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一位科学家是如何对付化学工业的——马克·利特尔 – 译学馆
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一位科学家是如何对付化学工业的——马克·利特尔

How one scientist took on the chemical industry - Mark Lytle

“居住在美丽而神秘的大地上的人永远不会孤单或厌倦生活”
蕾切尔·卡逊
In 1958, Rachel Carson received a letter
1958年 蕾切尔·卡逊收到一封信
describing songbirds suddenly dropping from tree branches.
(信中)描述鸟儿突然从树枝上掉下来
The writer blamed their deaths on a pesticide called DDT
来信者把它们的死亡归咎于一种叫DDT的杀虫剂
that exterminators had sprayed on a nearby marsh.
因为除虫的人在附近沼泽地喷洒了这种杀虫剂
The letter was the push Carson needed to investigate DDT.
这封信促使卡逊调查DDT
She had already heard from scientists and conservationists who were worried
她还收到科学家和自然资源保护者的来信
that rampant use of the pesticide posed a threat to fish, birds,
他们担心大量使用杀虫剂可能威胁到鸟类 鱼类
and possibly humans.
甚至可能是人类
She began to make inquiries through government contacts
卡逊开始通过在美国渔业局工作时的
from her years working in the United States Bureau of Fisheries.
政府联系人 进行调查
She asked: “what has already silenced the voices of spring?”
她问道 “是什么使春天静下来了?”
In 1962, Carson published her findings in “Silent Spring.”
1962年 卡逊在《寂静的春天》中发表了她的发现
Her book documented the misuse of chemicals
她的书 记录了化学制品的滥用
and their toll on nature and human health.
及对自然和人类健康的危害
“Silent Spring” immediately drew both applause and impassioned dissent—
《寂静的春天》迅速获得了掌声和强烈的异议
along with vicious personal attacks on the author.
同时还有对作者进行的恶毒的人身攻击
How did this mild-mannered biologist and writer ignite such controversy?
这位温文尔雅的生物学家兼作家是如何引发如此激烈的争议的?
Carson began her career as a hardworking graduate student,
卡逊是从一名勤奋的研究生开始其职业生涯的
balancing her studies in biology at John Hopkins University
她平衡了约翰霍普金斯大学的生物研究
with part time jobs.
和兼职工作
Still, she had to leave school before completing her doctorate
尽管如此 为供养生病的父亲和妹妹
to provide for her ailing father and sister.
她在完成博士学位之前 就不得不离开学校
Carson found part time work with the Bureau of Fisheries
卡逊在渔业局找到一份兼职工作
writing for a radio program on marine biology.
为一个海洋生物学的广播节目写稿
Her ability to write materials that could hold the general public’s attention
她写出的材料能够吸引公众注意
impressed her superiors,
这种写作能力让她的上司印象深刻
and in 1936,she became the second woman to be hired at the Bureau full time.
1936年 她成为该局第二位全职女性雇员
In 1941, she published the first of three books on the ocean,
1941年 她出版了关于海洋的三本书中的第一本
combining science with lyrical meditations on underwater worlds.
结合了科学与水下世界的抒情沉思
These explorations resonated with a wide audience.
这些探索引起了广大观众的共鸣
In “Silent Spring,” Carson turned her attention
在《寂静的春天》中 卡逊把注意力集中到
to the ways human actions threaten the balance of nature.
人类的行为对自然平衡的威胁上
DDT was originally used during World War II to shield crops from insects
最初在第二次世界大战时 DDT用于保护农作物免受昆虫的侵害
and protect soldiers from insect-borne diseases.
并保护士兵免受虫媒疾病的侵害
After the war, it was routinely sprayed in wide swaths to fight pests,
战后 为除掉害虫 人们常常大面积地喷洒这种杀虫剂
often with unforeseen results.
结果常常出乎意料
One attempt to eradicate fire ants in the southern U.S.
在美国南部 有人曾试图消灭火蚁
killed wildlife indiscriminately, but did little to eliminate the ants.
不分青红皂白地杀害野生动物 但対消灭蚂蚁没有什么作用
In spite of this and other mishaps, the US Department of Agriculture
尽管发生了这样那样的意外 美国农业部
and chemical companies extolled the benefits of DDT.
和化工公司大力宣扬DDT的好处
There was little regulation or public awareness about its potential harm.
很少有监管部门或公众意识到它的潜在危害
But Carson showed how the overuse of chemicals
但卡逊展示了过度使用化学制品
led to the evolution of resistant species—
会导致抗性物种的进化
which, in turn, encouraged the development of deadlier chemicals.
这反过来又促进了致命化学制品的发展
Since DDT does not dissolve in water,
由于DDT不溶于水
she asserted that over time it would accumulate in the environment,
她断定 随着时间的推移 它会在环境中积累
the bodies of insects, the tissues of animals who consume those insects,
留在昆虫体内和吃那些昆虫的动物的组织里
and eventually humans.
最终传到人体
She suggested that exposure to DDT might alter the structure of genes,
她认为 接触DDT可能会改变基因的结构
with unknown consequences for future generations.
给后代带来未知的后果
The response to “Silent Spring” was explosive.
《寂静的春天》反响强烈
For many people the book was a call to regulate substances
很多人认为这本书旨在号召管制
capable of catastrophic harm.
能导致灾难性的物质
Others objected that Carson hadn’t mentioned DDT’s role
反对卡逊的人说 她没有提到DDT
controlling the threat insects posed to human health.
控制危害人类健康的害虫的作用
Former Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson demanded to know
前农业部长厄拉要求了解
“why a spinster with no children was so concerned about genetics?”
“为什么一个没有孩子的老处女如此关心遗传问题?”
and dismissed Carson as “probably a Communist.”
把卡逊称为 “可能是共产党”
A lawyer for a pesticide manufacturer alluded to Carson and her supporters
一名杀虫剂制造商的代理律师污蔑卡逊和她的支持者
as “sinister influences” aiming to paint businesses as “immoral.”
“罪恶的影响” 她想在阻断商业
In reality, Carson had focused on the dangers of chemicals
事实上 卡逊注意到化学制品的危险
because they weren’t widely understood, while the merits were well publicized.
因为它们的好处被四处宣扬时并没有被广泛的了解
She rejected the prevailing belief that humans
她拒绝一种流行的观点:
should and could control nature.
人类应该也可以控制自然
Instead, she challenged people to cultivate
相反 她要求人们培养
“maturity and mastery, not of nature, but of ourselves.”
“成熟和掌控的不是自然 而是我们自己”
Carson died of cancer in 1964,
就在《寂静的春天》出版两年后
only two years after the publication of “Silent Spring.”
1964年 卡逊死于癌症
Her work galvanized a generation of environmental activists.
她的著作激励了一代环保主义者
In 1969, under pressure from environmentalists,
1969年 在环保主义者的压力下
Congress passed the National Environmental Policy Act
国会通过了《国家环境政策法案》
that required federal agencies to evaluate environmental impacts of their actions.
要求联邦调查局评估他们的行为对环境的影响
To enforce the act,
为了实施该法案
President Richard Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency.
理查德·尼克松总统设立了环境保护局
And in 1972, the EPA issued a partial ban on the use of DDT.
1972年 环境保护局颁布了限制使用DDT 的禁令
Long after her death, Rachel Carson continued to advocate for nature
蕾切尔·卡逊逝世很久后 她继续通过其作品
through the lingering impact of her writing.
持续不断的影响提倡自然
对另一个有关强烈信念和良好科学且令人印象深刻的故事来说
坚定立场 秉持真理 绝非一件容易的事
查看这段弗朗西斯·凯尔希的视频
她是一位阻止了一场全国性大灾难的药理学家

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视频概述

杀虫剂是把双刃剑!能杀害虫,但你知道它的危害有多大吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Felicity

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审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezVEzCmiXM4

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