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有多少人类历史沉入了海底 – 译学馆
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有多少人类历史沉入了海底

How much of human history is on the bottom of the ocean? - Peter Campbell

沉没的遗迹
Sunken relics,
可怕的幽灵船
ghostly shipwrecks,
失落的古城
and lost cities.
这些奇迹,可不仅仅会在冒险小说中出现
These aren’t just wonders found in fictional adventures.
海平面以下
Beneath the ocean’s surface,
古人习以为常的手工艺品
there are ruins where people once roamed
和那时承载着它们的沉船 一起成为了废墟
and shipwrecks loaded with artifacts from another time.
这是水下考古学的世界
This is the domain of underwater archaeology,
研究人员在这里发掘研究遗失于大海的文明
where researchers discover and study human artifacts that slipped into the sea.
他们不是在猎寻宝藏
They’re not on a treasure hunt.
水下考古学揭示了许多重要信息
Underwater archaeology reveals important information
如古气候变化海岸线变化
about ancient climates and coastlines,
古人如何扬帆出海
it tells us how humans sailed the seas,
千年前人民是怎样生活的
and what life was like millennia ago.
那么,我们到底可以发现什么呢
So what exactly can we find?
浅海处 虽然混杂着一些现代的物品
At shallow depths mingled in with modern-day items,
但仍能发现很多种古代的手工艺品
we’ve discovered all sorts of ancient artifacts.
有很多迹象向我们揭露了祖先如何捕鱼
This zone contains evidence of how our ancestors fished,
如何修补船只
how they repaired their ships,
如何丢弃垃圾
disposed of their trash,
甚至如何处罚海盗――将其投入大海
and even their convicted pirates, who were buried below the tide line.
我们不仅能发现近代文明 同样也有远古遗迹
And it’s not just our recent history.
沿着英国诺福克海岸人们发现了80万年前的脚印
800,000-year old footprints were found along the shore in Norfolk, Britain.
在浅海处
In these shallow depths,
沉没海底的古城遗迹总是会若隐若现
the remains of sunken cities also loom up from the sea floor,
古城遗迹堆积在海底 因为地震
deposited there by earthquakes,
海啸
tsunamis,
板块碰撞这些因素
and Earth’s sinking plates.
大部分沉没的城市都是在浅海处发现的
Almost every sunken city can be found at these shallow depths
因为几千年以来,海平面一直在发生细微的变化
because the sea level has changed little in the several thousand years
城建文明却一直流传不变
that city-building civilizations have existed.
例如,屹立于意大利沿岸浅水区的巴亚
For instance, in shallow waters off the coast of Italy lies Baia,
有着2000年历史的古罗马海岸城市
a Roman seaside town over 2,000 years old.
在这里,你有可能沿着建筑废墟游泳
There, it’s possible to swim among the ruins of structures
这些曾经属于罗马贵族 参议员 皇帝 的建筑
built by Rome’s great families, senators, and emperors.
这里也有很多沉船
And then there are shipwrecks.
岸边,遗弃着很多腐朽老化的船只
As ships grow too old for use, they’re usually abandoned near shore
分布在港湾、河流、浅海这些不常有人经过的地方
in out-of-the-way places like estuaries, rivers, and shallow bays.
考古学家利用这些作为时间线绘制海湾的起起伏伏
Archaeologists use these like a timeline to map a harbor’s peaks and declines,
找到造船技术发展史的线索
and to get clues about the historic art of shipbuiding.
例如 在丹麦的罗斯基勒 有五条被击沉的海盗船
At Roskilde in Denmark, for example, five purposefully sunken vessels
显示了千年前海盗如何制作他们精巧的船的造船手艺
reveal how Vikings crafted their fearsome long ships 1,000 years ago.
向下继续探索
When we descend a bit further,
到达存在人类建筑的最深海域
we reach the zone where the deepest human structures lie,
就能发现很多遗迹如古代港湾的墙壁
like ancient harbor walls and keys.
我们也看到了很多由于风暴、战争、撞船沉没的船只
We also see more shipwrecks sunk by storms, war, and collisions.
直到今天,我们仍然能挖掘出很多因为这个原因失事的船只残骸
We’re still excavating many of these wrecks today,
如黑胡子的船
like Blackbeard’s ship,
它揭秘了18 世纪海盗的生活
which is revealing secrets about life as an 18th century pirate.
再往下50英尺,海水越深,失事的船只保存的更加完好
But past 50 feet, there are even deeper, better preserved shipwrecks,
如安提凯希拉海岸的沉船
like the wreck at Antikythera,
沉没时间约在公元前1世纪
which sank during the 1st century BC.
被发现时,它载着很多雕像
When it was discovered, it contained statues,
贸易货物
trade cargo,
还有已知最早的计算机
and also the earliest known computer,
一台被称为“安提凯希拉”的机械装置
a mysterious device called the Antikythera mechanism
仍能记录显示天体变化和日蚀
that kept track of astronomical changes and eclipses.
如今,它给考古学家带来了重要信息
Today, it gives archaeologists vital information
如关于古希腊高度发展的文明
about the knowledge possessed by the Ancient Greeks.
这里也是最初发现航空器和潜艇的地方
It is in this zone that we also begin to find aircraft and submarines,
比如那些在世界大战中遗存下来潜艇等
such as those from the World Wars.
大概在200英尺深处
Plunging as deep as 200 feet,
我们可以发现一些早期最稀有的人类历史标志
we can find some of the earliest and rarest signs of human history.
5000年以前,这里有许多陆地
Prior to 5,000 years ago, there was a lot more dry land
因为隔绝了这些水 现在这些水已经把这里填满成了海洋
because glaciers trapped much of the water that now forms the sea.
祖先分布在陆地各处
Our ancestors spread across these lands,
所以能在海底,发现他们的生活营地
and so on the sea floor, we find their camps,
石头器具
stone tools,
猎物的骨头
and the bones of animals they hunted.
关于祖先迁徙移居的很多珍贵遗迹
These sites give us invaluable knowledge about our ancestor’s migration patterns,
捕猎的方法
hunting methods,
与技巧
and technologies.
海域最深处,仍是生命的禁区
In the deepest zone, no human has ever walked.
在人类高度发展之前,这些文明深埋海底不见天日
This area has been submerged since well before mankind evolved.
唯一发现的手工艺品也都是从这些地域漂流下来的
The only artifacts we find are those that have drifted down from above,
如1.4万英尺的国家航空土星v号岩石工程
like NASA’s Saturn V rocket engines at 14,000 feet,
最深的沉船
and the deepest shipwrecks.
大洋就像一个巨大的水下博物馆
The ocean is like a huge underwater museum
不断地充实我们人文学科的知识量
that constantly adds to our knowledge about humanity.
而这只是冰山一角
With only a fraction of it explored,
路漫漫其修远兮 吾将上下而求索!
discoveries are sure to continue long into the future.

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