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保护巧克力的英国实验室

How one British laboratory protects the world's chocolate

In the last few years, there have been a lot of breathless news articles
最近几年 有很多令人窒息的新闻报告
about the upcoming shortage of chocolate.
是关于即将到来的巧克力短缺的
Around the world, demand for chocolate is rising,
全世界范围内 对巧克力的需求在上涨
particularly in China and India,
尤其是在中国和印度
and the supply isn’t matching it.
但供应并没有与之匹配
It turns out that the cocoa beans that get turned into chocolate
原因是作为巧克力原料的可可豆
are a really difficult crop to grow.
是一种很难种植的作物
Cocoa needs fairly specific climate conditions.
可可豆需要非常特别的气候条件
It needs a lot of management.
以及大量的管理手段
And about 30 to 40% of the entire world’s crop of cocoa
每年全世界的可可豆约有30%到40%
is just lost to pests and plant diseases every year.
会因害虫或植物病害损失掉
So what the modern world needs is new, hardier,
所以现代世界需要的是新型 更强韧
more pest resistant varieties of cocoa with higher yields.
能抵抗更多害虫的高产量可可豆种类
Botanists send plant cuttings around the world,
植物学家在全世界寄送枝条
so they can cross breed them and see what the results are.
以便将它们杂交并观察结果
But the trouble is: if you’re sending cuttings around the world,
但问题是 当你寄出枝条时
you might be sending diseases with them,
你可能同时带去了病害
and that could be devastating.
并可能相当有破坏性
Which is why, in a rural bit of southern England,
这就是为什么在英格兰南部的一个农村
there sits the International Cocoa Quarantine Center.
有一个国际可可豆检疫中心
The quarantine process lasts for two years.
检疫过程历时两年
The reason why it is so long is because viruses
之所以历时这么长 是因为
can potentially stay latent in the plant for a long period of time.
病毒可能会在植物中潜伏很长时间
We generally receive plant material from what we call “gene banks”,
通常我们是从被我们称为“基因库”的研究中心
so these are the research centers
来获得植物材料的
that have collections of lots of different types of cocoa plants.
他们收集了大量不同种类的可可豆植株
That plant material arrives as what we call “bud sticks”.
这些植物材料以“芽棒”的形式运抵
We want inspect that material in the laboratory,
我们想在实验室观察这种材料
make sure there’s no signs of fungal spores or insects on it.
确认上面没有真菌孢子或者害虫
But whilst it’s quite easy to spot a pest or a fungal problem,
不过 虽然害虫和真菌问题很容易被发现
viral diseases can be much more difficult to spot.
病毒性疾病却很难辨认
When a researcher or grower orders a cutting from here,
当研究者或者种植户从这里订了枝条
they know that they won’t also get something nasty
他们知道不会收到一些“麻烦”
that could infect their existing cocoa crop
那些会感染他们现存的可可豆植株
or even their entire region’s cocoa crop.
或者甚至整个地区的植株的“麻烦”
But what they’ll receive isn’t the original plant that was sent in.
但他们收到的并不是原本寄送来的样品
This isn’t like quarantine for parcels or for people.
这里不像是包裹或者人的隔离站
They don’t take an incoming cocoa plant,
寄来的可可豆植株
put it in the bit of this warehouse that
不会因为需要被隔离
I’m not allowed to be in because it’s quarantined, and then just send it on.
就一直被放在某间闲人免进的温室里然后转寄出去
After the two years’ quarantine, the center here has a known safe plant,
而是在两年的隔离后 检疫中心有了已知的安全植株
one of these that I’m actually allowed to stand near,
就像这种我可以近距离接触的植株之一
and then they can send cuttings out on request,
他们再按买家需求
over and over and over again.
持续提供安全植株的枝条
There are other quarantine centers for other plants.
对于其他的植物也有其他的检疫中心
There’s a quarantine facility for bananas, for example.
比如香蕉 也有一个检疫站
I believe there’s one in Scotland for potatoes.
我记得在苏格兰有一个土豆的(检疫站)
A particular thing about cocoa is that a lot of the pests
可可豆有一个特别之处是
and diseases of cocoa are only found in particular geographical regions.
很多害虫和病害都只发生在特定的地区
If growers can be supplied with plants which are more resilient to these threats,
如果种植户能收到对这些威胁更有抵抗性的植株
so more resilient to pests and diseases,
对害虫和疾病更有抵抗性
and more resilient to extreme temperatures,
对极端天气也更有抵抗性
then that helps in securing the future of the crop.
那会对这种植物的未来更有帮助
There is one obvious question, of course,
当然 还有一个显著的问题
if all the unsafe cocoa that might have pests in it
如果在英格兰农村 这附近的某处
is sitting somewhere around here in rural England…
拥有所有可能有害虫的不安全可可豆植株
what if one of those pests escapes?
其中某只害虫溜进了检疫中心怎么办?
In the UK, we don’t grow cocoa.
在英国 我们不种可可豆
It’s too cold, but that’s actually a positive thing
这里太冷了 这反而成了优势
in terms of the location of the quarantine center.
作为检疫中心的地理优势
So the fact that we’re located in a country that does not grow cocoa
事实上我们位于一个不种植可可豆的国家
means there’s no risk of pests and diseases
这意味着不存在当地害虫和病害
which are endemic to cocoa entering the facility.
会危害检疫中心内部可可豆的风险
So if we were to receive any material which had a nasty disease,
如果我们收到了有病害的植株
that material would be discarded.
会直接将其丢弃
It would be autoclaved just as a precaution,
作为预防措施 它们会被高压灭菌
but the chance of it establishing here would be almost zero.
但它们在这里生长的可能性几乎是零
If there does end up being a worldwide cocoa shortage,
如果最终真的出现了世界性的可可豆短缺
it doesn’t mean that the grocery store shelves will end up empty.
这不会意味着杂货店的货架会空空如也
It just means that the price of chocolate will rise and rise and rise
只是随着供应的减少
as supply falls.
巧克力的价格会节节攀升
And the big manufacturers would very much like to make sure
大型的工厂们很可能会确保
that chocolate does not go back to being a luxury.
巧克力不会重新变回奢侈品
And the folks here at the quarantine center
检疫中心的人们正在尽自己的一份力量
are doing their bit to make sure that doesn’t happen.
来确保这种情况不会发生

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视频概述

英格兰的可可豆检疫中心是用来干什么的,以及如何运作的

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

19779340

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKSTmcvEdoU

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