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网络广告是如何改变你的想法的 – 译学馆
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How Online Advertising Is Tricking Your Thoughts, Attitudes, and Beliefs | Tristan Harris

我们一直存在着一种注意力经济 无论它是在广播上还是电视上都始终存在着的
So we always had an attention economy, whether it was on radio or television there’s always
一种为了争夺我们的注意力的竞争 同时也是一种零和博弈
been a race for our attention and it’s a zero sum game.
如果一家电视台获得了更多的你的注意力 那么其他电视台获得的就会减少
If one TV station gets more of your attention the other TV station gets less.
但是如今由于我们把越来越多的时间花在屏幕上 我们更能真切地感受到
But now because we’re spending more and more time on screens and there’s so many things
competing for our attention we really feel it.
在注意力经济中 社交媒体 互联网和我们的屏幕上 任何事物
And in the attention economy with social media and with the Internet and our screens, everything
needs your attention.
所以无论是冥想应用 纽约时报 大想法新闻网还是脸书 他们全都还在为了
So a meditation app, the New York Times, Big Think or Facebook—they’re still all competing
同一样通货在竞争 那就是注意力
for the same currency, which is attention.
而且如果一方获得了更多的注意力 那其他方就会获得更少
And if one guy gets more attention someone else gets less.
有一个例子 Netflix公司的首席执行官说 Netflix公司的最大竞争对手
As an example, the CEO of Netflix recently said that the biggest competitors to Netflix
不是其他的视频网站 他说Netflix公司的最大竞争对手是脸书 You Tube
weren’t other video sites, he said the biggest competitors to Netflix were Facebook, YouTube
和睡眠 因为一整天下来 他们都依托于我们所拥有注意力的
and sleep, because at the end of the day it all comes from this limited supply of attention
that we get.
And part of that is because of advertising.
因为广告的商业模型就是 我不是仅仅是想要你的一些注意力
Because the business model of advertising says I don’t just want some of your attention,
事实上我越从你那获得更多的注意力 我就越能获得更多的收益
I actually make more money the more attention I get from you.
So I have an unbounded appetite for more of your attention.
而且问题在于 作为注意力经济中的各个因素 无论是一个冥想应用
And the problem is that as each factor in the attention economy, whether it’s a meditation
还是Snapchat 还是脸书或者Netflix 他们都开始逐渐增加越来越多更有说服力的
app or it’s Snapchat or it’s Facebook or Netflix, they start ratcheting up more and more persuasive
设计选择来把我们和产品更长久地黏在一起 然后让我们不断地再次使用
design choices to stick us to the product for longer and to keep us coming back, to
addict us even.
问题在于这变成了一种无底线竞争 我越是深入地在你的脑海里
And the problem is it becomes this race to the bottom, where the lower I go on the brainstem
让你去点击和停留 竞争对手就越是不得不有过之而无不及
at getting you to click and stay, the lower someone else has to go.
所以当YouTube广告自动播放下一条视频时 Netflix就不得不同样如此
So when YouTube ads auto play the next video Netflix has to auto play the next video too
otherwise they lose out on their attention market share.
因此在零和博弈中我们真正需要去讨论的是 我们要如何去认识
And so in this zero sum game what we really need to talk about is how do we reorganize
the attention economy? So it actually aligns with what we want.
差不多就像是重新设计一个城市的城镇规划一样 不是要离开这个有污染的
Almost like redesigning the urban plan of a city, it’s not about leaving this polluted
城市 而是我们如何去重新规划这座城市然后使它再次变的宜居
city, it’s how can we reorganize the city so it’s livable again?
How do we create zoning laws so that Netflix competes with other entertainment?
How do I help each of us get the best two hours of downtime?
这和那些冥想应用不同 那些是在竞争如何帮助人们
And that’s different than meditation apps that are competing for how to help people
wake up in the morning.
想象一下他们在不同的分区 同时存在于应用商店和我们的手机里
Imagine that those are different zones, both in app stores and on our phones, so that is
所以这才是真的在帮助我们 是为了改善我们的生活而竞争而不是仅仅为了争夺
really about helping us, competing to help us live our lives not competing just to get
the most attention.
所以 我们为什么要质疑广告呢?
So, why should we be questioning advertising?
This is such a huge deal.
Because advertising has, up until this point, propped up much of the tech industry’s economy.
广告是发展和提升一个企业最低廉和最容易的方式 因为你总是可以
It’s been the cheapest and easiest way to grow and scale a business because you can
想出新办法来获得注意力 而且你可以找到新的方法来从
always figure out new ways of getting attention, and you can find new ways of getting more
money per eyeball that spends time with you.
但是广告的花费也真的太大了 因为在这个世界上我是已经拥有你视线资源的地方
But the costs of it are really just too big, because in a world where I’ve got your eyeball
(然后假如我是脸书)而且我实际上已经拥有十亿这类视线资源了 那我就会问
(and I’m Facebook) and I’ve got actually a billion of these eyeballs, and I’m asking,
“谁会为了在大众面前放置一条信息而付我最多的钱?” 在现今世界
“Who wants to pay me the most to put a message in front of this eyeball?”, and in a world
where I give that person personal information that would tell them exactly how to persuade
这个人(而且他们可以在任何他们想要的事情上劝说这些人 因为他们了解地十分清楚
this person (and they can persuade them with anything that they want because they know
例如像Cambridge Analytics公司这样明确地了解如何
exactly, as for example, with companies like Cambridge Analytica which knew exactly how
在政治上说服你的公司) 我会让任何想付我最多的人
to persuade you politically), I would be enabling whoever wants to pay me the most to manipulate
and influence this person’s mind.
而且在这个越来越注重说服力的世界 随着我们越来越清楚是什么影响了一个人
And in a world that’s more and more persuasive where we know more and more about what influences
this person, the ability to simply sell to the highest better whoever wants to persuade
them undermines something really fundamental about what of our institutions are based on.
A market is based on a person making a conscious choice to buy or transact.
当你可以改变或者操控那个人的想法 态度和信念时
When you can undermine or manipulate the thoughts and attitudes and beliefs of that person then
that’s really not something we can stand on anymore.
在一场选举中 人们会对于候选人或者政策有自己的想法 观点和主意
In an election where people have their own thoughts, opinions, beliefs and ideas about
a candidate or about a policy—or not even, just about how much they hate each other—and
这些也是可以被操控的 那么选举或者民主的基础也就值得质疑了
that can be manipulated, then the foundation of an election or a democracy is also questionable.
因此在这个越来越注重说服力的世界 比起广告而言更多的是在于说服力
And so in a world that’s more and more persuasive, where it’s more about persuasion than it is
about advertising, what is the ethically persuasive world that we want to live in?
这个世界正在朝一个方向单向发展 那就是它越来越擅长
In a world that is on a one way track getting better and better at persuading our minds
说服我们去相信 感受 持有与先前截然不同的观点
to believe, feel and have different opinions than we would have had—because it can personalize
exactly and tailor exactly messages that would sway us—how do we live in that world when
so much of our institutions depend on us having sovereign minds and sovereign ideas and the
还能互相平等探讨什么是对什么是错 我们该怎么在这样的世界里生存?
ability to democratically talk to each other about what the right answer might be?
因此 我们要以广告影响经济的方式 来质疑广告的商业模式了
So we need to question the business model of advertising in the way that it affects that economy.