未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

肥胖和蛇咬伤如何影响青春期

How Obesity And Snakebites Affect Puberty

大家好 欢迎回到DNews+
Hey, everyone, thank you for coming back to DNews Plus again.
这是青春期三部曲最后一部
Today for the final episode, episode three of three on puberty.
我是特雷森
I’m Trace.
迄今 我们已探讨过人类如何度过青春期
So so far we’ve talked about how humans go through puberty,
为什么我们要从令人尴尬的青春期开始
why we don’t just come out from our mom’s ready to breed other than,
才有生育能力 而不是出生就有
you know, the awkward social situations that would cause.
我们也探讨过动物的青春期
We’ve also talked about animals going through puberty
以及青春期时 你的大脑和身体
and what exactly is going on in your brain and in your body
到底发生了什么
when puberty is happening.
可是 青春期一旦到来
But what about once puberty has happened,
你还能回到青春期前吗?
can you ever go back to pre-puberty?
你能逆转青春期吗?
Can you reverse it?
这就是今天的话题
That’s what we’re gonna talk about today.
节目刚开始 让我先说点题外话
So let me put the kibosh on reversing puberty kind of out of the gate.
没错 这是可能发生的
Yes, it can happen.
然而 作为一个健康的人
However, in a healthy person
你的大脑本质上永远处于青春期
in your brain puberty essentially lasts forever
一旦你的腺体开始分泌激素
Once your glands start making these hormones
并将其传递到全身
and squirting them all over your body,
这一行为就会持续下去 永不停息
it doesn’t stop, they continue doing that.
当然 激素含量会变化
Yes the levels will change,
你身体的某些部位也会变化
yes certain things about your body will change,
但只要进入青春期
but once you’ve gone through puberty,
腺体就会不停分泌激素
it just keeps making those hormones.
嗯 虽然对一些人来说
You know, some things though
有些东西从未消失
never go away for some people,
青春痘会在某些人脸上长久不消
acne never goes away for some people,
激素一直存在于大多数人体内
the hormones don’t go away for a lot of people,
大脑会不停提醒你 你已经性成熟了
and the brain, it just keeps telling you, you’re a sexually mature adult.
一旦性成熟 比伯演唱会就贯穿余生了
Once that happens, that Bieber concert just goes for the rest of your life, man!
但是 还真有青春期逆转这么一回事
There is such thing though as puberty being reversed,
它也可能发生在你身上
it can happen to you.
但这并不会自然发生
But it’s not really naturally.
比如 蛇咬伤可能会导致青春期逆转
For example, a snake bite can cause puberty to reverse itself.
这很离奇
It’s crazy.
拉塞尔蝰蛇也叫拉塞尔响尾蛇 有剧毒
A Russell Viper aka Russell’s pit viper is venomous.
PS: 不是有毒的 而是分泌毒液的
Sidebar, it’s not poisonous, it’s venomous.
分泌毒液的 是指它们咬住你后向你注入毒液
Venomous means they’re attacking you and injecting you with venom,
有毒的 好比在剧本中演白雪公主的我
poisonous is like I ate a poisonous apple,
吃下了一个毒苹果
because I’m Snow White in this scenario.
再PS: 你摄入毒物 毒液是则是被注入你体内
You ingest poison, venom is injected into you and sidebar,
同理 拉塞尔响尾蛇
so near, Russell’s pit vipers.
它们来自东南亚 通常以啮齿动物为食
They’re from Southeast Asia, they normally eat rodents,
而如果它咬了人 毒液会侵入肾脏
and if it bites a human, the venom will get to your kidneys
并破坏肾功能 常致肾功能衰竭
and destroy them, often causing kidney failure,
进而致人死亡
and that’s what would kill you.
如果大出血和肾功能损坏都没让你丧命
But if you survive all of the hemorrhaging and the kidney damage,
你就能逆转你的青春期了
you can reverse your puberty.
很诡异吧
It’s weird.
《柳叶刀》中曾有报道
The Lancet published a story where 29% of patients
在拉塞尔毒蛇毒液中的幸存者
who survived the Russell’s pit viper venom
29%都会出现垂体功能减退的症状
had signs of something called hypopituitarism.
记得吧 之前讲过的 脑下腺
Remember, old friend, pituitary gland,
就像摇滚歌星 比伯
a guy, rockstar, the Biebs.
如果脑下垂体受损
If it’s damaged,
它就不再分泌那些荷尔蒙 接着
it’s gonna stop making those hormones, and if it stops making those hormones,
你就不再处于青春期了
then you stop looking like you pubertied.
垂体机能减退 即脑下垂体分泌激素减少
Hypopituitarism is quote “diminished hormone secretion by the pituitary gland,
导致小孩患侏儒症 成人过早老化
causing dwarfism in children and premature aging in adults”.
得过垂体机能减退症的人会失去生育能力
People who experience hypopituitarism lose fertility.
他们失去性冲动 体毛
They lose sex drive, they lose body hair,
和阴毛 男性面部毛发和肌肉也会消失
they lose pubic hair, men lose facial hair and muscle mass,
而女性的身体曲线会变平直
and women lose curves,
通常他们的体重也会下降
and they lose weight in general.
讲到这里 这有点让我觉得
It kind of made me think when I was reading about this,
青春期像每个人都戴的一种面具 对吧?
that puberty is sort of a mask that we all wear. Right?
一旦你发育 身体就发生这些变化
Once you go through development, your body makes these changes,
但它们是可以消除的
but they can be undone.
可以说 你可能被剥夺你的青春期
You can be stripped of your puberty, sort of.
还有一种叫做希恩综合征的病症
There is also a syndrome called Sheehan’s Syndrome,
它也是脑下垂体的损伤造成的
which is also based on damage to the pituitary gland.
会导致甲状腺、肾上腺皮质功能低下
It causes thyroid problems, adrenal problems,
母乳分泌困难和闭经
breast milk production problems and menstrual function dysfunctions.
梅约诊所认为 有希恩综合征的人
The Mayo Clinic says that people who have Sheehan’s Syndrome
在母乳喂养上存在困难 或者根本无法喂养
will have difficulty breastfeeding or will be unable to breastfeed.
她们会闭经 或者月经稀少
They’ll have no menstrual periods or infrequent menstruation;
她们的阴毛和腋毛会脱落
they’ll lose their pubic and underarm hair;
她们还可能出现低血压 乏力和心律不齐
they could have low blood pressure, fatigue, irregular heartbeat;
她们会性欲减退 反应迟钝
they’ll have loss of interest in sexual activity, slowed mental function,
体重增加且体温偏低
weight gain and difficulty staying warm
这都是甲状腺衰退的结果
as a result of an underactive thyroid.
希恩综合征和被拉塞尔响尾蛇咬的区别
The difference between Sheahan’s Syndrome and being bitten by a Russell’s pit viper
在于希恩综合征通常是由于
is that Sheehan’s Syndrome happens usually because of
分娩时的缺氧或者严重的大出血
oxygen deprivation or severe blood loss during childbirth,
不知怎么 脑垂体就受到了损伤
the pituitary gets damaged, somehow.
虽然它通常发生在分娩期间 但也可能由
And it can also happen from low blood pressure and any number of different things,
低血压或很多不同原因导致
usually again though during childbirth,
它更常见于发展中国家
and its more common in developing nations so
所以它仍在那儿 仍可能发生
So it’s still out there and it’s still can happen
这其实不是逆转青春期 因为它发生在儿童身上
and it’s not so much reversing puberty as keeping it from happening in children.
然而 我读过的一些研究说
However some of the studies I read
一旦被响尾蛇咬伤 就可能恶化成综合症
said that once you were bit by a pit viper, you can develop Sheehan’s Syndrome.
如果成年人脑下垂体受损 停止分泌这些
Also if your pituitary is somehow damaged as an adult and stops making these hormones
让你处于青春期的激素
that are keeping you pubertied,
最后你将患上希恩综合症
you would end up getting Sheahan’s Syndrome.
很有趣 对吧
Super interesting, right?
这种病症是可以治愈的
The thing is we could cure it,
因为 记着 这些只是激素
because remember, these are just hormones.
它们只是激素 我们知道它们是什么
They’re just hormones and we know what they are and
知道它们的作用和来源
we know what they do and we know where they come from.
所以 如果脑下垂体受损
So if the pituitary gland is damaged,
激素替代疗法可以救你一命
hormone replacement therapy can rescue you
并基本上取代消失的激素
and literally replace the missing hormones.
你需要终生
For the rest of your life,
服用它 或者你得再重回青春期前
you’d have to be taking those or you would again revert back to a pre-pubescent state,
但它可能让你恢复正常
but it’s possible.
而且 它给你一个全新的视角来看
And it sort of gives you a whole new perspective
这个被热议的人权团体
on this very talked-about group of humanity right now,
跨性别者 对吧
transgender people, right?
因为本质上他们所做的是激素替代疗法
Because essentially what they’re doing is hormone replacement therapy
这是为了变成他们认同的性别
in order to be the gender that they identify with.
对那些跨性别男性医生只提供雄激素
And doctors are just providing androgens for those transitioning to male
对跨性别女性提供雌激素
and estrogens for those transitioning to female.
如果你有希恩综合征 你也在做同样的事
If you have Sheehan’s Syndrome, you’re doing the same thing.
你被注入雄激素或雌激素和其它激素
You’re given people androgens or estrogens and other hormones,
这样你有了性冲动 身体长出体毛
so that you have a sex drive, so that you grow hair in funny places,
开始喜欢男孩或女孩 等等
start liking girls or boys or whatever.
这真有意思
Super interesting.
青春期混乱的另一种方式 是更早开始青春期
Another way that puberty gets messed with is that it’s starting way earlier.
我们简短地说过这个“更早”
We briefly touched on this earlier on,
但是一代人以前 女孩乳房发育
but breast development a generation ago,
大约从十一岁开始
started at around 11 years old with girls.
而现在大概是7岁 如果发生得特别早
Now it’s coming in around 7 years old and if it comes in really early,
就被叫做性早熟 它最早可以发生在三岁
it’s called precocious puberty and that can happen as early as the age of 3,
尽管那非常非常罕见
though that’s very very rare.
不同的种族 人种 社会经济条件
Different racial groups, different ethnic groups, different socio-economic groups
都会对此产生不同的影响
all have different effects on this.
这是个非常复杂的话题 但在某些人群中
It’s a very complicated topic, but precocious puberty is
性早熟正越来越普遍
becoming more common in some groups,
许多人认为性早熟的一个诱因是肥胖
and many think that a factor for puberty starting early is obesity.
这是可能的 因为
This could be, because
自上世纪80年代以来 肥胖儿童增长逾一倍
obesity has more than doubled in children since 1980s
这会导致青春期提前
and could cause puberty to start early,
因为脂肪细胞会制造
because fat cells manufacture a hormone
一种你已经听说过的激素
that you’ve heard about already
叫促性腺激素释放激素或者GnRH
called Gonadotropin-releasing hormone or GnRH.
脂肪细胞会制造它
Fat cells make it.
这种激素通常由下丘脑分泌 引发青春期
The hormone is usually made by the hypothalamus to induce puberty,
但现在它由脂肪细胞产生 则可能导致青春期提前开始
but now it’s being made by something else in the body, potentially causing puberty to start sooner.
但也可能有其它因素
But there may be other factors as well,
显然这需要更多研究
obviously more research is needed
现在他们正在做此类研究
and they’re doing that research now.
我们已经在另一个DNews节目
We’ve talked about it a little bit over on the other show
而不是Dnews+上提到过一点
that we do Dnews as opposed to Dnews plus
我假设你已看过那期节目
I’m assuming that you already watch that show.
如果你没有 请检查一下 订阅它
If you don’t, check it out please, give it a subscribe.
我很想知道一件事 尽管这有点重复开始的内容
The thing that I really want to know though, kind of goes all the way back to the beginning.
为什么就是大脑发育要这么长时间
And that is why does brain development take so long,
为什么它要花这么长时间才能
why does it take so long to get in there
开始产生激素 对吧
and start making hormones, right?
所以即使我说青春期就像你戴的一个面具
So even though I just said puberty is like a mask that you wear,
那更多的是青春期的身体方面
that’s more the physical aspects of puberty.
记住 我们已讨论过
Remember we’ve already talked about
身体与大脑中所发生的变化如何不一样
how the physicality is not the same as what’s going on in the brain,
青春期激素开始从大脑中大量产生
hormones start to flood the brain during puberty
即使取出这些激素
and even if you take those away,
大脑还是被它们永久的改变了
the brain is changed forever by those,
即使身体可以被逆转 大脑也不被改变
even though the body can be reversed, the brain is set.
在06年的一项研究中 他们使用了FMRI扫描 即功能性核磁共振
In a 2006 study, they used fMRI scans which are functional MRIs,
他们跟踪大脑周围的血液 对9至11岁孩子进行扫描
they followed blood around the brain, and they scanned 9 year olds and 11 year olds,
比较他们的大脑 观察青春期的变化
compared their brains to see what puberty was changing,
什么组织表现不同 或需要更多或更少的血液
what structures behaved differently, or needed more or less blood,
究竟发生了什么
is really what happened.
根据结果 孩子九岁时
According to them, at 9 years old,
背外侧前额叶皮层更加活跃
the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex had more activity.
青春期开始时 突触会增殖
There is proliferation of synapses at the onset of puberty,
这意味着由大脑产生连接脑细胞的
which means more and more synapses were being made by the brain,
突触越来越多
connections between brain cells
发育期后突触联系的消除和重组
Elimination and reorganization of synaptic connections after puberty
导致青春期额叶突触密度逐渐减小
resulted in a gradual decrease in synaptic density
或者转变为一开始连接的突触
in the frontal lobes during adolescence,or to translate as the synapse
它们中的一些被修剪
is connected at the beginning, some of those were trimmed away,
这称之为突触修剪
and that synaptic pruning as it’s called
它保证了大脑有效地工作
was to make sure that the brain was working efficiently.
当青春期开始 大脑到处建立连接
So when puberty starts, your brain makes all sorts of connections all over the place,
然后它精简你不用的部分
and then it starts to trim back the ones that you’re not using.
我们早先提到的灰质就反映了
The gray matter that we were talking about earlier on reflects
这种突触的重组
that’s synaptic reorganization they think.
青春期 在大脑某些特定的区域白质也有稳步的增长
There’s also a steady increase in white matter in certain brain regions during adolescence.
大致上 灰质负责思考 白质负责传导
Grey matter by the way is like think matter, white matter is like speedy matter,
使你的大脑更灵敏
makes your brain faster.
他们注意到青春期大脑某些区域白质有稳定增长
So steady increase in white matter in certain brain regions during adolescence was noted,
那意味你大脑工作得比以前更快了
which means your brain is working faster that comes back to you,
你有了更多的执行功能 开始像大人一样做事
you having more executive function and starting to process things like an adult.
执行功能在儿童期后期到青春期早期
Executive function has shown to plateau in performance
表现平稳
between late childhood and early adolescence,
所以在某方面 你发挥了自己的潜力
so at some point, you reach your potential,
而你现在正处于成人期的执行功能水平
and you are now at your level of executive function for adulthood.
多么有趣的事啊 但所有这些都是永久的
Super interesting stuff, but all of that is permanent.
你知道大脑中有些东西一直变化贯穿一生
You know there is some things that change throughout your life in your brain,
但一旦荷尔蒙启动了它
but once the hormones have kicked that into gear,
它就不会随荷尔蒙消失
it’s not gonna take that stuff away.
改变脑神经突触很难
Changing brain synapses is very difficult,
需要许多时间和实践 你懂的
takes lots of time and practice, you know.
我们的大脑可塑性很强 但不会突然擦掉一束突触
Our brains are very plastic, but it’s not just gonna suddenly wipe clean a bunch of synapses.
另外 像骨密度和通过变长
On top of that, things like bone density and thickening,
变形的声带而变粗变低的嗓音 发育的乳房
the lower voice that you get by the lengthening and changing of your vocal cords, breast growth,
如果激素消失 这些特征也不会消失
those things are not gonna go away if you take hormones away.
你的宽肩膀不会窄回去 身体不会突然长回去
You can’t ungrown broad shoulders or a growth spurt,
胸部也不会变会原来的样子
you can’t ungrown breasts.
那是不会发生的
It’s not gonna happen.
青春是年龄增长的自然组成部分
Puberty is a natural part of growing older.
重点是人们的身体叫嚣着
It’s really the point where the human body says:
“你好 让我们交配吧”
“What up, let’s mate.”
那才是青春期的目的
That’s what it’s for.
也是生物学、社会和文化上的观点
That’s the point biologically, societally and culturally
而作为一个物种 这并不总是最好的计划
and as a species, that’s not always the best plan.
一旦它开始你就明白了
Once it starts, you know,
无论在6岁或11岁或9岁或15岁 不管什么时候开始
at age six or eleven or nine or fifteen, whenever it does finally start,
那不一定代表从社会和文化角度而言
that doesn’t necessarily mean now is the time to mate,
现在是交配的时候了 对吧
societally and culturally, right?
它得看情况 但是知道这台棘手机器的工作原理
It all depends, but knowing how this sticky machine all works,
是超级有趣的 非常的酷的
super interesting, pretty damn cool.
如果你想了解更多有关健康的事
If you want to learn more about health stuff,
你可以查阅Sex Sent Me to the ER
you should check out Sex Sent Me to the ER.
也许那听起来很怪 但节目很棒
I know that sounds weird. It’s an awesome show,
你也可以在Discovery Life Go这个软件上
and you can also find that and other discovery shows
发现它和其它的探索类节目
on the Discovery Life Go app,
描述里有链接 你可以看看
there’s a link in the description, you can check it out.
我当然看过Sex Sent Me to the ER 没什么好害羞的
I’ve definitely watched Sex Sent Me to the ER, not ashamed.
它真的很好很奇怪
It’s really good and weird.
感谢大家的收看 下次节目再见
Thanks for watching everybody, we’ll see you next time on DNews Plus.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

青春期三部曲最后一集

听录译者

兰代

翻译译者

苏打百合

审核员

审核员D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iyKBo0Vnv2s

相关推荐