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用于NASA未来航天器的折纸工艺 – 译学馆
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用于NASA未来航天器的折纸工艺

How NASA Engineers Use Origami To Design Future Spacecraft

手工折纸是一种古老的日本折纸艺术
Origami is the ancient art of Japanese paperfolding.
多年来 它创造出了
For years it has been used to create
令人赞叹的艺术品
stunning works of art.
但它也被用在很多令人惊奇的地方
but origami has also been used in more surprising ways,
比如支架 甚至是太空探索
like car airbags, stents and even space exploration
我们在太空中需要的是大型结构
What we want in space are large structures,
它规模不一定要大 但体积一定要大
not necessarily massive, but large.
这就意味着你可以用很薄的材料来制成它
Which means you can make them out of thin materials,
只要你可以用薄材料制成大型结构
and whenever you can make them out of thin materials,
你就可以利用折纸工艺来将它们放到这些火箭中
you can use origami to fit them in these rockets.
许多太空项目都使用折纸原则
Many space projects have used the folding principles of Origami.
国际空间站使用的太阳能阵列式卫星双翼
The solar array wings on the ISS
就使用了z形折叠模式
uses Z-folding parttern.
火星凤凰登陆器使用名叫UltraFlex的
and the Mars Phoenix lander used a fan-folded solar array,
扇形折纸太阳能阵列
called the UltraFlex.
因为我们现在最大的火箭直径
Because the biggest rockets we have right now
只有5米
are only about 5 meters in diameter,
我们必须想出
we have to come up with a way of
一种能折叠这个大结构的方法
folding up this very large structure into spaces
以便我们能用火箭发射
that we can launch it inside a rocket
并在进入太空的第一时间自行展开
and once it gets to space it can unfold itself.
手工折纸是我们能做的原理之一
an origami is one mechanism by which we can do that
因为它给了我们潜在的计算帐篷单折叠大小的方法
that because it gives us the underlying mathematics of how large tent sheets fold up
一个称作star shade的 与折纸有关的项目正在
One origami project currently in development
美国宇航局喷气推进实验室进行开发
at NASA’s Jet Propulsion lab is the star shade.
其本质上是一个大的恒星拦截器
which is essentially a big star blocker
你是否曾尝试为
Have you ever try to take a picture someone
直面阳光的人拍照?
when the bright sun is beating down on them?
所有细节都被遮盖了
All the detail gets washed out.
天文学家在试图对系外行星进行成像时
This is thesame problem astronomers have when trying
也遇到了同样的问题
to image exoplanets.
目前天文学家通过影子技术间接探测外行星
Currently astronomersdetect exoplanets indirectly using a shadow
这种技术叫做中天法
technique called the transit method.
一个地球大小的外行星像恒星围绕着太阳运行
For anearth sized exoplanet orbiting a sun like star,
它们不能详细成像
they can ’ t be imaged in detail,
因为它们所环绕的恒星要比它们明亮得多
because the stars they circle are much brighter than
这就是 Starshade 的由来
they are. This is where the Starshade comes in,
为了更好地阻挡这一强光
to help block that bright light to better
帮助天文学家更好地了解这些神秘的行星 寻找生命的生物特征
help astronomers learn more about these mysterious planets and look for biosignatures for life.
我们想到
One of the ways in which we’re thinking
抑制星光的方法之一就是使用
about suppressing the starlight is using something
叫 Starshade的东西 它是一个非常大的外部遮光体
called Starshade, which is a very large、external occulter
漂浮在太空望远镜的前方
that flies in front of a Space Telescope,
阻挡物吸收了星体发出的光亮
block soak that star light
所以我们才能看到它旁边的那些非常暗淡的行星
so you can image that really faint planet right next to it
听起来简单 但 Starshade
Sounds easy enough,
约棒球内场大小
but the starshade is roughly the size of a baseball diamond.
因为Starshade很大……
Because the Starshade is so huge,
我们必须想出一个折叠的方法
We have to come up with a way of folding up
用以将东西进入太空
that driving our structure onto space
我们可以将这个非常大的结构折叠
we can launch it inside a rocket and
并且一旦它到达太空它就可以自己展开
And once it gets to space,it can unfold itself.
这就是折纸手工的用武之地
Which is where origami comes in,
这是我们想到的用于压缩Starshade内部的
So, this is one of the candidate fold patterns
候选折叠模式之一
that we had for the inner part of the Starshade,
Starshade 我们又称之为光学屏蔽
what we call the optical shield.
当它被折叠起来 它会有一个非常固定的形状
It’s got a very deterministic shape when it’s folded up
所以我们设计这个形状
so we designed it to have the shape
用来得出折叠层的厚度
in which it can account for the thickness of that blanket.
你可以用数学定义如何将这张纸折叠
You can mathematically define how this sheet of paper is folded up.
并且像这样子的展开它
And the way it unfolds is just like that.
它在折叠的结构中间创造了这个精密的漩涡
And it’ve created this very nice spiral inside the folded structure.
它主要的特点就是简单
It’s quite remarkable in its simplicity.
这个巨大的太空花设计上看起来很简单
This giant space flower may seem simple in design,
但是实际上却不是
but not in implementation.
Starshade需要以毫米的精度展开
The Starshade will need tounfold with millimeter accuracy.
一旦打开 推进器将推动太空舱进入太空
Once opened, thrusters will move the craft through space,
并在恒星和太空望远镜之间定位Starshade
positioning the Starshade between the star and the space telescope.
随着恒星被遮挡
With the star nowbeing shaded,
望远镜可以对行星进行详细成像
the telescope can image the planet in detail
以确定生命的气候条件 存在
to find out weather conditions for life exist.
手工折纸的运用已有三年
Origami has been practiced on earth three years,
科学家们将继续从中汲取灵感
and scientists will continue to draw inspiration from it
用于更加高效地收折大型空间站
to help package big space structures more efficiently.
从利用太阳光推进的太阳帆
From solar sails that use sunlight for propulsion
到像Gaia这样为太空望远镜提供遮阳的东西
to sun-shades for telescopes like Gaia,
并且James Web希望它能在2019年投入使用
and the James Webb wants it launches in 2019.
我们可以从折纸中提取这些想法
We can take these ideas from origami
并将其应用到航天器结构中
and apply them to space restauranteurs that way.
因为当谈论到未来的太空探索
Because when it comes to the future of space exploration,
如果我们想去思考大问题
if we want to think big,
那么我们也要考虑小的问题
we also have to think small.
想看更多科学纪录片 请点击这里
For more science documentaries, checkout this one right here.
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并经常回到来seeker观看更多视频
and keep coming back to Seeker for more videos.

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视频概述

小小的折纸技术展现大大的魅力

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ly3hMBD4h5E

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