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我们每天究竟要睡多久?

How Much Sleep Do You Actually Need?

困了?我们都懂这种感觉:易怒 无力 特别懒
Tired? We all know the feeling; irritable, groggy and exceptionally lazy.
有可能 你是昨晚
Chances are you didn’t sleep enough last night,
或者前几晚没有睡好
or the past few nights.
但是究竟什么是“足够的睡眠”呢?
But what exactly is”enough sleep?”
更重要的是 你能否补救“睡眠不足”?
And more importantly, can you ever”catch up” on it?
科学家对于睡眠的功能仍有争议
While the very function of sleep is still debated by scientists,
我们也知道 睡眠非常必要 必须重视
we do know that it’s necessary to function efficiently and productively.
毕竟 我们一生要花24年的时间睡眠
After all, we spend 24 years of our lifetime sleeping,
它显然很重要
it had better be important.
研究人员将实验人员分为
Researchers have tested how much is required each night
每晚各有4、6、8小时睡眠时间
by assigning groups of people to four, six
来测试多少睡眠时间才够
and eight hours of sleep over extended periods of time.
两周后
After 14 days,
8小时的人员在认知测试时的表现极少出错
those with eight hours of sleep exhibited few attention lapses of cognitive issues;
然而4小时和6小时睡眠时间的人表现持续下滑
however, those with six or four hours of sleep showed a steady decline.
事实上 仅仅两周之后
In fact, after only two weeks,
睡六小时的那一组同血液酒精浓度为0.1%的人
the six hour group showed a similar reaction time to a person with a blood alcohol
表现出了相似的反应时间 法律上可被认为醉酒
concentration of 0.1%, which is considered legally drunk.
四小时组更严重
The four hour sleepers suffered even more,
甚至在认知测试时都时不时地打瞌睡
occasionally falling asleep during their cognitive tests.
这两组人的脑部功能
In both groups, brain function decreased day by day,
都在一天天衰退
almost linearly with no sign of leveling off.
科学家们称这种累积效应为“睡眠欠债”
Scientists have dubbed this cumulative effect as sleep debt.
那我们该如何恢复呢?
So can we recover from it?
在一到两个晚上的睡眠缺乏后
After a night or two of little sleep,
研究发现好好睡几晚
studies show that the body and brain can fully recover
身体和大脑就能完全恢复
with a few nights of good sleep.
然而 如果几个星期到
However, with long term sleep deprivation on the scale
几个月长期睡眠不足
of weeks to months,
认知功能的恢复就要慢许多
the recovery of cognitive function is much slower,
需要多日的高质量睡眠才能恢复
requiring many more nights of quality sleep.
如几个月到几年的时间缺乏睡眠 大脑功能能否完全修复
On the timescale of months to years, it is unknown whether
或者说会不会造成永久损伤还是未知
brain function can be fully repaired, or if it causes permanent damage.
矛盾的是 长期的睡眠不足下
Paradoxically, with chronic sleep deprivation,
你的困意或你的疲累最终都会趋于平稳
your sleepiness or how tired you feel does eventually level off,
这意味着 你会越来越不知道你的身体损伤
meaning that you become less and less aware of your objective impairment over time.
所以 你应该睡多长时间呢?
So how long should you sleep?
大多数研究结果倾向于 人类理想的睡眠时间 平均在7到8小时
Most studies tend to show that seven to eight hours of sleep is the average ideal for humans.
且不说认知问题 一晚睡不够7小时的人
Apart from the cognitive issues, individuals who consistently sleep
患心脏病 肥胖症 以及
less than seven hours a night have an increased
糖尿病的风险会增加
risk of heart disease, obesity and diabetes,
更别提上升12%的死亡风险了
not to mention a 12% higher risk of death.
另一方面 研究还表明
On the flip side, studies have shown that
虽然睡眠超过八小时不会损害大脑功能
while sleeping more than eight hours does not impair brain function,
但同样会增加患心脏病 肥胖症和糖尿病的风险
it also carries an increased risk of heart disease, obesity and diabetes
以及30%死亡风险的增加
and a 30 % increased risk of mortality!
所以说睡得太多也不好
So too much sleep may also be a bad thing.
但是个体差异确实存在 我们的基因就起着很大的作用
But variation most certainly exists, and our genetics play a large role.
事实上 真正不受六小时睡眠
In fact, individuals genuinely unaffected by only six hours
影响的人是有一种特定基因的突变
of sleep were found to have a mutation of a specific gene.
当科学家改变老鼠基因 使其表达这一特性时
When scientists genetically engineered mice to express this gene,
他们比普通老鼠多清醒1.2小时
they were able to stay awake for an extra 1.2 hours than normal mice.
结果就是 这些睡觉时间短的人
It turns out these short sleepers
要比普通人的睡眠 在生理上更紧凑
have more biologically intense sleep sessions than the average person.
最后 知道理想睡眠时间是
Ultimately,while it’s important to know the ideal average
7、8个小时很重要 让
of seven to eight hours exists, let
你的身体和大脑帮你找出自身所需
your body and brain help you figure out its own needs.
毕竟 鞋合不合适只有脚知道
After all, no one shoe size fits all.
如果你想知道每晚如何获得更好的睡眠质量 以克服
If you want to know how to get better quality sleep each night in order to conquer
睡眠不足的障碍
the hurdles of sleep deprivation,
我们在ASAPThought上给出了一些建议
we have some tips and research for you over on ASAPThought.
链接在视频下方的简介里
You can find a link in the description below to that video.
感谢Audible.com在audible.com/asap上
Thanks to Audible.com for giving you a free audio book
给大家提供了一本免费的音频书
of your choice at audible.com/asap.
Audible是有声书的主要供应商
Audible is the leading provider of audio books
在所有类型的文献中有
with over 150,000 downloadable titles across
超过15万的可下载标题
all types of literature.
我们推荐“冰与火之歌”系列
We recommend the’A Song of Ice and Fire’ series,
“权利的游戏”就是基于这本书拍的
which the Game of Thrones TV show is based off of.
它伴我们度过了慢慢长夜 也导致了许多失眠
It’s kept us up through the nights and caused a lot of lost sleep!
你可以在audible.com/asap上下载这本书或是你
You can download this audio book or another of your choice for
选的其它免费的书
free at audible.com/asap.
订阅后 你一个月能得到一本免费的书 这样你就能
And with a subscription you can get one free book a month,
读整个系列了
so you can read the whole series!
特别感谢Audible对本期视频的赞助
Special thanks to Audible for making these videos possible.
来订阅更多的每周科学视频吧
And subscribe for more weekly science videos!

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视频概述

睡觉很重要,但是说多长时间为最佳呢?一起来看看吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

kun(o_o)

审核员

审核员HL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVQlcxiQlzI

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