per day, every cent matters.
但是在很多方面 快速配送的运费高低
In a lot of ways, however, the express shipping model is
很大程度上取决于速递商的运输工具的昂贵程度
inherently expensive largely because of how couriers use
即他们的运输飞机是否昂贵
their most expensive assets—planes.
大型枢纽的货物分拣耗时耗力
So much is centered around those few sorting hours
所以FedEx的所有飞机都必须
at the big hubs so FedEx’s planes
在指定的时间到达集散中心
all have to wait around to arrive at the exact right moment.
就拿FedEx的枢纽之一孟菲斯市来说
Some FedEx hubs, such as Memphis,
这里的包裹分拣在白天进行
do sort packages during the day, but the overwhelming
但其中的大多数包裹其实头天夜里就到达了
majority of their business happens overnight.
还有FedEx的从孟菲斯市飞往俄克拉荷马市的航班
FedEx’s flight from Memphis to Oklahoma City,
这趟航班早上4点出发 5点20就抵达了
for example, leaves at 4am and arrives
但它得干等着 一直等到下午10点10分
at 5:20am, but then the plane waits around until
才能飞回孟菲斯市
10:10pm to fly back to Memphis.
所以该航线上 这趟航班在俄克拉荷马市停留17个小时
That’s over 17 hours sitting in Oklahoma City and, on that route,
而它的每天实际飞行时间仅有2个小时
the plane is only flying for abouttwo hours per day.
而商业航空公司的航班是常规运作的
Meanwhile, commercial airlines regularly fly their planes
每天运作超过12个小时
for more than 12 hours per day
这意味着他们有6倍高的航班利用率
meaning they have six times higher aircraft utilization.
而对FedEx来说
FedEx would never be profitable
如果他们斥资购买几十亿身价的飞机 一天却用不了几个小时
if they bought all new multi-hundred million dollar
他们就赔本了 所以他们不买太贵的飞机
aircraft to use for mere hours per day, so they don’t.
所以理所当然地 FedEx等货运公司都用旧飞机
Overwhelmingly, FedEx and other cargo airlines use old aircraft
那些飞机旧得都快退休了
at the end of their lives.
你可能很少见到Airbus公司有陈旧的客机
You’ll almost never see Airbus a 300’s flying for
因为这些客机都被FedEx UPS DHL等货运公司买走了
passenger airlines anymore, yet FedEx, UPS, and DHL
这些货运公司都喜欢买这些旧客机因为成本很低
collectively own hundreds of them because they’re cheap.
货运公司不会花太多钱去买货运飞机
They didn’t spend much purchasing these aircraft,
所以它们根本不担心
so they don’t have to worry
这些货运飞机会用不够本
about using them enough to offset their cost.
UPS有一些全新的波音747-800货机
UPS does have some brand new 747-800 aircraft, which
这些飞机效率很高
are highly efficient, but they specifically schedule
但UPS经常让这些飞机跑长途
these planes on their longest routes so
通过降低该飞机的燃料费
that they can recuperate their high purchase price
这样他们才能收回高昂的成本价
through lower fuel costs.
如果飞机太旧的话 燃料费就相对较高
With older aircraft, fuel costs might be higher
因为这些飞机的效率很低
since the planes are less efficient,
但总体来说 也不会有很大损失
but overall it’s worth it since it allows
因为FedEx天天干这种事:
FedEx to profitably leave their planes sitting
经常让自家的老旧飞机一停就是好几个小时
for all but a few hours each day.
有一些客运公司也是这样
Some passenger airlines,
比如美国的忠实航空也用了这种策略
such as Allegiant Airlines in the US, uses the same
他们买了相对便宜的客机
strategy purchasing cheaper planes to allow
让这些飞机每天少飞几个小时
them to fly fewer hours per day profitably
现在这已经成为一个经得起考验的商业战略
and its now a tested and proven business strategy.
快递配送是一个门槛高的领域
Express shipping is one of those businesses
需要巨大的网络来推动运作
that requires enormous networks to make
这就是你见不到小快递公司的原因
work which is why you don’t see small shipping companies.
在这个行业领域里
It’s almost impossible to get started
要起步是很艰难的
in this business unless, of course, you can
除非你有足够的资本
make your own demand.
亚马逊每日要运送的包裹量超过1百万
Amazon, which ships more than a million packages per day,
它深谙配送之道
is getting into the delivery business.
亚马逊已建立了
They’ve established a fleet
一个由32架飞机组成的舰队
of 32 aircraft and are building out their
并且一直在构建着自己的物流网络
logistics network.
当运送非常多的包裹时
When shipping so many packages,
亚马逊就会在一定程度上“垄断”配送
Amazon is operating at a scale where they
即通过将运输公司排除在外来获取利润
can profit by taking the shipping companies out of the equation.
同时FedEx UPS DHL等公司
FedEx, UPS, and DHL, meanwhile,
一直在致力于提高运输网络的效率
are continuously focusing on further increasing the
毕竟在这个行业里
efficiency of their networks since in this business more than any,
时间就是金钱
time is money.
你可能注意到了
As you may have noticed,
我们的Wendover Productions有了一个新商标
Wendover Productions has a new logo and with that I’ve
然后我又在Squarespace上重新设计了网站
redesigned the website with Squarespace.
说实话 我曾经用不惯Squarespace这个网站创建平台
To be honest, I hadn’t used the websitebuilder in a
但在使用该平台的过程中
while but this process reminded me
我渐渐成了它的粉丝
of why I’m such a fan of Squarespace.
它的整个浏览界面都超级明确
It was super simple to completely overhaul the site and,
我觉得 它的外观非常棒
in my opinion, it looks great.
我在使用中没有疑问
I didn’t have any issues,
如果你有问题的话 请致信全天候客服
but if you ever do they have award winning 24/7 customer
我之前用过 很有效
support that I have used in the past and can vouch for.
如果你有一项事业 一个YouTube频道
If you run a business, a youtube channel, a podcast,
或者你是一个播客
or anything else, you want to have
然后你想像我一样有一个专业的网页设计
a professional web presence like I do with my site
因为这样你才能吸引他人的目光
since that’s how people find you,
那么就请用Squarespace创建网页吧
and you can get started building your website with Squarespace
点此此链接squarespace.com/wendover注册的用户还能享受9折优惠
for 10% off at squarespace.com/wendover.
Squarespace赞助了本节目
Squarespace is a great supporter
请你一定要向它表达谢意哦
of the show so make sure to show them your appreciation
那就点击squarespace.com/Wendover进入吧
by at least checking them out at squarespace.com/Wendover.
顺便说一下
And just one more thing,
如果你喜欢我的视频
if you’re like me and the first reaction you had to seeing
看到这个新商标的第一反应就是想要一件衬衫
this new logo is wanting a t-shirt
那你很幸运
of it, you’re in luck
因为DFTBA接受预定
because they’re now available for pre-order at DFTBA.
链接我放在简介里了
The link is in the description.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

一起来看看美国的次日达是如何实现的吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3qfeoqErtY

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