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一个女人如何把人类送上月球 – 译学馆
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一个女人如何把人类送上月球

How one woman put man on the moon - Matt Porter & Margaret Hamilton

“别无选择 唯有一往无前” – 玛格丽特·汉密尔顿
“通用系统语言:阿波罗的启示”
At roughly 4pm on July 20, 1969,
1969年7月20日下午4点左右
mankind was just minutes away from landing on the surface of the moon.
离人类即将登陆月球仅剩几分钟
But before the astronauts began their final descent,
但就在宇航员开始进入降落的最后阶段时
an emergency alarm lit up.
警告灯开始闪烁
Something was overloading the computer,
计算机超载了
and threatened to abort the landing.
威胁着要取消着陆
Back on Earth, Margaret Hamilton held her breath.
此时在地球的玛格丽特·汉密尔顿 屏住了呼吸
She’d led the team developing the pioneering in-flight software,
她带领团队开发了开创性的飞行软件
so she knew this mission had no room for error.
所以她知道这次任务没有出错的余地
But the nature of this last-second emergency
不过这最后几秒钟紧急情况的本质
would soon prove her software was working exactly as planned.
将很快证明她的软件当时是完全按照计划运行的
Born 33 years earlier in Paoli, Indiana,
汉密尔顿33年前出生在印第安纳州的保利
Hamilton had always been inquisitive.
她从小就好奇心满满
In college, she studied mathematics and philosophy,
大学期间 她学习了数学和哲学
before taking a research position at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
之后在麻省理工学院从事研究工作
to pay for grad school.
以支付攻读研究生的学费
Here, she encountered her first computer while developing software
当她在开发软件支持“混沌理论”的新研究领域时
to support research into the new field of chaos theory.
接触到了自己的第一台电脑
Next at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory,
接着在麻省理工的林肯实验室
Hamilton developed software for America’s first air defense system
汉密尔顿为美国的第一个防空系统
to search for enemy aircraft.
开发了监测敌机的软件
But when she heard that renowned engineer Charles Draper
但当她听说著名的工程师查尔斯·德雷珀
was looking for help sending mankind to the moon,
正在招募“登月计划”的队员
she immediately joined his team.
她立即加入了他的团队
NASA looked to Draper and his group of over 400 engineers
NASA指望德雷珀和他手下400多名工程师
to invent the first compact digital flight computer,
开发出世界上第一台便携式数字飞行计算机
the Apollo Guidance Computer.
阿波罗制导计算机
Using input from astronauts,
该计算机根据宇航员输入的信息
this device would be responsible for guiding, navigating and controlling the spacecraft.
可以负责引导 导航 和控制宇宙飞船
At a time when unreliable computers filled entire rooms,
在计算机运行不稳定 体积大到塞满整个房间的年代
the AGC needed to operate without any errors,
AGC需要无误地运行
and fit in one cubic foot of space.
并且只能占据一立方英尺的空间
Draper divided the lab into two teams,
德雷珀把实验室人员分成两组
one for designing hardware and one for developing software.
一组负责硬件设计 另一组负责软件开发
Hamilton led the team that built the on-board flight software
汉密尔顿带领团队为指令舱和登月舱
for both the Command and Lunar Modules.
开发了机载飞行软件
This work, for which she coined the term “software engineering,”
这项她命名为“软件工程”的工作
was incredibly high stakes.
风险极其高
Human lives were on the line, so every program had to be perfect.
人命悬于一线 所以每个程序都必须尽善尽美
Margaret’s software needed to quickly detect unexpected errors
玛格丽特的软件需要快速检测出意外错误
and recover from them in real time.
并进行实时修复
But this kind of adaptable program was difficult to build,
但这种适应性强的程序很难建立
since early software could only process jobs in a predetermined order.
因为早期的软件只能按预定顺序处理作业
To solve this problem,
为了解决这个问题
Margaret designed her program to be “asynchronous,”
玛格丽特将程序设计为“异步”的
meaning the software’s more important jobs would interrupt less important ones.
这意味着该软件相对重要的工作将中断次要的工作
Her team assigned every task a unique priority
她的团队为每个任务分配了特有的优先级
to ensure that each job occurred in the correct order
以确保每个任务在正确的时间
and at the right time— regardless of any surprises.
按正确的顺序发生 不管发生什么意外
After this breakthrough,
在这一突破之后
Margaret realized her software could help the astronauts work
玛格丽特意识到她的软件也可以帮助宇航员
in an asynchronous environment as well.
在异步环境中工作
She designed Priority Displays
她设计了“显示优先级”
that would interrupt astronaut’s regularly scheduled tasks
可以中断宇航员的日常任务
to warn them of emergencies.
从而提醒他们有紧急情况
The astronaut could then communicate with Mission Control
宇航员随后可以与任务控制中心联系
to determine the best path forward.
以确定最佳的下一步行动
This marked the first time flight software communicated directly—
这标志着飞行软件首次实现了
and asynchronously— with a pilot.
直接与宇航员进行异步通信
It was these fail safes that triggered the alarms just before the lunar landing.
也正是这些失效保护软件在登月前触发了警报
Buzz Aldrin quickly realized his mistake—
巴兹·奥尔德林很快意识到了自己的错误
he’d inadvertently flipped the rendezvous radar switch.
他不小心拨动了集合雷达的开关
This radar would be essential on their journey home,
雷达对他们的回程至关重要
but here it was using up vital computational resources.
但在这里它消耗了重要的计算资源
Fortunately, the Apollo Guidance Computer was well equipped to manage this.
幸运的是 阿波罗制导计算机有卓越的配置来处理这个问题
During the overload, the software restart programs
在超载期间 软件重启程序
allowed only the highest priority jobs to be processed—
仅允许处理最高优先级的作业
including the programs necessary for landing.
比如着陆必需的程序
The Priority Displays gave the astronauts a choice—
显示优先级让宇航员选择
to land or not to land.
着陆或不着陆
With minutes to spare, Mission Control gave the order.
在还剩几分钟的时候 任务控制中心下达了命令
The Apollo 11 landing was about the astronauts, Mission Control,
阿波罗11号登月计划是集成了宇航员 任务控制
software and hardware all working together as an integrated system of systems.
软硬件协同工作为一体的系统
Hamilton’s contributions were essential to the work of engineers and scientists
对于受肯尼迪总统登月目标激励的工程师和科学家而言
inspired by President John F. Kennedy’s goal to reach the Moon.
汉密尔顿的贡献是至关重要的
And her life-saving work went far beyond Apollo 11—
她这一“救命之举”远远超出阿波罗11号项目的范畴—
no bugs were ever found in the in-flight software for any crewed Apollo missions.
在所有阿波罗载人任务的飞行软件中都没有任何错漏
After her work on Apollo,
在完成阿波罗项目之后
Hamilton founded a company
汉密尔顿创建了一家公司
that uses its unique universal systems language
利用其独一无二的通用系统语言
to create breakthroughs for systems and software.
为系统和软件创造突破
In 2003, NASA honored her achievements with the largest financial award
2003年 NASA为表彰她的成就
they’d ever given to an individual.
向她颁发了有史以来对个人最大的一笔奖金
And 47 years after her software first guided astronauts to the moon,
在她的软件首次引导宇航员登上月球47年后
Hamilton was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom
汉密尔顿因改变了我们对科技的看法
for changing the way we think about technology.
而被授予总统自由勋章

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视频概述

史上最伟大的女程序员玛格丽特·汉密尔顿,没有她,就没有阿姆斯特朗的一小步和人类的一大步。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

乏善

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kYCZPXSVvOQ

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